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Relationship of Social Skills & Social Support from Family and Friends to Adjustment Between Children and Adolescents (아동과 청소년의 사회적 기술과 가족 $[\cdor}$ 친구의 지원 및 적응과의 관계)

  • Sim, Hee-Og
    • Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association
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    • v.37 no.6
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    • pp.11-22
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    • 1999
  • This study focused on the relationship of social skills and social support from family and friends to adjustment between children and adolescents. Subjects were enrolled in the fifth, sixth, 1st, & 2nd grades of elementary and junior high schools. The instruments were Teenage Inventory of Social Skills, Perceived Social Support from Family & Friends, Child Depression Inventory, and Antisocial Behavior Scale. Results indicated that there were positive relations between social skills and social support from family and friends. The more social support from family children and adolescents had, the less depression and antisocial behavior they reported. For depression, children and adolescents showed a significant sex difference. In the case of antisocial behavior, only adolescents revealed a significant sex difference. Depression was explained by social support from family most for both children and adolescents. Antisocial behavior was explained by social skills most especially for children. The results discussed in the context of the effects of social skills and social support on emotional and behavioral adjustments.

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Psychotherapy for Somatoform Disorder (신체형 장애의 정신치료)

  • Lee, Moo-Suk
    • Korean Journal of Psychosomatic Medicine
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.269-276
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    • 1996
  • A theroretical study was made on the psychodynamism of somatoform disorder. Somatoform disorder is caused by a defense mechanism of somatization. Somatization is the tendency to react to stimuli(drives, defenses, and conflict between them) physically rather than psychically(Moore, 1990). Ford(1983) said it is a way of life, and Dunbar(1954) said it is the shift of psychic energy toward expression in somatic symptoms. As used by Max Shur(1955), somatization links symptom formation to the regression that may occur in response to acute and chronic conflict. In the neurotic individual psychic conflict often provokes regressive phenomena that may include somatic manifestations characteristic of an earlier developmental phase. Schur calls this resomatization. Pain is the most common example of a somatization reaction to conflict. The pain has an unconscious significance derived from childhood experiences. It is used to win love, to punish misdeeds, as well as a means to amend. Among all pains, chest pain has a special meaning. Generally speaking, 'I have pain in my chest' is about the same as 'I have pain in my mind'. The chest represent the mind, and the mind reminds us about the heart. So we have a high tendency to recognize mental pain as cardiac pain. Kellner(1990) said rage and hostility, especially repressed hostility, are important factors in somatization. In 'Psychoanalytic Observation on Cardiac Pain', psychoanalyst Bacon(1953) presented clinical cases of patients who complained of cardiac pain in a psychoanalytic session that spread from the left side of their chests down their left arms. The pain was from rage and fear which came after their desire to be loved was frustrated by the analyet. She said desires related to cardiac pain were dependency needs and aggressions. Empatic relationship and therapeutic alliances are indispensable to psychotherapy in somatoform disorder. The beginning of therapy is to discover a precipitating event from the time their symptoms have started and to help the patient understand a relation between the symptom and precipitating event. Its remedial process is to find and interpret a intrapsychic conflict shown through the symptoms of the patient. Three cases of somatoform disorder patients treated based on this therapeutic method were introduced. The firt patient, Mr. H, had been suffering from hysterical aphasia with repressed rage as ie psychodynamic cause. An interpretation related to the precipitating event was given by written communication, and he recovered from his aphasia after 3 days of the session. The second patient was a dentist in a cardiac neurosis with agitation and hypochondriasis, whose psychodynamism was caused by a fear that he might lose his father's love. His symptom was also interpreted in relation to the precipitating event. It showed the patient a child-within afraid of losing his father's love. His condition improved after getting a didactic interpretation which told him, to be master of himself, The third patient was a lady transferred from the deparment of internal medicine. She had a frequent and violent fit of chest pains, whose psychodynamic cause was separation anxiety and a rage due to the frustration of dependency needs. Her symptom vanished dramatically when she wore a holler EKG monitor and did not occur during monitoring. By this experience she found her symptom was a psychogenic one, and a therapeutic alliance was formed. later in reguar psychotherapy sessions, she was told the relaton between symptoms and precipitating events. Through this she understood that her separation anxiety was connected to the symptom and she became less terrifide when it occurred. Now she can travel abroad and take well part in social activities.

