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Deep-Ocean Mass Spectrometer (DOMS) for in situ analysis of dissolved methane in seawater from the Ulleung Basin, East Sea (동해 울릉분지 해수의 현장 용존 메탄 분석에 사용된 심해용 수중 질량분석기)

  • Kim, Yuri;Chun, Jong-Hwa;McMurtry, Gary M.;Dasilveira, Luis A.
    • Journal of the Geological Society of Korea
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    • v.53 no.6
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    • pp.863-871
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    • 2017
  • Deep-Ocean Mass Spectrometer (DOMS) is designed for in situ quantitative analysis of dissolved gases in water column directly. DOMS is capable of being deployed up to 4,000 m water depth, and it is conducted to analyze dissolved gases distribution in seawater associated with gas hydrate dissociation in the Ulleung Basin, East Sea. In ocean, seawater samples flow into membrane inlet system of DOMS and the dissolved gases separated from the seawater through the membrane are ionized based on their mass to charge ratio (m/z), which are detected by an autoresonant ion trap mass spectrometer in high vacuum state. In this study, we performed in situ analysis of dissolved gases in seawater above site UBGH1-09 (2,106 m water depth) related seismic chimney features in the Ulleung Basin. The DOMS analytical signals were observed for nitrogen, hydrogen, argon, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and methane in seawater. No analytical signals of ethane, propane, buthane related thermogenic gas hydrate were detected in seawater above site UBGH1-09. DOMS will be used for the baseline survey of dissolved gases around the Korea Peninsula in seawater and long-term dissolved gases monitoring in the gas seepages region.

Clinical Analysis of TEVAR in Blunt Thoracic Aortic Injury (둔상에 의한 흉부대동맥 손상에서 TEVAR에 관한 임상연구)

  • Ku, Gwan Woo;Choi, Jin Ho;Choi, Min Suk;Park, Sang Soon;Sul, Young Hoon;Go, Seung Je;Ye, Jin Bong;Kim, Joong Suck;Kim, Yeong Cheol;Hwang, Jung Joo
    • Journal of Trauma and Injury
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.232-240
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    • 2015
  • Purpose: Thoracic aortic injury is a life-threatening injury that has been traditionally treated by using surgical management. Recently, thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) has been conducted pervasively as a better alternative treatment method. Therefore, this study will focus on analyzing the outcome of TEVAR in patients suffering from a blunt thoracic aortic injury. Methods: Of the blunt thoracic aortic injury patients admitted to Eulji University Hospital, this research focused on the 11 patients who had received TEVAR during the period from January 2008 to April 2014. Results: Seven of the 11 patients were male. At the time of admission, the mean systolic pressure was $105.64{\pm}24.60mm\;Hg$, and the mean heart rate was $103.64{\pm}20.02per$ minute. The median interval from arrival to repair was 7 (4, 47) hours. The mean stay in the ICU was $21.82{\pm}16.37hours$. In three patients, a chimney graft technique was also performed to save the left subclavian artery. In one patient, a debranching of the aortic arch vessels was performed. In two patients, the left subclavian artery was totally covered. In one patient whose proximal aortic neck length was insufficient, the landing zone was extended by using a prophylactic left subclavian artery to left common carotid artery bypass before TEVAR. There were no operative mortalities, but a patient who was covered of left subclavian artery died from ischemic brain injury. Complications such as migration, endovascular leakage, collapse, infection and thrombus did not occur. Conclusion: Our short-term outcomes of TEVAR for blunt thoracic aorta injury was feasible. Left subclavian artery may be sacrificed if the proximal landing zone is short, but several methods to continue the perfusion should be considered.

