• Title/Summary/Keyword: chrysotile

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Differential gene expression by chrysotile in human bronchial epithelial cells

  • Seo, Yoo-Na;Lee, Yong-Jin;Lee, Mi-Young
    • Animal cells and systems
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.95-103
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    • 2012
  • Asbestos exposure has been known to contribute to several lung diseases named asbestosis, malignant mesothelioma and lung cancer, but the disease-related molecular and cellular mechanisms are still largely unknown. To examine the effects of asbestos exposure in human bronchial epithelial cells at gene level, the global gene expression profile was analyzed following chrysotile treatment. The microarray results revealed differential gene expression in response to chrysotile treatment. The genes up- and down-regulated by chrysotile were mainly involved in processes including metabolism, signal transduction, transport, development, transcription, immune response, and other functions. The differential gene expression profiles could provide clues that might be used to understand the pathological mechanisms and therapeutic targets involved in chrysotile-related diseases.

Physicochemical Property Changes on Respiratory System of Rats After Intratracheal Instillation Exposure to Korea Chrysotile and Anthophyllite (국내산 백석면과 안소필라이트의 물리화학적 특성과 호흡기계 내 변화 연구)

  • Chung, Yong Hyun;Han, Jeong Hee;Kang, Min Gu;Kim, Jong Kyu;Yang, Jeong Sun
    • Journal of Korean Society of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.224-234
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    • 2012
  • Objectives: To assess the hazard of Korea chrysotile and anthophylite, fibers were analyzed for their physicochemical properties by transmission electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (TEM-EDS). Methods: To evaluate the biopersistence of 2 domestic asbestos, Sprague-Dawely rats were exposed to 2 mg asbestos by intratracheal instillation. Each asbestos (chrysotile ; $8,814,244{\times}10^6$ fibers/mg, average size $0.08{\mu}m{\times}4.39{\mu}m$, anthophyllite ; $5,182{\times}10^6$ fibers/mg, average size $0.95{\mu}m{\times}7.29{\mu}m$) were evaluated after a single intratracheal instillation. At times from 1 week to 4 weeks after exposure, the numbers of asbestos fivers in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and in the lung were calculated. Results: Anthophyllite fivers continuously have retained for 4 weeks but chrysotile fivers were rarely found at 4 weeks after exposure in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Chrysotile fivers at 4 weeks after treatment were not observed but anthophyllite was easily observed in the lung with phase contrast microscopy. According to electron microscopic observation of asbestos in the lung, within 1 week after the administration of chrysotile fivers were decreased rapidly but anthophyllite fivers were very little change for 4 weeks. When chrysotile fivers have been lost Fe in 1 week, there were no significant changes in anthophyllite fivers in the lung. Conclusions: These findings indicate that after a long time exposure to chrysotile, asbestos bodies can not be found in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.

Characterization of Mineralogical Changes of Chrysotile and its Thermal Decomposition by Heat Treatment (열처리에 따른 백석면의 광물학적 특성 변화와 열분해 과정 연구)

  • Jeong, Hyeonyi;Moon, Wonjin;Roh, Yul
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.49 no.2
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    • pp.77-88
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    • 2016
  • Chrysotile is a 1:1 sheet silicate mineral belonging to serpentine group. It has been highlighted studies because of uses, shapes and structural characteristics of the fibrous chrysotile. However, it was designated as Class 1 carcinogen, so high attentions were being placed on detoxification studies of chrysotile. The objectives of this study were to investigate changes of mineralogical characteristics of chrysotile and to suggest detoxification mechanism of chrysotile by thermal decomposition. Samples for this study were obtained from LAB Chrysotile mine in Canada. The samples were heated in air in the range of 600 to $1,300^{\circ}C$. Changes of mineralogical characteristics such as crystal structure, shape, and chemical composition of the chrysotile fibers were examined by TG-DTA, XRD, FT-IR, TEM-EDS and SEM-EDS analyses. As a result of thermal decomposition, the fibrous chrysotile having hollow tube structure was dehydroxylated at $600-650^{\circ}C$ and transformed to disordered chrysotile by removal of OH at the octahedral sheet (MgOH) (Dehydroxylation 1). Upon increasing temperature, it was transformed to forsterite ($Mg_2SiO_4$) at $820^{\circ}C$ by rearrangement of Mg, Si and O (Dehydroxylation 2). In addition, crystal structure of forsterite had begun to transform at $800^{\circ}C$, and gradually grown 3-dimensionally to enstatite ($MgSiO_3$) by recrystallization after the heating above $1,100^{\circ}C$. And then finally transformed to spherical minerals. This study showed chrysotile structure was collapsed about $600-700^{\circ}C$ by dehydroxylation. And then the fibrous chrysotile was transformed to forsterite and enstatite, as non-hazardous minerals. Therefore, this study indicates heat treatment can be used to detoxification of chrysotile.