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A Study of The Medical Classics in the '$\bar{A}yurveda$' ('아유르베다'($\bar{A}yurveda$)의 의경(醫經)에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Ki-Wook;Park, Hyun-Kuk;Seo, Ji-Young
    • Journal of Korean Medical classics
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.91-117
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    • 2007
  • Through a simple study of the medical classics in the '$\bar{A}yurveda$', we have summarized them as follows. 1) Traditional Indian medicine started in the Ganges river area at about 1500 B. C. E. and traces of medical science can be found in the "Rigveda" and "Atharvaveda". 2) The "Charaka" and "$Su\acute{s}hruta$(妙聞集)", ancient texts from India, are not the work of one person, but the result of the work and errors of different doctors and philosophers. Due to the lack of historical records, the time of Charaka or $Su\acute{s}hruta$(妙聞)s' lives are not exactly known. So the completion of the "Charaka" is estimated at 1st${\sim}$2nd century C. E. in northwestern India, and the "$Su\acute{s}hruta$" is estimated to have been completed in 3rd${\sim}$4th century C. E. in central India. Also, the "Charaka" contains details on internal medicine, while the "$Su\acute{s}hruta$" contains more details on surgery by comparison. 3) '$V\bar{a}gbhata$', one of the revered Vriddha Trayi(triad of the ancients, 三醫聖) of the '$\bar{A}yurveda$', lived and worked in about the 7th century and wrote the "$A\d{s}\d{t}\bar{a}nga$ $A\d{s}\d{t}\bar{a}nga$ $h\d{r}daya$ $sa\d{m}hit\bar{a}$ $samhit\bar{a}$(八支集)" and "$A\d{s}\d{t}\bar{a}nga$ Sangraha $samhit\bar{a}$(八心集)", where he tried to compromise and unify the "Charaka" and "$Su\acute{s}hruta$". The "$A\d{s}\d{t}\bar{a}nga$ Sangraha $samhit\bar{a}$" was translated into Tibetan and Arabic at about the 8th${\sim}$9th century, and if we generalize the medicinal plants recorded in each the "Charaka", "$Su\acute{s}hruta$" and the "$A\d{s}\d{t}\bar{a}nga$ Sangraha $samhit\bar{a}$", there are 240, 370, 240 types each. 4) The 'Madhava' focused on one of the subjects of Indian medicine, '$Nid\bar{a}na$' ie meaning "the cause of diseases(病因論)", and in one of the copies found by Bower in 4th century C. E. we can see that it uses prescriptions from the "BuHaLaJi(布哈拉集)", "Charaka", "$Su\acute{s}hruta$". 5) According to the "Charaka", there were 8 branches of ancient medicine in India : treatment of the body(kayacikitsa), special surgery(salakya), removal of alien substances(salyapahartka), treatment of poison or mis-combined medicines(visagaravairodhikaprasamana), the study of ghosts(bhutavidya), pediatrics(kaumarabhrtya), perennial youth and long life(rasayana), and the strengthening of the essence of the body(vajikarana). 6) The '$\bar{A}yurveda$', which originated from ancient experience, was recorded in Sanskrit, which was a theorization of knowledge, and also was written in verses to make memorizing easy, and made medicine the exclusive possession of the Brahmin. The first annotations were 1060 for the "Charaka", 1200 for the "$Su\acute{s}hruta$", 1150 for the "$A\d{s}\d{t}\bar{a}nga$ Sangraha $samhit\bar{a}$", and 1100 for the "$Nid\bar{a}na$", The use of various mineral medicines in the "Charaka" or the use of mercury as internal medicine in the "$A\d{s}\d{t}\bar{a}nga$ Sangraha $samhit\bar{a}$", and the palpation of the pulse for diagnosing in the '$\bar{A}yurveda$' and 'XiZhang(西藏)' medicine are similar to TCM's pulse diagnostics. The coexistence with Arabian 'Unani' medicine, compromise with western medicine and the reactionism trend restored the '$\bar{A}yurveda$' today. 7) The "Charaka" is a book inclined to internal medicine that investigates the origin of human disease which used the dualism of the 'Samkhya', the natural philosophy of the 'Vaisesika' and the logic of the 'Nyaya' in medical theories, and its structure has 16 syllables per line, 2 lines per poem and is recorded in poetry and prose. Also, the "Charaka" can be summarized into the introduction, cause, judgement, body, sensory organs, treatment, pharmaceuticals, and end, and can be seen as a work that strongly reflects the moral code of Brahmin and Aryans. 8) In extracting bloody pus, the "Charaka" introduces a 'sharp tool' bloodletting treatment, while the "$Su\scute{s}hruta$" introduces many surgical methods such as the use of gourd dippers, horns, sucking the blood with leeches. Also the "$Su\acute{s}hruta$" has 19 chapters specializing in ophthalmology, and shows 76 types of eye diseases and their treatments. 9) Since anatomy did not develop in Indian medicine, the inner structure of the human body was not well known. The only exception is 'GuXiangXue(骨相學)' which developed from 'Atharvaveda' times and the "$A\d{s}\d{t}\bar{a}nga$ Sangraha $samhit\bar{a}$". In the "$A\d{s}\d{t}\bar{a}nga$ Sangraha $samhit\bar{a}$"'s 'ShenTiLun(身體論)' there is a thorough listing of the development of a child from pregnancy to birth. The '$\bar{A}yurveda$' is not just an ancient traditional medical system but is being called alternative medicine in the west because of its ability to supplement western medicine and, as its effects are being proved scientifically it is gaining attention worldwide. We would like to say that what we have researched is just a small fragment and a limited view, and would like to correct and supplement any insufficient parts through more research of new records.

