• Title, Summary, Keyword: chromosphere

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Chromospheric oscillation signatures observed by the NST FISS

  • Kim, Yeon-Han;Cho, Il-Hyun;Bong, Su-Chan;Cho, Kyung-Suk;Yang, Heesu;Park, Young-Deuk
    • The Bulletin of The Korean Astronomical Society
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    • v.38 no.2
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    • pp.92.1-92.1
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    • 2013
  • In this study, we examined chromospheric oscillation signatures in two solar active regions, a limb active region and a sunspot with a light bridge, observed by the Fast Imaging Solar Spectrograph (FISS) of the 1.6m New Solar Telescope (NST) at Big Bear Solar Observatory. The FISS is a slit spectrograph with a fast imaging capability and can observe the solar chromosphere in $H{\alpha}$ and Ca II $8542{\AA}$ bands simultaneously with high spectral resolutions. After dark and flat correction, we compensated for image rotation at the Coude focus and made image alignment. We estimated Doppler shifts over active regions using the bisector method and investigated the temporal and spatial fluctuations of Doppler shifts for some selected cases. And we obtain the power map by using the Lomb-Scargle periodogram technique to examine the oscillation power at different features. Finally, we will discuss our results and implications.

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A TWO CAVITY MODEL FOR UMBRAL OSCILLATIONS

  • Lee, Jeong-Woo;Yun, Hong-Sik
    • Journal of The Korean Astronomical Society
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.27-47
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    • 1987
  • In the present study a two-mode, separately concurring resonant cavity model is proposed for theoretical interpretation of the 3 minute umbral oscillation. The proposed model has been investigated by calculating the transmission coefficients of the waves propagating through the umbral photosphere (photospheric weak-field cavity) and chromosphere (chromospheric strong-field cavity) into the corona, for 3 different umbral model atmospheres by Staude (1982), Beebe et al. (1982) and Avrett (1981). In computing the transmission coefficients we made use of multi-layer approximation by representing the umbra] atmosphere by a number of separate layers with (1) temperature varying linearly with depth and (2) temperature constant within each layer. The medium is assumed to be compressible, non-viscous, perfectly conducting under gravity. The computed resonant periods, transmission spectra, phase spectra, and kinetic energy density of the waves associated with the oscillations are presented in comparison with the observations and their model dependent characteristics are discussed.

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HEATING OF SUNSPOT CHROMOSPHERES BY SLOW-MODE ACOUSTIC SHOCK WAVES

  • Lee, Myung-Gyoon;Yun, Hong-Sik
    • Journal of The Korean Astronomical Society
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.15-31
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    • 1985
  • Making use of the arbitrary shock theory developed by Ulmschneider (1967, 1971) and Ulmschneider and Kalkofen (1978), we have calculated the dissipation rates of upward-travelling slow-mode acoustic shock waves in umbral chromospheres for two umbral chromosphere models, a plateau model by Avrett (1981) and a gradient model by Yun and Beebe (1984). The computed shock dissipation rates are compared with the radiative cooling rate given by Avrett (1981). The results show that the slow-mode acoustic shock waves with a period of about 20 second can heat the low umbral chromospheres travelling with a mechanical energy flux of $2.6{\times}10^6\;erg/cm^2s$ at a height of $300{\sim}400km$ above the temperature minimum region.

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SUNSPOTS AND THEIR ASSOCIATED SOLAR ACTIVITIES I. PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF A WHITE LIGHT FLARE

  • LEE SANG-WOO;YUN HONG SIK
    • Journal of The Korean Astronomical Society
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.77-87
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    • 1995
  • An attempt has been made to analyze time series of $H_\alpha,\;H_\beta,\;and\; H_\gamma$ line profiles taken from a 3B/X6.1 flare which occurred on Oct. 27, 1991 in an active region, NOAA 6891. A total of 22 sets of $H_\alpha,\;H_\beta,\;and\; H_\gamma$ taken with a low and non-uniform time resolution of 10-40 seconds were scanned by PDS with absolute intensity calibration to derive the physical characteristics of the material in the flare chromosphere. Our . results are as follows: (1) The lower Balmer lines observed during the flare activity are broadened by Stark effect. (2) At the peak of the flare activity, the electron temperature of the Balmer line emitting region reaches up to 35000K and its geometrical thickness increases to a scale of $10^4km$, suggesting that high energy particles penetrate deep into the photospheric level.

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AN INTERFERENCE FRINGE REMOVAL METHOD BASED ON MULTI-SCALE DECOMPOSITION AND ADAPTIVE PARTITIONING FOR NVST IMAGES

  • Li, Yongchun;Zheng, Sheng;Huang, Yao;Liu, Dejian
    • Journal of The Korean Astronomical Society
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    • v.52 no.2
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    • pp.49-55
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    • 2019
  • The New Vacuum Solar Telescope (NVST) is the largest solar telescope in China. When using CCDs for imaging, equal-thickness fringes caused by thin-film interference can occur. Such fringes reduce the quality of NVST data but cannot be removed using standard flat fielding. In this paper, a correction method based on multi-scale decomposition and adaptive partitioning is proposed. The original image is decomposed into several sub-scales by multi-scale decomposition. The region containing fringes is found and divided by an adaptive partitioning method. The interference fringes are then filtered by a frequency-domain Gaussian filter on every partitioned image. Our analysis shows that this method can effectively remove the interference fringes from a solar image while preserving useful information.

