• Title, Summary, Keyword: chlortetracycline

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Studies on the Production of Chlortetracycline (Part 1) The Effect of Carbon Source and Mineral Ions (Chlortetracycline 발효에 관한 연구 (제1보) 탄소원과 2 가금속이온의 영향)

  • Kim, Seong-Ung;Dewey D.Y. Ryu
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.6 no.3
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    • pp.103-108
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    • 1978
  • Improvement of fermentation medium for chlortetracycline production was attempted. Starch was a good carbon source for chiortetracycline production as compared with sucrose or glucose, although the cell yield from the starch medium was somewhat lower, and complexed natural medium was more suitable than artificial and simple one for this purpose. The concentrations of divalent ions, such as $Mg^{2+}$, M $n^{2+}$, Z $n^{2+}$, and F $e^{2+}$, affected the productivity of chlortetracycline. These mineral ions in excess of which was contained in natural medium such as corn flour and corn steep liquor, caused significant decrease in the productivity of chlortetracycline.cline.

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Medium Improvement for Chlrotetracycline Fermentation

  • 김성웅;유두영
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Applied Microbiology Conference
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    • pp.180.1-180
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    • 1975
  • Streptomyces aureofaciens를 이용하여 chlortetracycline 발효중 생산율을 높이는 방법에 대한 연구가 시행되었다. 지금가지 연구보고된 여러결과와는 달리 2가 금속 이온들은 어느 농도이상이 되면 각각 다른 수준으로 chlortetracycline 생산율을 저하시키는 영향이 있다는 관찰이 되었다.(중략)

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Optimization of HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry for chlortetracycline using response surface analysis

  • Bae, Hyokwan;Jung, Hee-Suk;Jung, Jin-Young
    • Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.309-315
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    • 2018
  • Chlortetracycline (CTC) is one of the most important compounds in antibiotic production, and its distribution has been widely investigated due to health and ecological concerns. This study presents systematic approach to optimize the high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for analyzing CTC in a multiple reaction monitoring mode ($479{\rightarrow}462m/z$). One-factor-at-a-time (OFAT) test with response surface analysis (RSA) was used as optimization strategy. In OFAT tests, the fragmentor voltage, collision energy, and ratio of acetonitrile in the mobile phase were selected as major factors for RSA. The experimental conditions were determined using a composite in cube design (CCD) to maximize the peak area. As a result, the partial cubic model precisely predicted the peak area response with high statistical significance. In the model, the (solvent composition) and (collision $energy^2$) terms were statistically significant at the 0.1 ${\alpha}$-level, while the two-way interactions of the independent variables were negligible. By analyzing the model equation, the optimum conditions were derived as 114.9 V, 15.7 eV, and 70.9% for the fragmentor voltage, collision energy, and solvent composition, respectively. The RSA, coupled with the CCD, offered a comprehensive understanding of the peak area that responds to changes in experimental conditions.

Chlortetracycline Caused Vitellogenin Induction at Male Japanese Medaka (Oryzias latipes)

  • Kim, Pan-Gyi
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.33 no.6
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    • pp.513-516
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    • 2007
  • This investigation was intended to find out the estrogenic effect of chlortetracycline (CTC) on vitellogenin induction in adult male Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). Vitellogenin (Vtg) produced in male fish has been used to as one of a biomarker of endocrine disrupters. The positive control was $17{\beta}-estradiol$ (E2) that induced Vtg in male fish. As a result, male and female fish were exposed to 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 ppm of CTC. Western blot results showed approximately 205 kDa, that is similar to myosin at high molecular weight range Sigma maker. Vtg band was showed fainted to 10 and 100ppm for chlortetracycline. Vtg concentration of CTC was qunatified by total protein quantification and ELISA. Exposure of the male fish to CTC of 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 ppm produced Vtg concentrations of 0.24, 0.12, 7.61 and 40.02%o, respectively, that value was elevated than control male fish (0.14%o). CTC exerted as a Vtg inducer in male fish from 10 ppm, but it was a reducer in female fish from 0.1 ppm level. The results say that vitellogenin induction patterns alter in male medaka treated with CTC, and that CTC may caused endocrine disruption in fish.