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Mitral Valve Repair for Mitral Regurgitation in Pediatric Patients (승모판폐쇄부전증를 가진 소아 환자에서 승모판성형술의 임상적 고찰)

  • Sim, Hyung-Tae;Yun, Tae-Jin;Park, Jeong-Jun;Jung, Sung-Ho;Uhm, Ju-Yeon;Jhang, Won-Kyoung;Kim, Young-Hwue;Ko, Jae-Kon;Park, In-Sook;Seo, Dong-Man
    • Journal of Chest Surgery
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    • v.40 no.8
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    • pp.536-545
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    • 2007
  • Background: Compared to adult patients, mitral regurgitation in pediatric patients is uncommon and it shows a wide spectrum of morphologic abnormalities. We retrospectively evaluated the midterm results of mitral valve repair in pediatric patients. Material and Method: Between December 1993 and August 2006, mitral valve repair was performed in 35 patients who were aged less than 18 years, The mean age was $5.3{\pm}5.3$ years and the mean body weight was $20,0{\pm}16.3\;kg$. 18 patients had associated cardiac anomalies. The most common pathologic finding was leaflet prolapse (n=17). The most common method of repair was the double orifice technique (n=15). Result: There was no early mortality. Eight patients underwent reoperation (24.2%), and five of them required mitral valve replacement. Among the four ring annuloplasty cases, two have developed mitral stenosis. Four out of the 14 double orifice cases required reoperation. One case of early mortality and one case of late mortality occurred in the reoperation cases. The 5-year survival rate and the freedom from reoperation rate were $93.3{\pm}4.6%$ and $76.1{\pm}8.2%$, respectively. The 5-year freedom from mitral valve replacement rate was $83.6{\pm}6.7%$. There was no significant risk factor for reoperation. Conclusion: The midterm results of mitral valve repair are very acceptable in pediatric patients compared to the adult cases, although the reoperation rate is slightly higher.

Assessment of modifiable lifestyle factors for obese children and adolescents through questionnaires (소아청소년 비만상담에서 설문지를 이용한 중재 가능한 행동요인 탐색)