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Variation of Lead Content in Paddy Rice and Soil of Janghang Smelter Area (장항제련소 지역의 토양과 수도체 중 Pb 함량의 변화에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Seong-Jo;Ryu, Taek-Kyu;Lee, Man-Sang;Yang, Chang-Hyu;Jeon, Kyung-Soo;Beak, Seung-Hwa
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.185-193
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    • 1992
  • To investigate differences in lead content in soils and paddy rices, affected by air pollutants from the Janghang Smelter, soil samples at the different directions, distances, and depths, surface(0-15cm depth) and subsurface(15-30cm depth) in 1982 and 1990, and rice plants at soil sampling sites in 1990 were separately collected at the Janghang Smelter area affected by combustible waste gas from the smelter chimney. Soil samples were extracted with $4M-HNO_3$ and plant samples were digested with mixture of $HNO_3$ and $HCIO_4$ for analyzing by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The Pb contents in soils ranged from 10.3 to 644.8mg $kg^{-1}$. The average content in 1990 was higher than that in 1982. The Pb content in soils at sites nearer the center of the smelter was higher than that at sites farther from the center. The highest lead content was found at the east direction, and was low in order of east>north-north east>north east > north. The variation of Pb level in soils at east sites was more considerable than other directions. The Pb level in surface soils was higher than that in subsurface soils. The contaminated radius of Pb was until 3km all at east, north-north east and north east. A significant correlation was found between Pb content in surface soils of 1982 and that in surface soils of 1990, between Pb content in soils and contents of Cd and Zn in soils, and between Pb content in soils and soil properties as organic matter, available silicate, cation exchange capacity, exchangeable $Ca^{++}$, $Mg^{++}$ and $Na^+$. Pb content in brown rice was low in the panicle axis, and brown rice, and Pb content in stem was 3.26 times of that in brown rice. Pb content in brown rice ranged from 2.2 to 9.0 mg $kg^{-1}$.

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Effect of Fly Ash Application on the Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity of Soils with Different Soil Texture (석탄회(Fly ash) 처리가 토성(土性)이 다른 토양의 포화수리전도도(飽和水理傳導度)에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Jai-Joung;Hong, Soon-Dal
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.279-284
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    • 1999
  • Fly ash is the fine ash particles that are flying out of chimney of the thermoelectric power plant where coals are used as fuel. There are two kinds of fly ashes from anthracite and bituminous coal. By scanning electron microscope(SEM) morphological feature of fly ash was confirmed to the exact spherical particles with the diameter variation from the fine to the largest about $50{\mu}m$(mainly silty particle). Surface of anthracite ash particle was very smooth but that of bituminous was somewhat coarse. To find the utilization of fly ash for improving soil permeability, soils of 4 kinds of different texture, clay, clay loam, sandy clay loam and sand mere applied with 7 levels of fly ash: 0, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100%(w/w) and their saturated hydraulic conductivity(Ks) were determined at each application by constant head method. In clay soil with low water permeability, Ks value was increased about 10 times from $10^{-8}$ to $10^{-7}m\;s^{-1}$ level with application of 10% fly ash and it was slightly increased with increasing fly ash application from 40 to 80%. In clay loam Ks value was about $10^{-7}m\;s^{-1}$ level and its value was not influenced by the fly ash application. In sandy clay loam with relatively high permeability, Ks value was decreased about 10 times from $10^{-5}$ to $10^{-6}m\;s^{-1}$ level with application of 10% fly ash and also decreased about 50 times from $10^{-5}$ to $5.0{\times}10^{-7}m\;s^{-1}$ with application of more than 20% fly ash. In sand with very high permeability, Ks value was decreased about 10 times from $10^{-4}$ to $10^{-5}m\;s^{-1}$ level with application of 10% fly ash and also decreased about 100 times from $10^{-4}$ to $10^{-6}m\;s^{-1}$ level with application of 20% fly ash and continuously decreased about 500 times from $10^{-4}$ to $5.0{\times}10^{-7}m\;s^{-1}$ level with application of more than 40% fly ash. In conclusion by fly ash application saturated hydraulic conductivity was increased in clay soil, on the contrary it was decreased in sandy soils. Fly ash may be used as a material for amelioration of soil permeability.

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Effects of Ventilation Systems on Interior Environment of the Growing-finishing Pig House in Korea (육성$\cdot$비육돈사 내에서 환기형태별 환경조사 연구)

  • Song J. I.;Yoo Y. H.;Jeong J. W.;Kim T. I.;Choi H. C.;Kang H. S.;Yang C. B.;Lee Y. Y.
    • Journal of Animal Environmental Science
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.93-100
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    • 2004
  • An experiment was conducted to establish comparison of ventilation efficiency in an enclosed and conventional growing-finishing pig house. The experimental pigs were in winter and summer. The main results of the experiment are as follows : Then the air from planar slot inlet the pig house flow out through the sidewall outlet operated by exhaust fan(Gl). The second structure has an air input through the circular duct inlet are plated side the juncture of the entering wall and the air into the pig house flow out through the chimney and pit outlet are operated by exhaust fan(G2). Through the air into relay fan the pig house flow out through the curtains in sidewall(G3). Similarly, air comes in through the circular duct inlet are placed the air into the pig house flow out through the curtains in sidewall (G4). Air flow rate on the floor level which is the low part of pen and the living area of pigs in the G2 and G4 system during winter was measured at 0.2 to 0.3 m/s at the 0.5 to 0.6 m/s at the maximum ventilation efficiency. As for the results of detrimental gas(ammonia) concentration ratio analysis, while G2 and G4 system sustained of summer 13.3 $\~$ 16.6 ppm, winter 14.0 $\~$ 14.6 ppm level, Gl and G3 system sustained of summer 14.6 $\~$ 20.3 ppm, winter 20.3 $\~$ 25.0 ppm, and the latter one is lower than that of the G1 and G3 system.

