• Title, Summary, Keyword: cigarette demand

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Potential Impact of Graphic Health Warnings on Cigarette Packages in Reducing Cigarette Demand and Smoking-Related Deaths in Vietnam

  • Hoang, Van Minh;Le, Hong Chung;Kim, Bao Giang;Duong, Minh Duc;Nguyen, Duc Hinh;Vu, Quynh Mai;Nguyen, Manh Cuong;Pham, Duc Manh;Ha, Anh Duc;Yang, Jui-Chen
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.sup1
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    • pp.85-90
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    • 2016
  • Two years after implementation of the graphic health warning intervention in Vietnam, it is very important to evaluate the intervention's potential impact. The objective of this paper was to predict effects of graphic health warnings on cigarette packages, particularly in reducing cigarette demand and smoking-associated deaths in Vietnam. In this study, a discrete choice experiment (DCE) method was used to evaluate the potential impact of graphic tobacco health warnings on smoking demand. To predict the impact of GHWs on reducing premature deaths associated with smoking, we constructed different static models. We adapted the method developed by University of Toronto, Canada and found that GHWs had statistically significant impact on reducing cigarette demand (up to 10.1% through images of lung damage), resulting in an overall decrease of smoking prevalence in Vietnam. We also found that between 428,417- 646,098 premature deaths would be prevented as a result of the GHW intervention. The potential impact of the GHW labels on reducing premature smoking-associated deaths in Vietnam were shown to be stronger among lower socio-economic groups.

Effects of Cigarette Smoking on Psychosocial Distress and Occupational Risks (흡연이 근로자의 스트레스 증상수준 및 직업성 위해지표에 미치는 영향)

  • Cha, Bong-Suk;Chang, Sei-Jin;Park, Jong-Ku;Ko, Sang-Baek;Kang, Myung-Guen;Ko, Sang-Yul
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.540-554
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    • 1997
  • The effects of cigarette smoking on the psychosocial distress, the absenteeism, the occupational injuries, and on the prevalence for the accidents were assessed in 795 male workers who had been employed since March 1994. The results show that the prevalence of current smokers were higher in young men, lower educational level, lower income, single men(unmarried or divorced), alcohol drinkers, and blue collar workers. In the bivariate analyses, the workers with the high job demand and low work control were more likely to smoke, although the relationship was not strong. Those who reported lower satisfaction on his job tended to smoke more. Mean scores of psychosocial well-being index(PWI) were higher in current smokers than nonsmokers. For the hierarchical multiple regression analyses, interaction terms between cigarette smoking and job stressors(job demand and work control) were not significant. For smokers, the odds ratios for the occupational injuries, and the accidents were 1.40(95% confidence interval 0.77-2.57) and 1.96 (95% confidence interval 0.75-5.09), respectively. The mean absent day were 4.13 for smokers, 3.65 for nonsmokers, although the differences were not statistically significant. It seems that cigarette smoking had not caused any crucial effects on the psychosocial well-being status and the occupational risks. Some considerations for the further research on the relationship of cigarette smoking on the mental health status and the occupational risks were also discussed.

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Influence of rutin on the effects of neonatal cigarette smoke exposure-induced exacerbated MMP-9 expression, Th17 cytokines and NF-κB/iNOS-mediated inflammatory responses in asthmatic mice model

  • Liu, Li-Li;Zhang, Yan;Zhang, Xiao-Fang;Li, Fu-Hai
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.22 no.5
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    • pp.481-491
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    • 2018
  • Allergic asthma is one of the most enduring diseases of the airway. The T-helper cells and regulatory T-cells are critically involved in inflammatory responses, mucus hypersecretion, airway remodelling and in airway hyper-responsiveness. Cigarette smoke (CS) has been found to aggravate inflammatory responses in asthma. Though currently employed drugs are effective, associated side effects demand identification and development of novel drugs with negligible or no adverse effects. Rutin, plant-derived flavonoid has been found to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. We investigated the ability of rutin to modulate T-cells and inhibit inflammation in experimentally-induced asthma in cigarette smoke exposed mice. Separate groups of neonatal mice were exposed to CS for 10 days from post-natal days 2 to 11. After 2 weeks, the mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA). Treatment group were given rutin (37.5 or 75 mg/kg body weight) during OVA sensitization and challenge. Rutin treatment was found to significantly inhibit cellular infiltration in the airways and Th2 and Th17 cytokine levels as well. Flow cytometry revealed effectively raised $CD4^+CD25^+Fox3^+$ Treg cells and supressed Th17 cell population on rutin treatment. Airway hyper-responsiveness observed following CS and OVA challenge were inhibited by rutin. $NF-{\kappa}B$ and iNOS, chief regulators of inflammatory responses robustly activated by CS and OVA were down-regulated by rutin. Rutin also inhibited the expression of matrix metalloproteinase 9, thereby aiding in prevention of airway remodelling in asthma thereby revealing to be a potent candidate in asthma therapy.