Magnetically separable Au-TiO2/nanocube ZnFe2O4 composite for chlortetracycline removal in wastewater under visible light

  • Jia, Yuefa;Liu, Jia;Cha, Sangwon;Choi, Soobin;Park, Yun Chang;Liu, Chunli
    • Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry
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    • v.47
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    • pp.303-314
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    • 2017
  • Magnetically recyclable $Au-TiO_2/nanocube$ $ZnFe_2O_4$ ($Au-TiO_2/NC\;ZFO$) composite photocatalysts have been successfully prepared by a hydrothermal method. It was revealed that Au-$TiO_2/NC\;ZFO$ composite with 25% mass percentage of $Au-TiO_2$ exhibited a significantly enhanced photocatalytic efficiency toward chlortetracycline (CTC) degradation as compared to the binary $TiO_2/NC\;ZFO$ composite. The enhanced performance can be attributed to the addition of Au nanoparticles, which act as electron traps aiding the electron-hole separation and increasing the light absorption through the surface plasmon resonance effect. The synthesized catalyst showed good stability after three cycles and could be easily separated by a magnet and reused.

Epimers/Metabolites of Tetracycline Derivatives; Biological Activity and Regulation Aspects for MRL in Food (생물학적활성을 기초로 한 테트라싸이클린계 항생물질 잔류스크리닝법의 개선과 식품 중 잔류허용기준 설정 개선)

  • Kwon, Jin-Wook;Yun, Hyo-In;Lee, Kyu-Seung
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.82-88
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    • 2011
  • BACKGROUND: Tetracyclines (TCs) are mainly regulated as parent compounds by bioactivity-based screening methods in food. Especially with respect to antimicrobial residues, their metabolites/epimers are also highly concerning chemicals and traditionally applied microbial detection methods are needed to improve with validation for regulatory control. METHODS AND RESULTS: Detection capability and biological activity of tetracycline (TC), chlortetracycline (CTC), oxytetracycline (OTC) and their epimers; anhydrotetracycline (ATC), epianhydrotetracycline (EATC), epitetracycline (ETC), 4-epi-chlortetracycline (ECTC), 4-epianydrochlotetra-cycline (EACTC), 4-epioxychlortetracycline (EOTC), were measured by microbial growth inhibition screening method of Korea Food Code. CONCLUSION(S): Limited detection capabilities were found, B. megarerium and B. subtilis showed for TC and CTC, and B. subtilis for OTC. Biological potency of each epimer was also presented against various microorganisms, at the level from 50% to 96%, comparing with parent TCs. It is recommended that more advanced microbial screening methods with validation are needed, and biologically active epimers are to be considered as marker residues for MRL setting of regulatory control purpose.

$Ca^{2+}$-ATPase Role in the Capacitation and Acrosome Reaction Assessed by a Chlortetracycline Fluorescence Assay (Chlortetracycline Fluoresence 분석을 통한 수정능 획득 과정에서의 $Ca^{2+}$-ATPase 역할)

  • Park, Kyoung-Sik
    • Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.269-275
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    • 1998
  • It has been reported that the $Ca^{2+}$-ATPase and the $Ca^{2+}-Na^+$ exchanger play an important role for the regulation of intracellular $Ca^{2+}$ in somatic cells, the $Ca^{2+}$-ATPase located in the plasma membrane helps the $Ca^{2+}$ concentration in maintain low $[Ca^{2+}]_i$. Roldan & Fleming reported that the spermatozoan $Ca^{2+}$-ATPase plays an important role in the capacitation and acrosome reaction. We used to assess $Ca^{2+}$ changes by chlortetracycline (CTC) patterns in the capacitation and acrosome reaction of human and hamster spermatozoa. In the present study applying quercetin which has been known as an ATPase antagonist, the enzymatic effect of $Ca^{2+}$-ATPase on capacitation and acrosome reaction was found to be remarkable: a significant increase of the transformation from the original type to the B type and the AR type of spermatozoa. This finding suggests that $Ca^{2+}$-ATPase play an important role in the efflux and the influx of the $Ca^{2+}$ which have been known to be an essential factor for the capacitation and acrosome reaction, and that the inhibitory action of the $Ca^{2+}$-ATPase might be a prerequsit step toward the capacitation and acrosome reaction. In conclusion, this study suggest the considerable evidence as follows: the increment of the intracellular $Ca^{2+}$ concentration occurred by controlling the slope of $Ca^{2+}$ concentration through $Ca^{2+}$-ATPase activites in both the intracellular and extracellulr fluid may be important procedures for the capacitation and the acrosome reaction, and finally for fertilization of the sperm and ovum.