  • Seo, Jeong Wan;Jung, Ji A;Park, Hye Sook;Ko, Jae Sung;Kim, Yong Joo;Kim, Jae Young;Ryoo, Eell;Bae, Sun Hwan;Sim, Jae Geon;Yang, Hye Ran;Choe, Byung Ho;Cho, Ky Young
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.51 no.6
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    • pp.576-583
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    • 2008
  • Purpose : The identification of specific behaviors conducive to overeating or inactivity is the cornerstone of obesity management. The Committee on Nutrition of the Korean Pediatric Society developed parent and self-reporting questionnaires about eating behavior and physical activity in 2006. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the questionnaires in assessing modifiable lifestyle factors related to obesity. Methods : A retrospective chart review was performed for 177 children (6-11 years old) and 134 adolescents (12-16 years old) from 10 hospitals between May 2006 and January 2007 who had completed parent or self-reporting questionnaires. Cases were divided into normal and overweight groups at or above the age-gender-specific 85th percentile based on 2007 Korean national growth charts. Results : Compared to children, the adolescents tended to have a significantly more sedentary lifestvle and inappropriate dietary behaviors significantly (P<.05). Overweight mothers were significantly associated with overweight children and adolescents (P<.05). Being overweight was significantly associated with a family history of adult diseases for children and adolescents (P<.05). Inappropriate eating behaviors (strong appetite, eating fast, eating until they were full, binge eating, favoring greasy foods) were associated with being overweight in children and adolescents. Sedentary activity such as TV viewing and using a computer were significantly associated with overweight in children and adolescents (P<.05). Conclusion : Intervention to modify obesity-related lifestyle factors is needed before adolescence. These questionnaires are useful in identifying modifiable lifestyle factors and in individual counseling for overweight children and adolescents in pediatric clinics.

An Analysis on the Curricula and Recognitions of the Home Economics Teachers who were the Participants of the First-Grade Home Economics Regular Teacher Qualification Program (중등 가정과 1급 정교사 자격 연수 프로그램 운영 실태 분석 및 연수 참여자의 인식)

  • Lim, Il-Young;Kweon, Li-Ra;Lee, Hye-Suk;Park, Mi-Jin;Ryu, Sang-Hee
    • Journal of Korean Home Economics Education Association
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.37-56
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    • 2007
  • The purpose of this study is to provide basic resources to the first-grade Home Economics Regular Teacher Qualification Program (FGHERTQP) in order to improve its operation plans. For the study, the three methods were carried out: an analysis on the curricula of FGHERTQP over six years since 2000, a questionnaire asking their satisfaction degrees and needs on the programs which was answered by the home economics teachers who were the participants of FGHERTQP, and several statistical analyses such as a descriptive-test, a $X^2$-test, a t-test, and one way ANOVA by using SPSS Win ver 10.0. The results of the study were as follows; Firstly, FGHERTQP has been operated ten times by five training centers during resent six years. Subject matters ($1{\sim}7$), whole numbers of lectures ($11{\sim}29$), and their allotted working hours ($111{\sim}136$) vary with individual training centers and operation years. Secondly, when using 5 point likert scales, Contents and Methods of evaluation marked 3.08 which were the lowest scores, and Qualification Training in General marked 3.72 which was the highest score among five fields of Qualification Training in General, Contents, Organizations, Methods and Evaluation. The overall scores were low. Thirdly, in needs analysis on offering subject matters, the participants wanted to study the field of home economics education more than that of subject contents. Looking about the highest needs classified by domains, Food Principles & Meal Management showed the highest in Foods. And Consumer Issues in Clothing & Textiles in Textiles, Upcoming Housing Cultures in Housing, Family Relationship in Child Development & Family Relationship, Juveniles and their daily life as a consumer in Family & Consumer Resources Management. Fourthly, training centers' lectures available had a significant influence on the satisfaction degrees according to general characteristic variations of the participants. That is, as a training center offers more lectures in the field of subject education than those of subject contents, the participants showed higher satisfaction degrees (p<.05).

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Anthropometric Measurement, Dietary Behaviors, Health-related Behaviors and Nutrient Intake According to Lifestyles of College Students (대학생의 라이프스타일 유형에 따른 신체계측, 식행동, 건강관련 생활습관 및 영양소 섭취상태에 관한 연구)

  • Cheong, Sun-Hee;Na, Young-Joo;Lee, Eun-Hee;Chang, Kyung-Ja
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.36 no.12
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    • pp.1560-1570
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    • 2007
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences according to lifestyle in anthropometric measurement, dietary attitude, health-related behaviors and nutrient intake among the college students. The subjects were 994 nation-wide college students (male: 385, female: 609) and divided into 7 clusters (PEAO: passive economy/appearance-oriented type, NCPR: non-consumption/pursuit of relationship type, PTA: pursuit of traditional actuality type, PAT: pursuit of active health type, UO: utility-oriented type, POF: pursuit of open fashion type, PFR: pursuit of family relations type). A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a self administered questionnaire, and the data were collected via Internet or by mail. The nutrient intake data collected from food record were analyzed by the Computer Aided Nutritional Analysis Program. Data were analyzed by a SPSS 12.0 program. Average age of male and female college students were 23.7 years and 21.6 years, respectively. Most of the college students had poor eating habits. In particular, about 60% of the PEAO group has irregularity in meal time. The students in PAH and POF groups showed significantly higher consumption frequency of fruits, meat products and foods cooked with oil compared to the other groups. As for exercise, drinking and smoking, there were significant differences between PAH and the other groups. Asked for the reason for body weight control, 16.2% of NCPR group answered "for health", but 24.8% of PEAO group and 26.3% of POF group answered "for appearance". Calorie, vitamin A, vitamin $B_2$, calcium and iron intakes of all the groups were lower than the Korean DRIs. Female students in PTA group showed significantly lower vitamin $B_1$ and niacin intakes compared to the PFR group. Therefore, these results provide nation-wide information on health-related behaviors and nutrient intake according to lifestyles among Korean college students.

