• Title, Summary, Keyword: chlortetracycline

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Comparison of Sensitivity Between Balb/c 3T3 Cell and HaCaT Cell by NRU Assay to Predict Skin Phototoxicity Potential

  • Lee, Jong-Kwon;Lee, Eun-Hee;Lee, Sun-Hee
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.227-232
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    • 2002
  • In order to find out the appropriate in vitro method for high correlation with in vivo, we com-pared the sensitivities of phototoxicity (PT) in vitro method between in human keratinocytes, HaCaT cells and in 3T3 fibroblast cells derived from Balb/c mice. Both cells were exposed to six known phototoxic chemicals : promethazine, neutral red, chlortetracycline, amiodarone, bithionol, 8-methoxypsoralen, or non-phototoxic chemical, ALS (ammonium laureth sulfate) and then irradiated with 5 J/$cm^2$ of UVA. Cell viability ($IC_{50}$ ) was measured by neutral red uptake (NRU) assay. The ratio of $IC_{50}$ value of chemicals in the presence and absence of UVA was determined by the cut-off value. The phototoxic potential of test chemicals in NRU assay was determined by measuring the photoirriation factor (PIF) with a cut-off value of 5. In both 3T3 and HaCaT cells, all known phototoxic chemicals were positive (over 5 of PIF value), except that bithionol was found to be non-phototoxic to HaCaT cells, and ALS, non-phototoxic chemical was negative. These results suggest that Balb/c 3T3 cell was more sensitive than HaCaT cell to predict phototoxicity potential.

Isolation and Characterization of Bacillus thuringiensis Strain BT-209 producing Cuboidal $\delta$ -endotoxin crystals

  • Jung, Yong-Chul;Kim, Sung-uk;Son, Kwang-Hee;Lee, Hyung-Hoan;Bok, Song-Hae
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.5 no.3
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    • pp.138-142
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    • 1995
  • Bacillus thuringiensis strain BT-209 was isolated from a soybean grain dust sample in Korea. The strain BT-209 produced two different sizes of cuboidal crystals and one spore in the cell. In the biochemical characterization, the strain BT-209 showed negative reactions on the production of urease, and the utilization of citrate and sucrose. Examination of its antibiotic resistance revealed that while the strain BT-209 showed higher sensitivity than B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki HD-1 to ampicillin, bacitracin, chlortetracycline, gentamycin, neomycin, penicillin G, tetracycline and tobramycin, it was more resistant to methicillin than B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki HD-1. The $\delta$-endotoxin crystal of strain BT-209 consisted of three proteins with apparent molecular weights of appoximately 148, 135 and 62 kDa on a 10% SDS-PAGE. The strain BT-209 had at least eight different plasmids with sizes of 4.1, 5.2, 6.3, 8.6, 14.6, 24.5, 67.6 and 77.6 Kb. The strain BT-209 showed strong lethalities of 70% and 87% against Bombyx mori and Hyphantria cunea larvae. at 72 h, respectively.

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Study on Development of Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for the Screening of Chloramphenicol Residues (잔류 Chloramphenicol 검사용 효소 면역측정법의 개발에 관한 연구)

  • 윤동호;이문한
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.8 no.4
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    • pp.205-214
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    • 1993
  • The monoclonal antibody to chloramphenicol(CAP) was produced to develop an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) for residual CAP. An immunogen(CAP-BSA) was prepared by immunogen, antibody titer was measured by indirect ELISA. Spleen cells form the immunized mouse were fused with SP2/OAg14 myeloma cells. Among hybridomas selected in HAT media, 6 clones shown high antibody titer to CAP were subjected to cloning by limit dilution, and all of the monoclonal antibodies(MCA1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7 and 9) produced by each clone were identified as IgG1 by ELISA isotyping analysis. Competitive ELISA condition was established by using the purified monoclonal antibody MCA1 as primary antibody and CAP-HSA conjugate as coating antigen. Standard curve of CAP(n=28) showed that the lowest detection limit of CAP is 20ng/ml level. The cross-reactivities of the 6 monoclonal antibodies showed that CAP sodium succinate. CAP base, P-nitrophenol, and p-nitrobenzyl alcohol were 89∼178, 0.050∼2.237, 0.056∼0.794 and 0.013∼7.939%, respectively. No cross-reactivities were observed with phenylalanine, tyrosine, glutamine, thiamphenicol, neomycin, streptomycin, gentamicin, sulfamethazine, sulfathiazole, chlortetracycline and p-aminobenzoic acid.