An Analysis of Coffee Demand System in Korea using AIDS (준이상 수요체계(AIDS)를 이용한 한국의 커피수요분석)

  • Li, Ming-Huan;Jung, Kun-Oh
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.72-80
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    • 2014
  • This study is to estimate a demand of coffee in Korea. And based on assumed data, this study is to investigate price elasticity, income elasticity and cross-price elasticity of coffee demand. The data used in this study is the household income and expenditure survey micro data (2003~2012) provided by the National Statistical Office. And LA/AIDS model and SUR method were utilized in order to forecast coffee demand. As a result, price elasticity and income elasticity are found to be correspond with economic theory as they were assumed to -0.259, 0.455 respectively. Meanwhile, it indicated characteristic of essential good by showing negative (-) income odds ratio estimate. When it comes to cross-price elasticity of coffee and cigarette, it was found to be a complementary relation as its cross-price elasticity was assumed to -0.121. Besides, it was found that male consume more coffee than female, while people in their age of 50s consumes mostly. In conclusion, this study suggests necessity of reconsidering coffee as important goods when Consumer Price Stabilization Policy is determined, as coffee shows characteristic of essential goods which is inelastic.

Employment Effects Evaluation of Naver Shopping in 2018 (2018년 네이버 쇼핑의 고용영향 평가)

  • KIM, Heung-Kyu;JUNG, Yeon-Sung
    • The Journal of Industrial Distribution & Business
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    • v.10 no.5
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    • pp.27-36
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    • 2019
  • Purpose - Naver has emerged as a new leader in the open market. While existing open markets such as Gmarket, 11th Street, and so on are suffering from profitability deterioration, Naver is attracting sellers based on low commission and powerful search engine. We would like to analyze the impact of Naver shopping on the national economy, especially on employment, in a situation where the market reaction to Naver's strength as a leader in online shopping is mixed. Research Design, Data, and Methodology - Through the demand inducing inter-industry analysis, we estimate the employment inducement effect by Naver shopping from its shopping transaction. In turn, through the supply inducing inter-industry analysis, we estimate the employment inducement effect by Naver shopping from its low commission and powerful search engine. For the purpose of inter-industry analysis, as of 2018, the most recently announced 2014 inter-industry table (extension table) from the Bank of Korea is used. Results - The results of this study are as follows. First, Naver Shopping is expected to generate 7.8 trillion won's trade in 2018, resulting in 244,225 of job inducement, and 158,598 of employment inducement. In addition, Naver Shopping is estimated to benefit KRW 213 billion to its sellers due to low commission and powerful search function, resulting in 8,667 of job inducement, and 5,655 of employment inducement. Second, in terms of job inducement and employment inducement due to Naver Shopping's trade, transportation, business support service, information and communication, broadcasting, restaurants and lodging were ranked. Third, in terms of job inducement and employment inducement due to Naver Shopping's low commission and powerful search function, restaurants and hospitality, f/b and cigarette manufacturing, construction, and transportation equipment manufacturing were ranked. Conclusions - The number of job inducement resulting from low commission and powerful search engine of Naver shopping in 2018 was 8,667 (3.7% of 244,225, which was caused by transaction in Naver shopping in 2018), and employment inducement was 5,655 (3.7% of 158,598, which was caused by transaction in Naver shopping in 2018), which can be considered as additional employment impacts of Naver Shopping compared to the other online shopping operators.