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Comparative Study on the Shape and Symbolism of Flowered-Wall in Tradition Private Houses and Temples - Focusing on the Designated Cultural Properties of Jeollabuk-do Province - (전통민가와 사찰에 나타난 꽃담의 형태와 상징성 연구 - 전라북도 문화재를 중심으로 -)

  • Go, Yu-Ra;Sin, Sang-Sup
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.18-27
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    • 2016
  • A 'flowered-wall,' which are also called a 'flower plant patterned wall,' or a 'flower patterned wall,' is a wall of a building or a fence with various patterns on it. A flowered-wall can be an external mean to look into the owner's authority and values while internally it possesses the symbolic meaning of wishing the well-being and peace of the household. In the research area of the flowered-wall, the walls located in the palace were well researched in various studies across architecture, horticulture, and art design, however, the walls belonging to the local regional traditional folk houses and temples have been involved in little to no research in the landscape architectural area. Taking notice of this perspective this study researched and analyzed the cases of the flowered-walls of the traditional folk houses and the temples that belonged to the national and municipal cultural properties of Jeollabuk-do Province from the landscape architectural perspective. The whole samples were examined and it was shown that there were 9 traditional folk houses with flowered-walls. Among the temples there were 7 cases. Therefore the research focusing on tracing the shape and symbolic meaning of the flowered-walls in the 16 cultural properties located in the Jeollabuk-do Province which consisted of traditional folk houses and temples resulted in the following. Flowered-walls displayed hierarchical differentiation revolving around the main space and its spacial characteristic. This differentiation is variously displayed across the flowered-wall, gable, crack plastering, and chimney. In the case of the folk houses the symbols have the meaning of the prosperity of the household and progeny, exorcism, longevity, number of fortune, harmony, and peace etc that prays for practical wishes such as long life and good health with the prosperity of their descendants. Meanwhile in the temples, symbols indicating an easy passage into eternity, perpetuation of the Buddha-nature, and three marks of existence are applied, differentiating from the folk houses by the appliance of the religious values in the patterns. In conclusion this research resulted in the rightful illumination on the local landscape culture, the possibility of expressing the Korean sentiment through flowered-walls in the contemporary space, the reassessment of flowered-walls, and the provision of basic data for a plan to success the cultural heritage.

Relationships between Gas Hydrate Occurrence Types and Sediment Characteristics in the Ulleung Basin, East Sea (동해 울릉분지의 가스 하이드레이트 산출형태와 퇴적물 특성의 관계)

  • Kim, Dae-Ha;Bahk, Jang-Jun;Lee, Jin-Heuck;Ryu, Byong-Jae;Kim, Ji-Hoon;Chun, Jong-Hwa;Torres, Marta E.;Chang, Chan-Dong
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.45 no.4
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    • pp.397-406
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    • 2012
  • During the 2nd Ulleung Basin Gas Hydrate Drilling Expedition (UBGH2) in 2010, gas-hydrate-bearing sediment cores were recovered at 10 drill sites. Base, on Infrared (IR) thermal image and grain-size analysis of the cores, three distinct types of gas hydrate are classified: Type I (fracture-filling in mud layers), Type II (disseminated in mud layers), and Type III (pore-filling in sand layers). Types I and II gas hydrates occur in mud as discrete veins, nodules or disseminated particles. Type III fills the pore spaces of the sand layers encased in mud layers. In this case, the sand content of hosting sediments shows a general linear relationship with gas hydrate saturation. The degrees of temperature anomalies (${\Delta}T$) from IR images generally increase with gas hydrate saturation regardless of gas hydrate occurrence types. Type I is dominantly found in the sites where seismic profiles delineate chimney structures, whereas Type II where the drill cores are composed almost of mud layers. Type III was mainly recovered from the sites where hemipelagic muds are frequently intercalated with turbidite sand layers. Our results indicate that gas hydrate occurrence is closely related to sedimentological characteristic of gas hydrate-bearing sediments, that is, grain size distribution.