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Detection of Residual antibiotics and tetracyclines in beef, pork and chicken (육류중 잔류 항생물질 및 테트라싸이클린 조사)

  • 백미순;이영철;심항섭;박병옥;조중현;박유순
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.339-348
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    • 1997
  • The purpose of the survey were determined the residual antibiotics and tetracyclines in beef(n=1,364), pork(n=2,817) and chickens(n=1,921) by the EEC 4-plate method, Charm IIand HPLC. The results were summarized as follows ; 1. The recovery rates in spiked samples were 98.8-107.2% for oxytetracycline(OTC), 33.2-48.6% for tetracycline(TC) and 64.1-72.3% for chlortetracycline(CTC) at 0.05-0.1ppm by HPLC using MSPD. 2. Residues of antibiotic were detected from 10 beef(0.75%) and 36 pork(1.31%) by EEC 4-plate method. In case of chickens were not detected. 3. Twenty-eight from 46 positive samples by the EEC 4-plate method were classified as TCs(60.9 %) by Charm II and TC of 12 samples were detected by HPLC. 4. Ten samples were detected levels of OTC ranging from 0.035 to 0.635 ppm and 3 samples were levels of CTC ranging from 0.066 to 0.150 ppm. OTC and CTC levels in 3 beef and 4 pork samples were exceeded the current tolerance level of 0.1 ppm.

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Monitoring of Antibiotics in the Soil and Sediment Near at the Animal Feeding Operation and Wastewater Treatment Plant

  • Kim, Hye Ri;Park, Saet Byul;Kim, Sung Chul
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.50 no.4
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    • pp.285-292
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    • 2017
  • Antibiotics have been used for treating human and animal disease and enhancing growth of cattle, swine, and poultries. However, overused antibiotics can be released into the environment and produce antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the environment. Main objective of this research was to monitor residual of antibiotics in solid matrix such as manure, wastewater sludge, soil and sediment. Total of six antibiotics, Chlortetracycline (CTC), Oxytetracycline (OTC), Tetracycline (TC), Sulfamethazine (SMT), Sulfamethoxazole (SMX), Sulfathiazole (STZ), used for both human and animal was monitored. Result showed that the detection frequency of 6 antibiotics was ordered SMT (100%) > TC = CTC (75%) > OTC (38%) > STZ (13%) > SMZ (0%) and the highest concentration ($309.83{\mu}g\;kg^{-1}$, SMT) was observed in manure. Comparing residual concentration of antibiotics (TC, CTC, and OTC) in soil and sediment, higher concentration was observed in sediment indicating that dissolved forms of antibiotics are released into river and sorbed into sediment particle. In conclusion, monitoring for residual of antibiotics in the environment is necessary and more research should be conducted to verify the source of antibiotic release.

Seasonal Monitoring of Residual Antibiotics in Soil, Water, and Sediment adjacent to a Cattle Manure Composting Facility (우분 퇴비공장 주변 농경지 및 수계의 계절별 잔류 항생물질 모니터링)

  • Lee, Sang-Soo;Kim, Sung-Chul;Yang, Jae-E;Ok, Yong-Sik
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.43 no.5
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    • pp.734-740
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    • 2010
  • Overuse of veterinary antibiotics threats public health and surrounding environment due to the occurrence of antibiotic resistant bacteria. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antibiotic's concentrations of tetracycline (TC), chlortetracycline (CTC), and oxytetracycline (OTC) in a tetracycline group (TCs), sulfamethazine (SMT), sulfamethoxazole (SMX), and sulfathiazole (STZ) in a sulfonamide group, lasalocid (LSL), monensin (MNS), and salinomycin (SLM) in a ionophore (IPs), and tylosin (TYL) in a macrolide (MLs) group from soil, water, and sediment samples adjacent to a cattle manure composting facility. For all samples of soil, water, and sediment, the highest concentrations were detected in TCs among the tested antibiotics because of its higher annual consumption in veterinary farms, Korea and its higher cohesiveness with divalent or trivalent cations in soil. Moreover, the concentrations of residual antibiotics in September were generally higher than in June because of heavier rainfall in June. We suggest that continual monitoring and developing guideline of antibiotics are needed to control residual antibiotics in the environment.

Simultaneous Determination and Occurrences of Pharmaceuticals by Solid-Phase Extraction and Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in Environmental Aqueous Samples

  • Koo, So-Hyun;Jo, Cheon-Ho;Shin, Sun-Kyoung;Myung, Seung-Woon
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.31 no.5
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    • pp.1192-1198
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    • 2010
  • Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are emerging contaminants in the aquatic environment. Many pharmaceuticals are not completely removed during wastewater treatment, leading to their presence in wastewater treatment effluents, rivers, lakes, and ground water. Here, we developed analytical methods for monitoring ten pharmaceuticals from surface water by LC/ESI-MS/MS. For sample clean-up and extraction, MCX (mixed cation exchange) and HLB (hydrophilic-lipophilic balance) solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges were used. The limits of detection (LOD) in distilled water and the blank surface water were in the range of 0.006 - 0.65 and 1.66 - 45.05 pg/mL, respectively. The limits of quantitation (LOQ) for the distilled water and the blank surface water were in the range of 0.02 - 2.17 and 5.52 - 150.15 pg/mL, respectively. The absolute recoveries for fortified water samples were between 62.1% and 125.4%. Intra-day precision and accuracy for the blank surface water were 2.9% - 24.1% (R.S.D.) and -16.3% - 16.3% (bias), respectively. In surface wastewater near rivers, chlortetracycline and acetylsalicylic acid were detected frequently in the range of 0.017 - 5.404 and 0.029 - 0.269 ng/mL, respectively. Surface water near rivers had higher levels than surface water of domestic treatment plants.