Mechanism of Asbestos Induced Chromosome Aberration in CHO Cells (석면에 의한 CHO 세포의 염색체 이상 유발 기전에 관한 연구)

  • 정해원;김현주
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.117-125
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    • 1995
  • In order to examine the mechanism of asbestos clastogenicity, CHO cells were treated with chrysotile and crocidolite. Crocidolite and chrysotile were able to induce lipid peroxidation in a dose dependent manner. Ultrafiltrate of culture media from CHO cells treated with chrysotile/crocidolite induced sister chromatid exchange in CHO cells. Ultrafiltrate of culture media from CHO cells treated with chrysotile induced chromosome aberration but it was not statistically significant. Simultaneous treatment of 3-Aminobenzamide (3-AB) or cytosine arabinoside (Ara C) with crocidolite had no effect on the frequency of chromosome aberration by crocidolite whetease posttreatment of caffeine significantly increased the chromosomel aberration by crocidolite. This indicated that DNA damage by asbestos took place at late stage of cell cycle. The results suggested that the ultrafiltrate of media contained clastogenic factor (CF) and lipid peroxidation might be involved in the formation of CF.

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Assessment of Acid Solubility Test on Korean Asbestos by Transmission Electron Microscope Equipped with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometer (한국산 석면의 산 용해도 평가 연구)

  • Chung, Yong Hyun;Han, Jeong Hee
    • Journal of Korean Society of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.146-151
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    • 2014
  • Objectives: Chrysotile is mineralogically distinct from amphiboles, displaying a notably different chemical structure. The thin sheets that form chrysotile fiber lead to the ability of the lung/macrophage system to decompose the chrysotile fibers. This study was performed in order to compare the physicochemical characteristics of Korean asbestos with those of Canadian amphiboles. Materials: An acid solubility test for each test substance was done to compare pH 4.5 and pH 1.2 distilled water. Asbestos fibers which had been placed in acid solutions for five days, five weeks and weeks were analyzed with a transmission electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (TEM-EDS). Results: The composition element (Mg) of Korean chrysotile, Korean anthophyllite and Canadian amosite significantly decreased from 5 days and also decreased significantly after 5 weeks and 10 weeks. Only the composition (Mg) of Canadian crocidolite did not change under any conditions. From 5 days, the Mg of Korean chrysotile, Korean anthophyllite and Canadian amosite were significantly lower than before the acid treatment, but there were no changes over time or by the pH of the acid solutions. Particularly after 10 weeks, the composition (Mg) of Korean chrysotile in the pH 1.2 acid solution showed a rapid reduction of 15.86%. Conclusions: Korean chrysotile was very weak in an acid environment, beginning to show significant changes after 5 days. The Mg component rapidly decreased after 10 weeks in the pH 1.2 acid solution.

