• Title, Summary, Keyword: chromosphere

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Physics of Solar Flares

  • Magara, Tetsuya
    • Bulletin of the Korean Space Science Society
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    • pp.25.1-25.1
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    • 2010
  • This talk outlines the current understanding of solar flares, mainly focusing on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) processes. A flare causes plasma heating, mass ejection, and particle acceleration that generates high-energy particles. The key physical processes related to a flare are: the emergence of magnetic field from the solar interior to the solar atmosphere (flux emergence), formation of current-concentrated areas (current sheets) in the corona, and magnetic reconnection proceeding in current sheets that causes shock heating, mass ejection, and particle acceleration. A flare starts with the dissipation of electric currents in the corona, followed by various dynamic processes which affect lower atmospheres such as the chromosphere and photosphere. In order to understand the physical mechanism for producing a flare, theoretical modeling has been developed, in which numerical simulation is a strong tool reproducing the time-dependent, nonlinear evolution of plasma before and after the onset of a flare. In this talk we review various models of a flare proposed so far, explaining key features of these models. We show observed properties of flares, and then discuss the processes of energy build-up, release, and transport, all of which are responsible for producing a flare. We come to a concluding view that flares are the manifestation of recovering and ejecting processes of a global magnetic flux tube in the solar atmosphere, which was disrupted via interaction with convective plasma while it was rising through the convection zone.

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Current Status and Improvement of the Fast Imaging Solar Spectrograph of the 1.6m telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory

  • Park, Hyungmin;Chae, Jongchul;Song, Donguk;Yang, Heesu;Jang, Bi-Ho;Park, Young-Deuk;Nah, Jakyoung;Cho, Kyung-Suk;Ahn, Kwangsu
    • The Bulletin of The Korean Astronomical Society
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.112.2-112.2
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    • 2012
  • For the study of fine-scale structure and dynamics in the solar chromosphere, the Fast Imaging Solar Spectrograph (FISS) was installed in 1.6m New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory in 2010. The instrument, installed at a vertical table of the Coude lab, is properly working and producing data for science. From the analysis of the data, however, we noticed that a couple of problems exist that deteriorate image quality : lower light level and poorer resolution of the CaII band data. After several tests, we found that the relay optics at the right position is crucial role for the spatial resolution of raster-scan images. By using resolution target, we re-aligned relay optics and other components of the spectrograph. Here we present the result of optical test and new data taken by the FISS.

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New Light Curves and Orbital Period Investigations of the Interacting Binary System UV Piscium

  • Jeong, Min-Ji;Han, Wonyong;Kim, Chun-Hwey;Yoon, Joh-Na;Kim, Hyoun-Woo
    • Journal of Astronomy and Space Sciences
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    • v.36 no.2
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    • pp.75-86
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    • 2019
  • UV Psc is a typical RS CVn type system undergoing dynamic chromosphere activity. We performed photometric observations of the system in 2015 and secured new BVR light curves showing well-defined photometric waves. In this paper, we analyzed the light curves using Wilson-Devinney binary code and investigated the orbital period of the system. The combination of our light curve synthesis with the spectroscopic solution developed by previous investigators yielded the absolute parameters as: $M_1=1.104{\pm}0.042M_{\odot}$, $R_1=1.165{\pm}0.025R_{\odot}$, and $L_1=1.361{\pm} 0.041L_{\odot}$ for the primary star, and $M_2=0.809{\pm}0.082M_{\odot}$, $R_2=0.858{\pm}0.018R_{\odot}$, and $L_2=0.339 {\pm}0.010L_{\odot}$ for the secondary star. The eclipse timing diagram for accurate CCD and photoelectric timings showed that the orbital period may vary either in a downward parabolic manner or a quasi-sinusoidal pattern. If the latter is adopted as a probable pattern for the period change, a more plausible account for the cyclic variation may be the light time effect caused by a circumbinary object rather than an Applegate-mechanism occurring via variable surface magnetic field strengths.

SPECTROSCOPIC OBSERVATION OF THE SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS IN HeI 10830 ${\AA}$ LINE

  • TOHMURA ICHIROH;KITAI REIZABURO;SUEMATSU YOSHINORI;SOLTAU DIRK
    • Journal of The Korean Astronomical Society
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    • v.29 no.spc1
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    • pp.333-335
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    • 1996
  • Here we report the results from spectroscopic observations of soloar active regions in the HeI 10830 ${\AA}$ line at the German Vacuum Tower Telescope(VTT) in Tenerife during the August 199:3 International EFR(Emerging Flux Region) Campaign. Four active regions in various stages of their evolution, i.e., NOAA7558, 7560, 7561, and 7562, were ovserved on 10 August 1993. From the observed HeI 10830 ${\AA}$ spectra in these active regions, spectroscopic quantities such as equivalent width(EW), doppler shift, doppler width, etc., were derived(see Figure l(a)) and the correlation between them were studied(see Figure l(b)). Our main results are as follows: (I)In NOAA7562, which is a young and evolving EFR, the EW is large, while it is small around a simple and roundish spot of NOAA7558. (2)In these active regions, redshift in the 10830 line is dominant when the EW is larger. (3)As the doppler width increases, the line tends to shift redward. (4)When the EW is smaller, it seems to exist another component which have dynamic characteristics different from the redshifting component. In NOAA7560 and NOAA7561, regions which have several small spots, the values of the EW are intermediate. Results (2) and (3) may suggest the possible existence of downflow above active regions, if the HeI 10830 ${\AA}$line is formed in the upper chromopshere, and it is consistent with the earlyer result from the SMM extreme-ultraviolet observation by Klimchuk(1987, Astrophys. J., 323, 368) (to be submitted. to Astronomy and Astrophysics; an extended abstract)

