• Title, Summary, Keyword: chloroform

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Effect of Pollen Load on Chloroform-induced Hepatic and Renal Damage in Rats -Concerning Pathohibtological Aspects- (Chloroform에 의한 Rat 간(肝) 및 위장(胃臟) 장해(障害)에 미치는 화분립(花粉粒)의 영향(影響) -병리조직학적 소견-)

  • Kwon, Chong-Suk;Yoon, Soo-Hong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.229-234
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    • 1986
  • The present experiment was intended to determine the effect of pollen load on chloroform-induced hepatic and renal damage in albino rats. The subjects were administered with the graded concentration of chloroform and an additional amount of pollen load to some groups, and the result of which was: 1. Fatty changes and necrosis in liver and kidneys of the experimental group became more severe according to the chloroform concentration. 2. The tissue damage decreased in the pollen-treated groups. But the higher the concentration of chloroform administered with pollen is, the less the damaged tissue is rehabilitated.

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Inhalation Exposure to Chloroform Released from Household Uses of Chlorinated Tap Water (가정에서 수돗물 사용 중에 방출되는 chloroform에 대한 흡입노출)

  • Shin, Hye-sook;Kim, He-kap
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.120-125
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    • 2004
  • Exposure to volatile disinfection by-products (DBPs) such as chloroform included in chlorinated tap water can occur during household activities via inhalation as well as ingestion and dermal absorption. This study was conducted to examine the significance of inhalation route of exposure since humans are unintentionally exposed to volatile DBPs while staying home. Two sets of experiments were carried out in an apartment to measure: 1) the variation of chloroform concentrations in the living room air following kitchen activities (cooking and dish-washing); and 2) the variation of chloroform concentrations in the bathroom and living room following showering. Cooking, dish-washing, and showering all contributed to the elevation of household chloroform levels. Even a few minutes of natural ventilation resulted in the reduction of the chloroform levels to the background. Estimates of daily chloroform doses and lifetime cancer risks suggested that inhalation of household air during staying home be a major route of exposure to chloroform and that ingestion be a minor one in Korean people. It is also suggested that ventilation be a simple and important measure of mitigating human exposure to volatile DBPs indoors.

Comparative Sonophotocatalysis and Photocatalysis for Chloroform Degradation (Sonophotocatalysis와 Photocatalysis를 이용한 Chloroform의 광산화)

  • Park, Jae-Hong;Cho, Il-Hyoung
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.263-266
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    • 2005
  • Comparison between photocatalysis (UV+$TiO_2$) and sonophotocatalysis (Sonication+UV+$TiO_2$) were performed in lab-scale experiments for the treatment of chloroform. The effect of operational parameters, i.e., initial chloroform concentration, $TiO_2$ concentration, UV light intensity and sonication time on the degradation rate of aqueous solution of chloroform has been examined. The optimal conditions for photocatalysis and sonophotocatalysis processes were determined: initial chloroform concentration was 25 mg/L, the concentration of $TiO_2$ was 200 mg/L and UV light intensity was $6.630 mW/cm^2$, respectively. The optimal sonication time on sonophotocatalysis process was 90 min. Under the optimal conditions, sonophotocatalysis was effective for inducing faster degradation of the chloroform.

Nutritional and Biochemical Studies on the Pollen Load. -3. The Effect of Pollen Load on the Chloroform-induced Hepatic and Renal Damage in Rats- (화분립(花粉粒)의 영양생화학적(營養生化學的) 연구(硏究) -3. Chloroform에 의한 Rat의 간(肝) 및 위장(胃臟) 장해(障害)에 미치는 영향(影響)-)

  • Kwon, Chong-Suk;Yoon, Soo-Hong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.235-242
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    • 1986
  • The present experiment was intended to determine the effect of pollen load on chloroform-induced hepatic and renal damage in rats. The subjects were administered with the graded concentration of chloroform and an additional amount of pollen to some groups, and the result of which was: 1. The content of total lipid in liver and kidney increased in proportion to the chloroform concentration, but decreased in the chloroform and pollen administration groups. 2. The amount of total cholesterol in serum, liver and kidney of the chloroform administration group was higher than that of the control group, and it decreased gradually with pollen administration. 3. The activity of sGOT, sGPT, and LDH increased in proportion to the chloroform concentration, but decreased in the pollen-treated groups. 4. It is not significant that the cellulose acetate electrophoresis of LDH isozymes showed the increased of $LDH_5$ in liver of the pollen administration group. LDH isozymes in kidney are not significantly changed, too.