Toxicity of Talc Containing Tremolite asbestos on Respiratory System in Sprague-Dawely Rats (랫드의 기도로 투여된 투각섬석함유활석이 호흡기계에 미치는 영향 연구)

  • Chung, Yong-Hyun;Han, Jeong-Hee;Kang, Min-Gu;Lee, Sung-Bae;Kim, Jong-Kyu;Kim, Hyeon-Yeong;Yang, Jung-Sun
    • Journal of Korean Society of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.119-130
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    • 2010
  • Pulmonary toxicity of talc containing tremolite asbestos (TCT) has been studied in term sequential in Sprague-Dawely rats. UICC chrysotile(average diameter 0.03${\mu}m$, average length 2.93${\mu}m$) was applied as the positive control. TCT was analyzed for its physicochemical properties by transmission electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer(TEM-EDS). The effects of 2mg TCT(talc average diameter 9.7${\pm}$8.4${\mu}m$; tremolite average diameter 1.6${\pm}$1.6${\mu}m$, average length 10.8${\pm}$7.0${\mu}m$) on pathological changes were evaluated after 1, 8 weeks instilled into rat lungs. 2mg Chrysotile continuously affected lung pathological changes. Inflammation and granuloma response broke out from 1 week after instilled with chrysotile and the pathological examination further showed increased legions of lung after 8 weeks. But TCT did not showed lung pathological changes. The biopersistence of TCT and chrysotile was evaluated by TEM- EDS. Whereas chrysotile continuously have retained to 8 weeks instilled into rat lungs, talc of TCT showed statistically significant decrease of diameter from 1 weeks and statistically significant change in Si atomic % compositions at 8 weeks instilled into rat lungs. Physicochemical properties of tremolite of TCT were not affected until 8 weeks instilled into rat lungs. This study showed that the durability of TCT in the lungs is much weaker than chrysotile.

Effect of Fiber Number Per Mass Concentration in Korean Produced Asbestos on Lung Function and Pathology (중량당 섬유수가 다른 국내산 석면이 폐 기능과 폐 조직에 미치는 영향 평가)

  • Chung, Yong Hyun;Han, Jeong Hee;Kang, Min Gu;Kim, Jong Kyu;Yang, Jeong Sun
    • Journal of Korean Society of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.301-308
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    • 2012
  • Objectives: To evaluate the pulmonary toxicity of 2 Korea asbestos(chrysotile, anthophyllite), Sprague-Dawely rats were exposed to 2 mg domestic asbestos by intratracheal instillation(IT). Methods: Lung function of rats was analyzed by pressure transducer(MAX1320, Buxco Electronics, USA). The effects of 2 mg asbestos(chrysotile ; $8,814,244{\times}10^{6}$ fibers/mg, average diameter 0.08 ${\mu}m$, average length 4.39 ${\mu}m$, anthophyllite ; $5,182{\times}10^{6}$ fibers/mg, average diameter 0.95 ${\mu}m$, average length 7.29 ${\mu}m$) on pulmonary function and pathological changes were evaluated at after a single IT. Lung function and histopathological evaluation were assessed in 5 animals from each group at each time point. Results: Due to differences in fiber numbers, chrysotile induce marked lung pathology and lung function change than anthophyllite at the same mass dose. Chrysotile showed notable thickening of interstitial areas surrounding the alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles. Conclusions: On a mass dose basis, chrysotile that have 1,700 times numbers of fibers per unit weight than anthophyllite produced a greater persistent lung injury than anthophllite for at least 4 weeks after exposure.

Types and Characteristics of Fibrous Serpentine Minerals Occurred in Serpentinite in Hongseong and Gapyeong (홍성과 가평 사문암 내에서 섬유상으로 산출되는 사문석군 광물의 종류 및 특성)

  • Jeong, Hyewon;Kang, Serku;Roh, Yul
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.49 no.1
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    • pp.1-11
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    • 2016
  • Chrysotile is well known as a fibrous mineral in serpentinite by the previous studies in S. Korea. Previous studies in other countries showed that antigorite also occurred as asbestiform and harmful to humans. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate types and characteristics of fibrous serpentine minerals occurred in serpentinite in Hongseong, Chungnam and Gapyeong, Gyeonggi in S. Korea. XRD, SEM-EDS, PLM and EPMA mapping analyses were used to examine the occurrence and formation mechanism of serpentine minerals. Serpentinization partially occurred in amphibole-schist and calc-schist at two study sites, Hongseong, Chungnam and Gapyeong, Gyeonggi, respectively. Both chrysotile and antigorite occurred as a fibrous mineral at Hongseong site, but chrysotile occurred as a fibrous mineral at Gapyeong site. Based on PLM analysis with dispersion staining, the chrysotile was observed horizontally magenta and vertically blue colors. The antigorite appeared as horizontally gold to golden magenta and vertically blue magenta colors under central stop dispersion staining objective(DSO). PLM and SEM analyses showed the fibrous minerals were formed from plate form of serpentine minerals or by hydrothermal alternation of primary minerals. The EPMA mapping showed that Mg contents in chrysotile is relatively higher than that in antigorite while Si and O contents in antigorite is higher than them in chrysotile. However, more studies are necessary to know the exact variation in chemical composition of chrysotile and antigorite. These results indicate that even though asbestiform antigorite found associated with asbestos chrysotile in serpentinites, the fibrous antigorite can be distinguished from chrysotile by different dispersion staining colors.

