• Title, Summary, Keyword: chlortetracycline

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Multiresidue Determination of Tetracyclines in Eggs using Liquid Chromatography with Ultraviolet Detection (액체크로마토그래피를 이용한 계란 중 테트라사이클린계 항생물질의 동시분석법 개발)

  • Lee, Sang-Hee;Shim, You-Sin;Choi, Yoon-Hee;Lee, Beom-Gil;Kim, Hyun-Ju;Shin, Dong-Bin
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.370-374
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    • 2007
  • An analytical method for the simultaneous determination of four tetracycline (oxytetracycline, tetracycline, chlortetracycline, doxycycline) in egg samples was developed and validated using liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. Egg samples were extracted by the liquid-liquid extraction based on acetonitrile. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a reverse phase C8 column with gradient elution using a mobile phase of 20 mM oxalic acid (pH 1.5)/acetonitrile. The procedure was validated according to the Food Drugs Administration guideline determining accuracy, precision, and limit of detection. Mean recovery of tetracyclines from spiked egg samples (50, 100, 200, 400, and $800{\mu}g/kg$) were 78.8-109.3%. Linearity in concentration range of $50-800{\mu}g/kg$ was obtained with the correlation coefficient $(r^2)$ of 0.994-0.999. The intra- and inter-day precision (relative standard deviation; RSD) was between 0.3-12.8 and 0.2-11.7%, respectively. Limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) for the investigated tetracyclines were 30 and $50{\mu}g/kg$ depending on egg samples, respectively. This method was reliable, sensitive, economical and suitable for routine monitoring of tetracycline residues in dairy egg.

Effect of Dietary Dandelion (Taraxzcum coreanum) and Dandelion Fermented Probiotics on Productivity and Meat Quality of Broilers (민들레와 생균제의 첨가가 육계의 성장 및 체조성에 미치는 영향)

  • Oh, J.I.;Kim, G.M.;Ko, S.Y.;Bae, I.H.;Lee, S.S.;Yang, C.J.
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.319-327
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    • 2007
  • This experiment was designed to evaluate effects of Dandelion (Taraxzcum coreanum) and Dandelion fermented probiotics medium on the growth performance and meat quality in broiler chicks. A total of 150 "Ross" broilers,1-day old, were assigned to 5 treatments in a completely randomized design. There were 5 replications per treatment and 6 broilers in each replication for 5 weeks. The dietary treatments included a control (Dandelion and Dandelion fermentation was not added), antibiotic (0.05 chlortetracycline was added), 1.0% Dandelion supplementation and 0.5 and 1.0% Dandelion fermented probiotics, respectively. There was no significant difference in final body weight, weight gain, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio of broilers fed diets containing antibiotics, 1.0% Dandelion supplementation and 0.5 and 1.0% Dandelion fermented probiotics. The total cholesterol, HDL and LDL in plasma and meat cholesterol content was not affected by 0.5 and 1.0% Dandelion fermented probiotics and 1.0% Dandelion supplementation (P>0.05). The oleic acid content was significantly increased in 0.5% Dandelion fermented probiotics compared to that of the control (P<0.05). As a result, Dandelion and Dandelion fermented probiotics result in the influence on decreasing cholesterol in blood, particularly when adding probiotics, oleic acid that is the important factor in taste testing of meat increases thus the quality and taste of the chicken meat could be improved with the effect.