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DYNAMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SUNSPOT CHROMOSPHERES II. ANALYSIS OF CA II H, K AND ${\lambda}8498$ LINES OF A SUNSPOT (SPO 5007) FOR OSCILLATORY MOTIONS

  • Yoon, Tae-Sam;Yun, Hong-Sik;Kim, Jeong-Hoon
    • Journal of The Korean Astronomical Society
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.245-253
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    • 1995
  • We have analyzed the time series of Ca II H,K and ${\lambda}8498$ line profiles taken for a sunspot (SPO 5007) with the Echelle spectrograph attached to Vacuum Tower Telescope at Sacramento Peak Solar Observatory. Each set of spectra was taken simultaneously for 20 minutes at a time interval of 30 seconds. A total of 40 photographic films for each line was scanned by a PDS at Korea Astronomy Observatory. The central peak intensity of Ca II H ($I_{max}$), the intensity measured at ${\Delta}{\lambda}=-0.1{\AA}$ from the line center of ${\lambda}8498(I_{{\lambda}8489})$, the radial velocity ($V_r$) and the Doppler width (${\Delta}{\lambda}_D$) estimated from Ca II H have been measured to study the dynamical behaviors of the sunspot chromosphere. Fourier analysis has been carried out for these measured quantities. Our main results are as follows: (1) We have confirmed the 3-minute oscillation being dominant throughout the umbra. The period of oscillations jumps from 180 sec in the umbra to 500 to 1000 sec in the penumbra. (2) The nonlinear character of the umbral oscillation is noted from the observed sawtooth shaped radial velocity fluctuations with amplitudes reaching up to $5{\sim}6\;km/sec$. (3) The spatial distribution of the maximum powers shows that the power of oscillations is stronger in the umbra than in the penumbra. (4) The spatial distributions of the time averaged < $I_{max}$ > and < $V_r$ > across the spot are found to be nearly axially symmetric, implying that the physical quantities derived from the line profiles of Ca II H and ${\lambda}8498$ are inherently associated with the geometry of the magnetic field distribution of the spot. (5) The central peaks of the CaII H emission core lead the upward motions of the umbral atmosphere by $90^{\circ}$, while no phase delay is found in intensities between $I_{max}$ and $I_{{\lambda}8498}$, suggesting that the umbral oscillation is of standing waves.

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[ Hα ] SPECTRAL PROPERTIES OF VELOCITY THREADS CONSTITUTING A QUIESCENT SOLAR FILAMENT

  • Chae, Jong-Chul;Park, Hyung-Min;Park, Young-Deuk
    • Journal of The Korean Astronomical Society
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    • v.40 no.3
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    • pp.67-82
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    • 2007
  • The basic building block of solar filaments/prominences is thin threads of cool plasma. We have studied the spectral properties of velocity threads, clusters of thinner density threads moving together, by analyzing a sequence of $H{\alpha}$ images of a quiescent filament. The images were taken at Big Bear Solar Observatory with the Lyot filter being successively tuned to wavelengths of -0.6, -0.3, 0.0, +0.3, and +0.6 ${\AA}$ from the centerline. The spectra of contrast constructed from the image data at each spatial point were analyzed using cloud models with a single velocity component, or three velocity components. As a result, we have identified a couple of velocity threads that are characterized by a narrow Doppler width($\Delta\lambda_D=0.27{\AA}$), a moderate value of optical thickness at the $H{\alpha}$ absorption peak($\tau_0=0.3$), and a spatial width(FWHM) of about 1". It has also been inferred that there exist 4-6 velocity threads along the line of sight at each spatial resolution element inside the filament. In about half of the threads, matter moves fast with a line-of-sight speed of $15{\pm}3km\;s^{-1}$, but in the other half it is either at rest or slowly moving with a line-of-sight velocity of $0{\pm}3km\;s^{-1}$. It is found that a statistical balance approximately holds between the numbers of blue-shifted threads and red-shifted threads, and any imbalance between the two numbers is responsible for the non-zero line-of-sight velocity determined using a single-component model fit. Our results support the existence not only of high speed counter-streaming flows, but also of a significant amount of cool matter either being at rest or moving slowly inside the filament.