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Studies on Effects of Chloroform to the Tissue Lactic Dehydrogenase and Glutamic Dehydrogenase Activities of Rats (클로로포름이 백서장기(白鼠臟器)의 효소활성(酵素活性)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Chun, Byung-Sam;Haw, Kum
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.21-28
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    • 1971
  • 1. The effects of chloroform to the tissue lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) activities and its isozymes and to the tissue glutamic dehydrogenase (GDH) activities and its isoaymes are studied using the experimental albino male adult rats in this paper. The tissues studies are liver, kidney, heart, and brain. Besides the control group, two experimental groups are studied providing succeedingly 4 days interpariental administrations of chloroform, 0.0025ml and 0.025ml per day respectively. The changes of body weights, weights of organs, activities of GDH and LDH and their isozymes of each tissues, are analysed. 2. The body weights of rats are decreased due to the chloroform administration. 3. There are no significant differences of weights of organs due to the chloroform administration. 4. The significant decreases of tissue GDH activities and the significant changes in percent distribution of the GDH isozymes are found due to the chloroform administration. This weight be interpretated that chloroform effects to the protein and amino acid metabolism of rats. 5. Due to the chloroform administration, the significant changes in tissue LDH activities and in percent distribution of tissue LDH isozymes indicating the decreases of $LDH_1$ which is the aerobic heart type and the increase of $LDH_5$ which is the anaerobic muscle type, are observed. This could be estimated that chloroform effects to the carbohydrate metabolism, particularly to the anaerobic glycolysis of rats.

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Inhalation and Dermal Exposures to Chloroform while Bathing (목욕시 Chloroform에 대한 흡기 및 피부 접촉 노출)

  • 조완근
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.301-310
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    • 1998
  • Recently, bathes have been suspected to an Important source of indoor exposure to volatile organic compounds(VOCs). Two experiments were conducted to evaluate chloroform exposure and corresponding body burden by exposure routes while bathing. Another experiment was conducted to ekamine the chloro- form dose during dermal exposure and the chloroform decay In breath after dermal exposure. The chioroform dose was determined based on exhaled breath analysis. The ekamine breath concentration measured after normal baths (2.8 Vg/$m^3$) was approxidmately 13 tomes higher that measured prior to normal bathes (0.2 ug/$m^3$). Based on the means of the normalized post exposure chloroform breath concentration. the dermal exposure was estimated to contribute to 74% of total chloroform body burden while bathing. The Internal dose from bathing (Inhalation plus dermal) was comparable to the dose ostimated Srom dally water Ingestion. The rusk associated 10 a weekly, 30-min bath was estimated to be 1 x 10.5, while the rusk firom dally Ingestion of tap water was to be $0.5{\times}0^{-5} for 0.151 and 6.5{\times}10^{-5}$ for 2. 0 1. Chloroform breath concentration Increased gradually during the 60 minute dermal exposure. The breath decay after the dermal exposure showed two-phase mechanism, with early raped decay and the second slow decay. The mathematical model was developed to describe the relationship between water and air chloroform concentrations, with $R^2$ : 0.4 and p<0.02.

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Effect of Pine Pollen on the Chloroform Toxicity in Rat Serum and Liver (송화분이 Chloroform 투여 흰쥐의 혈청 및 간장에 미치는 영향)

  • 백경연;하은주;신해경;한준표
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.305-310
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    • 2000
  • This study was attempted to investigate the effect of pine pollen on the chloroform toxicity in rat serum and liver. The subjects were administrated with the graded concentraton of tow different levels of chloroform(1%, 5%) and an additional amount of pollen (1%, 5%) to some groups. the results were as follows: The activity of aspartate aminotrasferase(AST), alanine aminotrasferase(ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase(LDH) in serum, liver, and kidney increased in proportion to the chloroform concentration, but decreased in the pine pollen-treated groups. The amount of total cholesterol in serum of he chloroform administration groups was higher than that of the control group, and it decreased gradually with pine pollen administration.