Effects of Green Tea Powder on Laying Performance and Egg Quality in Laying Hens

  • Uuganbayar, D.;Bae, I.H.;Choi, K.S.;Shin, I.S.;Firman, J.D.;Yang, C.J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.12
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    • pp.1769-1774
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    • 2005
  • This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of feeding green tea powder on laying performance and egg quality in hens. A total 180 'Tetran Brown' laying hens aged 40 weeks were assigned to 6 treatments in a completely randomized design. Each treatment consisted of five replicates accommodating six layers per replication. The experimental diets were a negative control containing no green tea, a positive control diet containing antibiotics (0.05% chlortetracycline) and diets containing 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5% and 2.0% green tea powder. Egg production rate of layers fed the diets containing green tea powder did not differ significantly from that of the negative and positive controls (p>0.05). Egg weight was decreased significantly in the group fed the diet containing 0.5% green tea powder (p<0.05). Feed intake of layers was significantly higher for the diet containing 1.5% green tea powder compared to that of negative and positive control diets (p<0.05). The eggshell thickness reduced significantly in the layer group fed the diets containing green tea powder regardless of dietary levels (p<0.05). Green tea powder tended to reduce egg yolk cholesterol in this experiment. Particularly, dietary 2% level of green tea powder significantly suppressed the cholesterol contents of the egg yolk (p<0.05). Thiobarbituric acid value (TBA) of egg yolk was significantly reduced by green tea diets (p<0.05). The yellowness of egg yolk was increased in the layers fed the 2.0% green tea diet compared with that of control diet (p<0.005). The Linoleic and $\alpha$-linolenic acids tended to increase in the group fed diets containing 1.5% green tea powder even though there were no significant differences among treatments (p>0.05). The oleic and docosahexaenoic acid contents of the egg yolk were similar among treatments (p>0.05). Based on the results of the experiment, it is concluded that green tea powder inclusion in the diet for layers at 2.0% level can reduce the cholesterol content and TBA value of the egg yolk, implying its potential effect on egg quality parameters.

Monitoring of Veterinary Drug Residues in Foods Produced in Korea (국내 유통 식품의 잔류동물용의약품 모니터링)

  • Kim, Hee-Yun;Chung, So-Young;Choi, Sun-Hee;Lee, Jin-Sook;Choi, In-Sun;Cho, Min-Ja;Shin, Min-Su;Song, Jae-Sang;Choi, Jae-Chun;Park, Hee-Ok;Ha, Sang-Chul;Shin, Il-Shik;Seo, Eun-Chae
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.42 no.6
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    • pp.653-663
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    • 2010
  • This study was conducted to monitor residues of 10 veterinary drugs in food products. Various veterinary drugs were examined including enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, oxolinic acid, amoxicillin, ampicillin, oxytetracycline, tetracycline, chlortetracycline, and doxycycline in beef, pork, egg, chicken, eel, flatfish, and rockfish obtained from 6 different regions (Seoul, Incheon, Daejeon, Gwangju, Daegu, Busan). Residues were detected in 21 (6.5%) samples out of 321 samples. In particular, 2 (1.0%) livestock samples had detected residues among 203 products, and 19 (16.1%) aquaculture samples had residues detected among 118 products. The most frequently detected drug residues in aquaculture products were oxytetracycline and amoxicillin, but the levels were mostly below the MRL (Maximum Residue Limit). In only one flatfish sample, amoxicillin was found at a level higher than the MRL (0.05 mg/kg). In livestock products, residues of most veterinary drugs were not detected. But enrofloxacin was detected in 2 chicken (Korean name: Ogolgae) samples at a higher level than the MRL (0.1 mg/kg as the sum of ciprofloxacin).

Capacitation and acrosome reaction differences of bovine, mouse and porcine spermatozoa in responsiveness to estrogenic compounds

  • Ryu, Do-Yeal;Kim, Ye-Ji;Lee, June-Sub;Rahman, Md. Saidur;Kwon, Woo-Sung;Yoon, Sung-Jae;Pang, Myung-Geol
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.56 no.7
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    • pp.26.1-26.10
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    • 2014
  • Background: Endocrine disruptors are exogenous substance, interfere with the endocrine system, and disrupt hormonal functions. However, the effect of endocrine disruptors in different species has not yet been elucidated. Therefore, we investigated the possible effects of $17{\beta}$-estradiol (E2), progesterone (P4), genistein (GEN) and 4-tert-octylphenol (OP), on capacitation and the acrosome reaction in bovine, mouse, and porcine spermatozoa. In this in vitro trial, spermatozoa were incubated with $0.001-100{\mu}M$ of each chemical either 15 or 30 min and then assessed capacitation status using chlortetracycline staining. Results: E2 significantly increased capacitation and the acrosome reaction after 30 min, while the acrosome reaction after 15 min incubation in mouse spermatozoa. Simultaneously, capacitation and the acrosome reaction were induced after 15 and 30 min incubation in porcine spermatozoa, respectively. Capacitation was increased in porcine spermatozoa after 15 min incubation at the lowest concentration, while the acrosome reaction was increased in mouse spermatozoa after 30 min (P < 0.05). E2 significantly increased the acrosome reaction in porcine spermatozoa, but only at the highest concentration examined (P < 0.05). P4 significantly increased the acrosome reaction in bovine and mouse spermatozoa treated for 15 min (P < 0.05). The same treatment significantly increased capacitation in porcine spermatozoa (P < 0.05). P4 significantly increased capacitation in mouse spermatozoa treated for 30 min (P < 0.05). GEN significantly increased the acrosome reaction in porcine spermatozoa treated for 15 and 30 min and in mouse spermatozoa treated for 30 min (P < 0.05). OP significantly increased the acrosome reaction in mouse spermatozoa after 15 min (P < 0.05). Besides, when spermatozoa were incubated for 30 min, capacitation and the acrosome reaction were higher than 15 min incubation in E2 or GEN. Furthermore, the responsiveness of bovine, mouse and porcine spermatozoa to each chemical differed. Conclusions: In conclusion, all chemicals studied effectively increased capacitation and the acrosome reaction in bovine, mouse, and porcine spermatozoa. Also we found that both E2 and P4 were more potent than environmental estrogens in altering sperm function. Porcine and mouse spermatozoa were more responsive than bovine spermatozoa.