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Determination and survey of tetracyclines residue in honey by high performance liquid chromatography (액체크로마토그래피를 이용한 벌꿀 중 테트라싸이클린계 항생물질의 정량분석 및 잔류조사)

  • Lee Sung-Mo;Park Eun-Jeong;Hong Jee-Young;Kim Jung-Im;Lee Jung-Goo;Hwang Hyun-Soon;Kim Yong-Hee
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.203-213
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    • 2005
  • Oxytetracycline, tetracycline, chlortetracycline and doxycycline in honey were separated by solid phase extraction (SPE) and determined with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV/Visible detector. Analysis was carried out using following conditions: XTerra $C_8$ column $(3.9\times150mm\;i.d. 5{\mu}m)$, mobile phase composed of 0.01M oxalic acid : methanol : acetonitrile (820 : 80 : 100, v/v/v), isocratic pump at a flow rate of 0.9 ml/min. and $50{\mu}l$ of injection volume, UV/Visible detector with wavelength of 360nm. The calibration curves of four tetracyclines showed linearity $(\gamma^2>0.999)$ at concentration range of $100\~1,000 ng/ml$. The recoveries in fortified honey represented more than $70\%$ with low coefficient of variation $(<10\%)$ for concentration range of four tetracyclines. The detection limits for oxytetracycline, tetracycline, chlortetracycline and doxycycline were 13.8, 14.6, 26.2 and 24.9ng/g in acacia honey. respectively. We also monitored tetracyclines residue in domestic honey [n : 38, acacia (20), wild flower (18) ] and foreign honey [n=22, legally distributed (13), illegally distributed (9)] using modified Charm II screening and HPLC confirmation methods. Seven of the 60 samples $(11.7\%)$ were suspect positive using modified Charm II screening test. Chlortetracycline residue was found in one foreign honey (illegally distributed) tested at concentrations of 0.22 ppm. Conclusively, for more effective control of tetracyclines used in beekeeping should be further survey for residues in honey and also national guidelines (maximum residue limit : MRL) and methods should be obligatory.

Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Organic Acid and Antibiotics Mixture on Growth Performances and Blood Metabolites in Growing Pigs (사료내 유기산제 및 항생제의 혼합첨가가 육성돈의 성장과 혈액성상에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Cheol-Ho;Jo, Ik-Hwan;Shon, Joong-Cheon;Lee, Sung-Hoon
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.237-251
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    • 2009
  • This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of replacing antibiotics by organic acid mixture on growth performances and blood metabolites in growing pigs. Twenty-five crossbred pigs (Large White${\times}$Landrace) at the age of 79 days were fed five different diets by supplementing organic acid mixture and chlortetracycline. The experimental diets were consisted of diets without antibiotics supplementation (control), diets added 100mg/kg of chlortetracycline to control diet (T1), diets added 100mg/kg of chlortetracycline and 0.1% of $Acidomix^{(R)}$ (comprising formic acid 25%, sorbic acid 10%, fumaric acid 10%) to control diet (T2), diets added 0.1% of $Acidomix^{(R)}$ to control diet (T3), and diets added 0.3% of $Acidomix^{(R)}$ to control diet (T4). The changes in feed conversion ratio, average daily gain and blood metabolites were investigated. Twenty-five pigs were allotted to five treatments with five replications of each and the experiment was conducted on the basis of complete randomized design for 6 weeks. Average daily gain was significantly (p<0.05) different between T4 and control diets. All treatments including diets added $Acidomix^{(R)}$ and chlortetracycline were slightly higher than control diets. The feed intakes did not show a significant difference between the control and other treatments, and did not give change in feed intake by the addition of $Acidomix^{(R)}$. No differences on feed conversion ratio among treatments were observed but T4 and T3 treatments showed lower value than other treatments. The concentrations of blood urea nitrogen, total cholesterol and triglyceride were significantly (p<0.05) different among treatments, but their values were within the normal range representing that effects on blood profile by organic acid or antibiotics supplementation were not found. The results from this study indicated that adding chlortetracycline or organic acid mixtures to diets showed tendency to improve average daily gain and feed conversion ratio in growing pigs. These results showed that antibiotics could be replaced by organic acid mixture in growing pig diets, leading to stimulated growth and improved feed conversion ratio.

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