Simultaneous Quantification of Sulfonamide and Tetracyclines in Fish Muscle Tissue by Matrix Solid Phase Dispersion (MSPD) Extraction and HPLC (MSPD와 HPLC를 이용한 어류의 잔류 설파제와 테트라사이클린계 항생물질의 동시분석)

  • 하대식;김종수;김곤섭
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.117-124
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    • 1997
  • A simple, rapid and simultaneous analytical method is described for the detection of Sulfonamide and Tetracycline residues, i.e., Sulfamerazine (SMR), Sulfamethazine (SMT), Sulfamonomethoxine (SMM), Sulfadimethoxine (SDM), Sulfaquinoxaline (SQN), Oxytetracycline (OXY), Tetracycline (TC), Chlortetracycline (CTC). Blank control and sulfonamide and tetracycline fortified fish muscle samples (0.5 f) were blended with octadecylsilyl (C18, 40 ${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$, 21% load, 60$\AA$) derivatized silica packing material (2 g). Blended fish samples were washed with hexane, then, benzene and dichloromethace were used for the elution of tetracycline and sulfonamide were analyzed by HPLC. Correlation coefficients of standard curves for individual sulfonamide and tetracycline isolated from fortified samples were linear (0.9993$\pm$0.0003~0.9997$\pm$0.0003, 0.9493$\pm$0.078~0.9753$\pm$0.036), respectively. The average percentage recoveries of sulfonamide and tetracycline ranged as 80.86~96.52% to 85.88~92.23%, and 30.01~37.12% to 65.89~73.40%, for the concentration range (0.1~1.0 ppm) examined, respectively. Limit of detection for sulfonamide was 0.0012 ppm for SMR in Paralichthys Olivacleus and 0.0020 ppm for SMR, 0.015 ppm for SMM in Cyprinus Carpio. The applicability of this procedure is demonstrated by separation and detection of incurred tetracycline and sulfonamide residues in fish muscle tissue.

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Survey on the residual drugs (tetracyclines, ${\beta}$-lactams, chloramphenicol, sulfonamides) on beef and pork carcass at abattoir in Seoul (서울 시내 도축장의 소${\cdot}$돼지 지육에 대한 잔류물질 (tetracyclines, ${\beta}$-lactams, chloramphenicol, sulfonamides) 함량 조사)

  • Kim Doo-Hwan;Lee Jae-Shin;Ham Hee-Jin;Ki No-Joon;Lee Jung-Hark
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.265-272
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    • 2004
  • It was carried out to compare the residual materials by EEC 4-plate, Charm II and HPLC method in the muscles of cattle and pigs from slaughter-houses in Seoul from 2000 to 2003. Residual materials were detected from $1.10\%$(73/6,623) samples by EEC 4-plate method, and $10.93\%$(55/503) samples by Charm II method. The highest residual concentration(ppm) of oxytetracycline, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, chlortetracycline, sulfamethazine, sulfamerazine, sulfadimethoxine, penicillin and sulfamonomethoxine were 25.5, 3.46, 3.26, 1.5, 0.3, 0.2, 0.2, 0.14, and 0.07, respectively. Eighty nine samples were classified as 58($65.17\%$) only tetracyclines, 20($22.47\%$) only sulfonamides, 3($3.37\%$) only ${\beta}$-lactams, 2($2.25\%$) only chloramphenicol, 4($4.49\%$) tetracyclines and sulfonamides simultaneously, 1($1.12\%$) chloramphenicol and sulfonamides simultaneously, and 1($1.12\%$) chloramphenicol, sulfonamides and tetracyclines simultaneously.

Estimating Predicted Environmental Concentration of Veterinary Antibiotics in Manure and Soil

  • Kwon, A-Young;Kim, Sung Chul
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.48 no.2
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    • pp.100-104
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    • 2015
  • Adverse effect of veterinary antibiotics (VAs) released into environment has been issued recently and concerns about analysis and management for VAs in the environment were increased. Main objective of this research was to calculate predicted environmental concentration (PEC) of the VAs in soil based on avaiable statistical data and result of previous study such as consumption rate and physiological properties of VAs. Total of 5 VAs, Chlortetracycline (CTC), Oxytetracycline (OTC), Sulfadimethoxine (SDX), Sulfamethazine (SMT), and Tylosin (TYL) were examined. Result showed that calculated PEC value in manure and soil was ordered as SMT > TYL > SDX > CTC > OTC. Range of calculated value for manure and soil was 0.50-67.04 and $0.48-64.45mg\;kg^{-1}$ respectively. Comparing to measured concentration of VAs in manure and soil, lower concentration of VAs in manure and soil was evaluated due to fate and degradation of VAs in manure and soil. Overall, evaluated simple modeling for calculating PEC of VAs in manure and soil can be adapted for preliminary screening purpose in environmental risk assessment and more refined modeling is necessary to examine detailed assessment of VAs in manure and soil.