Effects of Adding Essential Oil to the Diet of Weaned Pigs on Performance, Nutrient Utilization, Immune Response and Intestinal Health

  • Li, Pengfei;Piao, Xiangshu;Ru, Yingjun;Han, Xu;Xue, Lingfeng;Zhang, Hongyu
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.25 no.11
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    • pp.1617-1626
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    • 2012
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of adding essential oils to the diet of weaned pigs on performance, nutrient utilization, immune response and intestinal health. A total of 96 weaning pigs ($8.37{\pm}1.58$ kg) were allotted to one of three dietary treatments. The treatments consisted of an unsupplemented basal diet (negative control, NC) or similar diets supplemented with 0.01% of an essential oil product which contained 18% thymol and cinnamaldehyde (EOD) as well as a diet supplemented with 0.19% of an antibiotic mixture which provided 150 ppm chlortetracycline, 80 ppm colistin sulfate and 50 ppm kitasamycin (positive control, PC). Each treatment was provided to eight pens of pigs with four pigs per pen. Over the entire 35 d experiment, ADG and fecal score were improved (p<0.05) for pigs fed the PC and EOD compared with the NC. Dry matter and crude protein digestibility as well as lymphocyte proliferation for pigs fed the PC and EOD diets were increased significantly compared with NC (p<0.05). IGF-I levels in plasma were significantly increased (p<0.05) in pigs fed the PC diet compared with pigs fed the NC diet. Interleukin-6 concentration was lower (p<0.05) and the tumor necrosis factor-${\alpha}$ level was higher (p<0.05) in the plasma of pigs fed the EOD diet than the NC diet. Plasma total antioxidant capacity level increased (p<0.05) in pigs fed the EOD diet compared with pigs fed the NC. Villus height to crypt depth ratio in the jejunum was greater (p<0.05) in pigs fed the PC and EOD diets than the NC. The numbers of E. coli in the cecum, colon and rectum were reduced (p<0.05) in pigs fed the PC and EOD diets compared with the control. In the colon, the ratio of Lactobacilli to E. coli was increased (p<0.05) in pigs fed the EOD diet compared with NC diet. Total aerobe numbers in the rectum were decreased (p<0.05) in pigs fed the PC and EOD diets compared with the control. Collectively, these results indicate that blends of essential oils could be a candidate for use as an alternative to traditional antibiotics in weaning pig diets.

