• Title, Summary, Keyword: chromate complex

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Synthesis and structure analysis of the bis(dicyclohexylammonium) chromate dihydrate complex, [(C6H11)2NH2]2[CrO4]·2H2O

  • Kim, Chong-Hyeak;Moon, Hyoung-Sil;Lee, Sueg-Geun
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.20 no.5
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    • pp.448-451
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    • 2007
  • A new bis(dicyclohexylammonium) chromate dihydrate complex, $[(C_6H_{11})_2NH_2]_2[CrO_4]{\cdot}2H_2O$, (I), has been synthesized and its structure analyzed by FT-IR, EDS, elemental analysis, ICP-AES, and single crystal X-ray diffraction methods. The Cr(VI) complex (I) is tetragonal system, I${\bar{4}}$2d space group with a = 12.5196(1), b = 12.5196(1), c = $17.3796(3){\AA}$, a = ${\beta}$ = ${\gamma}$ = $90^{\circ}$, V = $2724.09(6){\AA}^3$, Z = 4. The crystal structure of complex (I) consists of tetrahedral chromate $[CrO_4]^{2-}$ anion, two organic dicyclohexylammonium $[(C_6H_{11})_2NH_2]^+$ cations and two lattice water molecules. The chromate anion and protonated dicyclohexylammonium cation is mainly constructed through the ionic bond. The cyclohexylammonium rings of the dicyclohexylammonium cation take the chair form and vertical configuration with each other. The N-H${\cdot}$O and O-H${\cdot}$O hydrogen bond networks between the $N_{dicyclohexylammonium}$, $O_{water}$ and $O_{chromate}$ atom lead to self-assembled molecular conformation and stabilize the crystal structure.

The Crystal Structure of Tris(ethylenediamine)nickel(II)Chromate, $[Ni(C_2N_2H_8)_3]\cdotCrO_4$ ($[Ni(C_2N_2H_8)_3]\cdotCrO_4$의 결정구조)

  • Kim, Se-Hwan;Kim, Seung-Bin;Nam, Gung-Hae
    • Korean Journal of Crystallography
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.75-79
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    • 1995
  • The crystal structure of Tris(ethylenediamine)nickel(II)Chromate has been determined by X-ray crystallography. Crystal data : a=9.027(2)Å, c=9.751(5)Å이며, Z=2, V=687.9(2)Å3, Dc=1.714gcm-3, μ=21.635-1. The intensity were collected with Mo-Kα radiation (λ=0.7107Å) on an automatic four-circle diffractometer with a graphite monochromator. The structure was solved by Patterson method and refined by full matrix least-square methods using unit weights. The final R and S values were R=0.029, Rw=032, Rall=0.049 andS=0.018 for 342 observed reflections. The chromate ions are located at position of point of point symmetry 32 and their oxygens are sixfold disodered in an unusual way. Extensive strong hydrogen bonds between complex cations and chromatic anions are found in axial and equatorial directions.

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Kinetic Studies on the Oxidation of Oxalate Complex of Oxomolybdenum (V) of Hydrogen Chromate Ion (수소크롬산 (VI) 이온에 의한 몰리브덴 (V) 의 옥살산착물의 산화반응)

  • Chang-Yong Kwon;Chang-Su Kim
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.231-236
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    • 1986
  • Oxidation of $[Mo_2O_4(C_2O_4)_2(OH_2)_2]^{2-}$ with hydrogen chromate yields the molybdenum (VI) complex, $[Mo_2O_4(C_2O_4)_2(OH_2)_2]^{2-}$. Stoichiometry for the reaction of $[Mo_2O_4(C_2O_4)_2(OH_2)_2]^{2-}$ with hydrogen chromate are expressed as ${3Mo_2}^V+2Cr^{VI}\;{\rightleftharpoons}\;{3Mo_2}_{VI}+2Cr^{III}$. Observed rate constants are dependent on $[H+]^2$. The kinetic data are consistent with a mechanism in which three successive single-electron steps convert $Cr^{VI}$to $Cr^{III}$ by way of intermediate Cr^V$ and $Cr^{IV}$. Mechanism of the reaction are presented and discussed.