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PHOTOCHEMICAL REACTION OF CHLOROFORM

  • Park, Hyoung-Ryun;Jeong, Young-Tae;Ko, Song-Kyong;Oh, Jong-Hoon;Ham, Heui-Suk
    • Journal of Photoscience
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.17-21
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    • 1997
  • The photochemical reactions of the neat chloroform and the aqueous chloroform in the absence (saturated with argon) and presence of 02 (saturated with air or oxygen) have been investigated using 184.9 nm UV light. The irradiation of the deoxygenated neat chloroform causes the formation of hexachloroethane, pentachloroethane, and 1, 1, 2, 2-tetrachloroethane. The initial quantum yields of the products were determined to be 6.37 x 10$^{-4}$, 4.04 x 10$^{-4}$ and 1.76 x 10$^{-4}$, respectively. In the irradiation of aqueous chloroform, chloride ion was also formed along with the products listed above and 1, 1, 2, 2-tetrachloroethane was the predominant product among the chlorinated organic products, which contrasts to the case of the neat chloroform. The presence of oxygen during the irradiation of aqueous chloroform had an effect on the yield of the products. With increasing the concentration of oxygen, the formation of the products was decreased. Probable reaction mechanisms for the photochemical reaction were presented on the basis of products analysis.

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Cytotoxic Effects of Chloroform Extracts and Fraction from Cornis fructus on Cancer Cell Lines

  • Hyun, Ja-Chun;Choi, Won-Hyung;Seung, Hwa-Baek
    • Proceedings of the PSK Conference
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    • pp.210.2-210
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    • 2003
  • Cornis fructus were extracted by successive extractions and then fractionated with chloroform extract to get active fractions. This study was performed to determine the cytotoxic effect of chloroform extract from Cornis fructus on NIH 3T3 fibroblasts and cancer cell lines using MTT assay. All extracts did not exhibit cytotoxicity in HIH 3T3 fibroblasts. Chloroform extract exhibited antitumor activity in A549, MDA-MB-123, B16 melanoma and SNU-C4 cells. Futher fractionation with chloroform extract was performed to obtain effective fractions. (omitted)

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Pyrolysis Reaction for the Treatment of Hazardous Halogenated Hydrocarbon Waste (유해 할로겐화 탄화수소 폐기물 처리를 위한 열분해 반응)

  • 조완근
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.6 no.4
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    • pp.399-407
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    • 1997
  • The pyrolysis reactions of atomic hydrogen with chloroform were studied In a 4 cm 1.6. tubular flow reactor with low flow velocity 1518 cm/sec and a 2.6 cm 1.4. tubular flow reactor with high flow velocity (1227 cm/sec). The hydrogen atom concentration was measured by chemiluminescence titration with nitrogen dioxide, and the chloroform concentrations were determined using a gas chromatography. The chloroform conversion efficiency depended on both the chloroform flow rate and linear flow velocity, but 416 not depend on the flow rate of hydrogen atom. A computer model was employed to estimate a rate constant for the initial reaction of atomic hydrogen with chloroform. The model consisted of a scheme for chloroform-hydrogen atom reaction, Runge-Kutta 4th-order method for Integration of first-order differential equations describing the time dependence of the concentrations of various chemical species, and Rosenbrock method for optimization to match model and experimental results. The scheme for chloroform-hydrogen atom reaction Included 22 elementary reactions. The rate constant estimated using the data obtained from the 2.6 cm 1.4. reactor was to be 8.1 $\times$ $10^{-14}$ $cm^3$/molecule-sec and 3.8 $\times$ $10^{-15}$ cms/molecule-sec, and the deviations of computer model from experimental results were 9% and 12% , for the each reaction time of 0.028 sec and 0.072 sec, respectively.

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