Investigation of sunspot substructure using chromospheric bright patches in a merging sunspot

  • Cho, Kyuhyoun
    • The Bulletin of The Korean Astronomical Society
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.44.3-44.3
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    • 2020
  • Sunspot substructure is an important subject to explain their stability and energy transport. Previous studies suggested two substructure models, monolithic and spaghetti model, but no clear evidence has been found supporting a particular model. To obtain the clue of the sunspot substructure the IRIS Mg II 2796Å slit-jaw images (SJI) were examined. The Mg II images formed in the chromosphere show bright patches inside umbrae which are regarded as an observational signature of upward propagating slow magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves. The slow MHD waves are expected to be generated by convective motion below the photosphere. By tracking the motion of the bright patches it is possible to estimate the locations of oscillation centers that correspond to the occurrence position of the convections. I investigated the spatial distribution of the oscillation center in a merging sunspot and found it is randomly distributed. It implies that the occurrence rate of the convective motion inside the sunspot is not much different from that of between the two sunspots, and supports the spaghetti model as the sunspot substructure.

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Tiny Pores Observed by New Solar Telescope and Hinode

  • Cho, Kyung-Suk;Bong, Su-Chan;Chae, Jong-Chul;Kim, Yeon-Han;Park, Young-Deuk;Ahn, K.;Katsukawa, Y.
    • The Bulletin of The Korean Astronomical Society
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    • v.36 no.1
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    • pp.37.2-37.2
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    • 2011
  • Our previous study on tiny pores (R < 2") observed by HINODE/Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) revealed that the plasma in the pores at the photosphere is always moving down and the pores are surrounded by the strong downward motions (highly red-shifted) of neighboring granulations. From this study, we speculated that the flow motions above the pore should be related with the motions at the photosphere, since the pore is strong magnetic field region. Meanwhile, SNU and KASI installed Fast Imaging Solar Spectrograph (FISS) in the Cude room of the 1.6 m New Solar Telescope (NST) at Big Bear Solar Observatory. FISS is a unique system that can do imaging of H-alpha and Ca II 8542 band simultaneously, which is quite suitable for studying of dynamics of chromosphere. To get some clue on the relationship between the photospheric and low-chromospheric motions at the pore region, we took a coordinate observation with NST/FISS and Hinode/SOT for new emerging active region (AR11117) on October 26, 2010. In the observed region, we could find two tiny pores and two small magnetic islands (SMIs), which have similar magnetic flux with the pores but does not look dark. Magnetic flux density and Doppler velocities at the photosphere are estimated by applying the center-of-gravity (COG) method to the HINODE/spectropolarimeter (SP) data. The line-of-sight motions above the photosphere are determined by adopting the bisector method to the wing spectra of Ha and CaII 8542 lines. As results, we found the followings. (1) There are upflow motion on the pores and downflow motion on the SMIs. (2) Towards the CaII 8542 line center, upflow motion decrease and turn to downward motion in pores, while the speed of down flow motion increases in the SMIs. (3) There is oscillating motion above pores and the SMIs, and this motion keep its pattern along the height. (4) As height increase, there is a general tendency of the speed shift to downward on pores and the SMIs. This is more clearly seen on the other regions of stronger magnetic field. In this talk, we will present preliminary understanding of the coupling of pore dynamics between the photosphere and the low-chromosphere.

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Physics of Solar Flares

  • Magara, Tetsuya
    • The Bulletin of The Korean Astronomical Society
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.26.1-26.1
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    • 2010
  • In this talk we outline the current understanding of solar flares, mainly focusing on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) processes. A flare causes plasma heating, mass ejection, and particle acceleration which generates high-energy particles. The key physical processes producing a flare are: the emergence of magnetic field from the solar interior to the solar atmosphere (flux emergence), formation of current-concentrated areas (current sheets) in the corona, and magnetic reconnection proceeding in a current sheet to cause shock heating, mass ejection, and particle acceleration. A flare starts with the dissipation of electric currents in the corona, followed by various dynamic processes that affect lower atmosphere such as the chromosphere and photosphere. In order to understand the physical mechanism for producing a flare, theoretical modeling has been develops, where numerical simulation is a strong tool in that it can reproduce the time-dependent, nonlinear evolution of a flare. In this talk we review various models of a flare proposed so far, explaining key features of individual models. We introduce the general properties of flares by referring observational results, then discuss the processes of energy build-up, release, and transport, all of which are responsible for a flare. We will come to a concluding viewpoint that flares are the manifestation of the recovering and ejecting processes of a global magnetic flux tube in the solar atmosphere, which has been disrupted via interaction with convective plasma while rising through the convection zone.

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The Sun Observed by Fast Imaging Solar Spectrograph of the 1.6 meter New Solar Telescope at Big Bear

  • Chae, Jong-Chul;Park, Hyung-Min;Ahn, Kwang-Su;Yang, Hee-Su;Park, Young-Deuk;Nah, Ja-Kyoung;Jang, Bi-Ho;Cho, Kyung-Suk;Cao, Wenda;Gorceix, Nicholas;Goode, Philip R.
    • The Bulletin of The Korean Astronomical Society
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.25-25
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    • 2010
  • With the aim of resolving important physical problems in the chromosphere of the Sun, we developed the Fast Imaging Solar Spectrograph for several years, and at last successfully installed it in the Coude room of the 1.6 meter New Solar Telescope at Big Bear in 2010 May. The instrument is an Echelle spectrograph with imaging capability based on slit scan, and can record two spectral bands (e.g., H alpha band and Ca II 8542 band) simultaneously. The early runs of the instrument produced data of high quality that are suited for the study of quiet Sun, filaments on the disk, prominences outside the limb, active regions and sunspots. We are ready to do good solar sciences using our own instrument, and will be able to do best sciences with the coming improvement of spatial resolution.

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