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Kinetics and Mechanism of the Oxidation of Substituted Benzyl Alcohols by Cr(VI)-4,4'-Bipyridine Complex (크롬(VI)-4,4'-Bipyridine 착물에 의한 치환 벤질 알코올류의 산화반응 속도론과 메카니즘)

  • Kim, Young-Sik;Park, Young-Cho
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.462-469
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    • 2012
  • Cr(VI)-4,4'-bipyridine complex(4,4'-bipyridinium dichromate) was synthesized by the reaction of 4,4'-bipyridine with chromium trioxide in H2O, and characterized by IR, ICP. The oxidation of benzyl alcohol using 4,4'-bipyridinium dichromate in various solvents showed that the reactivity increased with the increase of the dielectric constant(${\varepsilon}$), in the order: cyclohexene$CH_3$, H, m-Br, m-$NO_2$) smoothly in N,N'-dimethylformamide. Electron-donating substituents accelerated the reaction, whereas electron acceptor groups retarded the reaction. The Hammett reaction constant(${\rho}$) was -0.63(303K). The observed experimental data have been rationalized as follows; the proton transfer occurs after the prior formation of a chromate ester in the rate determining step.

A Study for Mechanism and Oxidation Reaction of Substituted Benzyl Alcohols using Cr(VI)-Heterocyclic Complex[Cr(VI)-2-methylpyrazine] (Cr(VI)-헤테로고리 착물[Cr(VI)-2-methylpyrazine]를 이용한 치환 벤질 알코올류의 산화반응과 메카니즘에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Young-Sik;Park, Young-Cho
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.14 no.11
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    • pp.6039-6046
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    • 2013
  • Cr(VI)-heterocyclic complex[Cr(VI)-2-methylpyrazine] was synthesized by the reaction between of heterocyclic compound(2-methylpyrazine) and chromium trioxide, and characterized by IR and ICP analysis. The oxidation of benzyl alcohol using Cr(VI)-2-methylpyrazine in various solvents showed that the reactivity increased with the increase of the dielectric constant(${\varepsilon}$), in the order : cyclohexene${\rho}$) was Cr(VI)-2-methylpyrazine= -0.65(308K). The observed experimental data have been ratiolized. The hydride ion transfer causes the prior formation of a chromate ester in the rate-determining step.

Kinetics and Mechanism of the Oxidation of Substituted Benzyl Alcohols by Cr(VI)-Heterocyclic Complex (2,4'-Bipyridinium Chlorochromate) (크롬(VI)-헤테로고리 착물(2,4'-비피리디늄 클로로크로메이트)에 의한 치환 벤질 알코올류의 산화반응에서 속도론과 메카니즘)

  • Park, Young Cho;Kim, Young Sik
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.25 no.6
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    • pp.648-653
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    • 2014
  • Cr(VI)-heterocyclic complex (2,4'-bipyridinium chlorochromate) was synthesized by the reaction between heterocyclic compound(2,4'-bipyridine) and chromium trioxide, and characterized by IR and ICP analysis. The oxidation of benzyl alcohol using 2,4'-bipyridinium chlorochromate in various solvents showed that the reactivity increased with the increase of the dielectric constant (${\varepsilon}$), in the order : N,N-dimet-hylformamide (DMF) > acetone > chloroform > cyclohexene. In the presence of DMF solvent with acidic catalyst such as hydrochloric acid (HCl solution), 2,4'-bipyridinium chlorochromate oxidized benzyl alcohol (H) and its derivatives (p-$CH_3$, m-Br, m-$NO_2$). Electron-donating substituents accelerated the reaction rate, whereas electron acceptor groups retarded the reaction rate. The Hammett reaction constant (${\rho}$) was -0.67 (303 K). The observed experimental data have been rationalize the proton transfer occurred followed the formation of a chromate ester in the rate-determining step.

Kinetics of Acid Hydrolysis of trans-Fluoroaquobis(ethylenediamine) Chromate(III) Cation (trans-Fluoroaquobis(ethylendiamine) Chromate(III) Cation 수화반응 속도에 대한 온도와 압력의 영향)

  • Oh Sang-Oh;Lee Sang-Hyup;Lim Jong-Wan
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.307-311
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    • 1986
  • The rates of hydrolysis of the complex, $trans^-[Cr(en)_2F(H_2O)]^{2+}$, have been investigated using spectrophotometric method at various temperatures and pressure. Temperature was 30${\circ}C$ to 50${\circ}C$ and pressure was varied up to 1500bar. The rate constant measured at 30${\circ}C$ is $2.632{\times}10^{-5}sec^{-1}$. The rate constants are decrease with increasing pressure at constants temperature. Activation volume and other activation parameters are calculated from these rate constants. The activation volumes are all positive and lie in the limited range 0.447 ∼ 3.152$cm^3$/mol and the activation entropies are small values. From the results, it was found that this reaction was endothermic and enthalphy controlled reaction in the experimental temperature.