Effects of Ferrous Sulfate and Ascorbic Acid on In Vitro Fertility and Sperm Lipid Peroxidation in the Pig (돼지의 체외수정능력과 정자의 Lipid Peroxidation에 있어서 Ascorbic Acid와 Ferrous Sulfate의 영향)

  • Park, C. K.;J. Y. Ann;Kim, I. C.;Lee, J. H.;B. K. Yang;Kim, C. I.;H. T. Cheong
    • Korean Journal of Animal Reproduction
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.317-325
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    • 2001
  • This study investigated the effect of ferrous sulfate (Fe$^{2+}$) and/or ascorbic acid (Asc) on fertilizing ability in vitro of frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa. Using chlortetracycline (CTC) fluorescence, the spermatozoa was treated in preincubation medium with control, Fe$^{2+}$(1 mM), Asc (0.5 mM) and Fe$^{2+}$Asc to assessed for acrosome reaction, and the oocyte penetration test to determine whether the Fe$^{2+}$ and/or Asc can promote the penetration ability in vitro. When frozen-thawed spermatozoa was washed with preincubation medium, there were significantly (P < 0.05) more acrosome-reacted in medium with Fe$^{2+}$Asc (38%) than control (27%). The penetration rates were also significantly (P < 0.05) higher in medium with Fe$^{2+}$Asc (76%) than control (55%). Next, the lipid peroxidation of sperm was evaluated on the basis of malondialdehyde production following same treatments. The addition of Fe$^{2+}$Asc to sperm suspension increases the formation of malondialdehyde. However, there were not significantly different under the all conditions. The sperm suspension were also treated with control, Fe$^{2+}$, Asc and Fe$^{2+}$/Asc and assayed for sulfhydry1(-SH) group content. In the Fe$^{2+}$/Asc group, sperm-SH group were higher than another groups. In spermatozoa treated with Fe$^{2+}$ and/or Asc, however, no changes in sperm -SH-groups were detected when compared to controls. In another experiment, the activity of sperm binding to zona pellucida was evaluated through binding to salt-stored porcine oocytes. In control and Asc treatment groups, sperm binding to zona pellucida were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than in medium with Fe$^{2+}$. On the other hand, there is not a significant increase in binding to zona pellucida with spermatozoa treated by Fe$^{2+}$/Asc. In summary, the present study suggests that Fe$^{2+}$/Asc causes an enhancement in fertilizing ability that is associated with penetration rate increased without change of spermatozoa binding capacity to homologous zona pellucida.o homologous zona pellucida.

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Effect of LDL in Combination with Taurine, Hypotaurine and Trehalose as a Antioxidant on Freezing Thawed Semen Function in Korean Jeju Black Bull (제주흑우 동결정액 제조에 있어 Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL)과 항산화제로서 Taurine, Hypotaurine 그리고 Trehalose 조합이 동결 융해 후 정자의 성상에 미치는 영향)

  • Oh, Shin-Ae;Ko, Min-Hee;Kang, Tae-Young;Choi, Sun-Ho;Ko, Moon-Suck;Oh, Young-Mi;Cho, Won-Mo
    • Reproductive and Developmental Biology
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.147-154
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    • 2012
  • This study was designed to determine whether low-density lipoproteins (LDL) from egg yolk and taurine, hypotaurine and trehalose as antioxidant in extender improve the freezability and fertility of Korean Jeju Black Bull semen. The semen was cryopreserved with tris egg yolk extenders containing 7% glycerol and treated 4% LDL, 20 mM taurine, hypotaurine and trehalose. Frozen-thawed sperm were evaluated motility, viability, membrane, and acrosome integrity and sperm penetration ability. The results were compared to semen cryopreserved in tris egg yolk extender only as control. Frozen-thawed semen evaluation cleary indicated that the addition of LDL and LDL-antioxidants (taurine, hypotaurine and trehalose) combination were significantly improved (p<0.05) the viability (%; with staining test using eosin-Y) compared to control spermatozoa. Also, in membrane integrity (%; with supravital hypo-osmotic swelling test), not only LDL-antioxiants combination but also LDL were significantly increased (p<0.05) the swelled sperm using HOST compared to control. Sperm acrosome integrity state was classified by CTC (chlortetracycline) staining test. F pattern was significantly increased in LDL-antioxidant combination than control (p<0.05) and B pattern was not significantly differences among all treatments and control. However, AR pattern was significantly decreased in LDL-antioxidants combination than control (p<0.05). Pronucleus formation and sperm penetration index (SFI) were significantly increased in LDL and LDL-antioxidants combination than control (p<0.05). Especially, LDL-taurine significantly improved pronucleus fomation and SFI than LDL (p<0.05). It was concluded that LDL and LDL-antioxidants in extender improved the freezability and fertility of Korean Jeju Black bull spermatozoa.