A Study on the Characteristics of Chrysotile and Amosite by Acid and Heat Treatment (산 및 열처리 과정에 따른 주요 석면의 특성변화에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Jin Hyo;Lee, Su Hyun;Kang, Mi Hye;Bae, Il Sang;Kim, Ik Soo;Han, Kyu Mun;Eo, Soo Mi;Jung, Kweon;Koo, Ja Yong
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.37 no.6
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    • pp.371-379
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    • 2015
  • This study is purposed to seek the characteristics of both asbestos in accordance with acid and heat treatment for chrysotile and amosite used mainly as building materials. Results of acid treatment, the refractive index, the elongation sign, the extinction of acid-treated chrysotile were mostly similar to those of untreated chrysotile regardless of pH, elapsed time. But the characteristics of acid-treated chrysotile were different from those of untreated chrysotile after 8 weeks, at pH 1.2 acidic solution. When chrysotile treated with acid, weight ratio (%) of O and Mg fluctuated greatly in accordance with acid treatment unlike Si. But the change of constituents ratio (%) was small as time passed after acid treatment. The refractive index, the elongation sign and the extinction of acid-treated amosite were mostly similar to those of untreated amosite regardless of pH, elapsed time. When amosite was treated with acid, weight ratio (%) of Fe slightly increased. But in case of O, a contrary tendency was seen. Results of heat treatment, the higher the temperature, the more increased the refractive index of chrysotile. When chrysotile was heated for 10 minutes at $1,100^{\circ}C$, the elongation sign of chrysotile changed from positive(+) to negative(-). The extinction of chrysotile didn't change apparently in accordance with heat treatment. Also weight ratio (%) of O and Mg fluctuated greatly in accordance with heat treatment unlike Si. The higher the temperature, the more increased the refractive index of amosite. The elongation sign and the extinction of amosite didn't change apparently in accordance with heat treatment. Also weight ratio (%) of O and Fe fluctuated greatly in accordance with heat treatment. But weight ratio (%) of Si and Mg of heated amosite were mostly similar to those of untreated amosite regardless of temperature, heating time.

Evaluation of Biodurability of Korean Chrysotile withen The Lung of Rats (한국산 백석면의 랫드의 폐 내 변화 연구)

  • Chung, Yong Hyun;Han, Jeong Hee
    • Journal of Korean Society of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.20-26
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    • 2015
  • Objectives: To evaluate the biodurability of Korean Chrysotile(KC), the changes in fibers numbers and changes in the element composition of fibers from the lung of Sprague-Dawley rats instilled KC(average size $4.74{\mu}m$, $59,043{\times}10^6$ fibers/mg) was estimated. Methods: Rats were administered 1 mg KC(low group) or 2 mg KC(high group) by a single intratracheal instillation. At each time point(5 days, 5 weeks, 10 weeks), the numbers of KC fibers and the changes of element composition(atomic %) of KC fibers from the lung of the rats were analyzed with transmission electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer. Results: Over time, the number of fibers within the lungs of animals were reduced. The average length of the low and high group is significantly reduced from 5 days after administration. Over time, the fiber ratio of at least $5{\mu}m$ remaining in the lung tissue of the low concentration group was up but the high group was reduced. From day 5 after administration, the composition ratio(Mg) was significantly decreased in all groups. Conclusions: Size and composition of Korean Chrysotile in the lung tissue of rats was changed from 5 days.