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A Study for Kinetics and Oxidation Reaction of Substituted Benzyl Alcohols using Cr(VI)-Heterocyclic Complex(Cr(VI)-Isoquinoline) (Cr(VI)-헤테로고리 착물(Cr(VI)-Isoquinoline)를 이용한 치환 벤질 알코올류의 산화반응과 속도론에 관한 연구)

  • Park, Young-Cho;Kim, Young-Sik
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.14 no.11
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    • pp.6000-6007
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    • 2013
  • Cr(VI)-heterocyclic complex[Cr(VI)-isoquinoline] was synthesized by the reaction between of heterocyclic compound(isoquinoline) and chromium trioxide, and characterized by IR and ICP analysis. The oxidation of benzyl alcohol using Cr(VI)-isoquinoline in various solvents showed that the reactivity increased with the increase of the dielectric constant(${\varepsilon}$), in the order : cyclohexene$CH_3$, m-Br, m-$NO_2$). Electron- donating substituents accelerated the reaction, whereas electron acceptor groups retarded the reaction. The Hammett reaction constant(${\rho}$) was -0.69(308K). The observed experimental data have been ratiolized. The hydride ion transfer causes the prior formation of a chromate ester in the rate-determining step.

Kinetic Studies on the Oxidation of Oxalatoaquamolybdenum(IV) Trimer by Hydrogen Chromate Ion (수소크롬산 이온에 의한 옥살라토아쿠아몰리브덴(IV) 삼합체의 산화반응)

  • Chang-Su Kim;Chang-Yong Kwon
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.57-62
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    • 1986
  • Oxidation of $[Mo_3O_4(C_2O_4)_3(H_2O)_3]^{2-}$ with HCr$O_4^-$ yields the molybdenum(Ⅳ) complex, $[Mo_2O_5(C_2O_4)_2(H_2O)_2]^{2-}$. Stoichiometry for the reaction of $[Mo_3O_4(C_2O_4)_3(H_2O)_3]^{2-}$ with HCr$O_4^-$ are expressed as $2Mo_3^{IV} + 4Cr^{VI} {\to} 3Mo_2^{VI} + 4Cr^{III}$. Observed rate constants are dependent on hydrogen ion concentration. The kinetic data are consistent with a mechanism in which three successive single-electron steps convert $Cr^{VI}$to $Cr^{III}$ by way of intermediate $Cr^V$ and $Cr^{IV}$. Detailed mechanisms are presented and discussed.

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Application of Reused Powdered Waste Containing Aluminum Oxide on the Treatment of Cr(VI) (6가 크롬 처리를 위한 알루미늄 산화물을 함유한 재생 분말 폐기물의 적용)

  • Lim, Jae-Woo;Kim, Tae-Hwan;Kang, Hyung-Sik;Kim, Do-Son;Kim, Han-Seon;Cho, Seok-Hee;Yang, Jae-Kyu;Chang, Yoon-Young
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.179-185
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    • 2009
  • In this research, the removal capacity of Cr(VI) by the reused powdered wastes (RPW) containing aluminium oxides was studied. As a pre-treatment process for the preparation of calcined wastes, calcination was conducted at $550^{\circ}C$ to remove organic fraction in the raw wastes. In order to study the adsorption trend of Cr(VI) ions from aqueous solutions, the pH-edge adsorption, adsorption kinetic and adsorption isotherm were investigated using a batch reactor in the presence of four different background electrolytes($NO_3\;^-,\;CO_3\;^{2-},\;SO_4\;^{2-},\;PO_4\;^{3-}$). Cr(VI) adsorption was greatly reduced in the presence of $SO_4\;^{2-}$ and $PO_4\;^{3-}$ over the entire pH range. Meanwhile the inhibition effect by $NO_3\;^-$ and $CO_3\;^{2-}$ was relatively lower than that by $SO_4\;^{2-}$ and $PO_4\;^{3-}$. Cr(VI) adsorption was maximum around pH 4.5 in the presence of $NO_3\;^-$ and $CO_3\;^{2-}$. As the concentration of background electrolytes increased, Cr(VI) adsorption decreased. This result mightly suggests that adsorption between the surface of RPW and Cr(VI) occurs through outer-sphere complex. Cr(VI) adsorption onto the RPW was well described by second-order kinetics. From the Langmuir isotherm at initial pH 3, the maximum adsorbed amount of Cr(VI) onto the RPW was 11.1, 10, 3.3, 5 mg/g in the presence of $NO_3\;^-,\;CO_3\;^{2-},\;SO_4\;^{2-}$, and $PO_4\;^{3-}$, respectively.