Visual Media Education in Visual Arts Education (미술교육에 있어서 시각적 미디어를 통한 조형교육에 관한 연구)

  • Park Ji-Sook
    • Journal of Science of Art and Design
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    • v.7
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    • pp.64-104
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    • 2005
  • Visual media transmits image and information reproduced in large quantities, such as a photography, film, television, video, advertisement, or computer image. Correspondence to the students' reception and recognition of culture in the future. arrangements for the field of studies of visual culture. 'Visual Culture' implies cultural phenomena of visual images via visual media, which includes not only the categories of traditional arts like a painting, sculpture, print, or design, but the performance arts including a fashion show or parade of carnival, and the mass and electronic media like a photography, film, television, video, advertisement, cartoon, animation, or computer image. In the world of visual media, Image' functions as an essential medium of communication. Therefore, people call the culture of today fra of Image Culture', which has been converted from an alphabet convergence era to an image convergence one. Image, via visual media, has become a dominant means for communication in large part of human life, so we can designate an Image' as a typical aspect of visual culture today. Image, as an essential medium of communication, plays an important role in contemporary society. The one way is the conversion of analogue image like an actual picture, photograph, or film into digital one through the digitalization of digital camera or scanner as 'an analogue/digital commutator'. The other is a way of process with a computer drawing, or modeling of objects. It is appropriate to the production of pictorial and surreal images. Digital images, produced by the other, can be divided into the form of Pixel' and form of Vector'. Vector is a line linking the point of departure to the point of end, which organizes informations. Computer stores each line's standard location and correlative locations to one another Digital image shows for more 'Perfectness' than any other visual media. Digital image has been evolving in the diverse aspects, such as a production of geometrical or organic image compositing, interactive art, multimedia art, or web art, which has been applied a computer as an extended trot of painting. Someone often interprets digitalized copy with endless reproduction of original even as an extension of a print. Visual af is no longer a simple activity of representation by a painter or sculptor, but now is intimately associated with a matter of application of media. There is some problem in images via visual media. First, the image via media doesn't reflect a reality as it is, but reflects an artificial manipulated world, that is, a virtual reality. Second, the introduction of digital effect and the development of image processing technology have enhanced a spectacle of destructive and violent scenes. Third, a child intends to recognize the interactive images of computer game and virtual reality as a reality, or truth. Education needs not only to point out an ill effect of mass media and prevent the younger generation from being damaged by it, but also to offer a knowledge and know-how to cope actively with social, cultural circumstances. Visual media education is one of these essential methods for the contemporary and future human being in the overflowing of image informations. The fosterage of 'Visual Literacy' can be considered as a very purpose of visual media education. This is a way to lead an individual to the discerning, active consumer and producer of visual media in life as far as possible. The elements of 'Visual Literacy' can be divided into a faculty of recognition related to the visual media, a faculty of critical reception, a faculty of appropriate application, a faculty of active work and a faculty of creative modeling, which are promoted at the same time by the education of 'visual literacy'. In conclusion, the education of 'Visual Literacy' guides students to comprehend and discriminate the visual image media carefully, or receive them critically, apply them properly, or produce them creatively and voluntarily. Moreover, it leads to an artistic activity by means of new media. This education can be approached and enhanced by the connection and integration with real life. Visual arts and education of them play an important role in the digital era depended on visual communications via image information. Visual me야a of day functions as an essential element both in daily life and in arts. Students can soundly understand visual phenomena of today by means of visual media, and apply it as an expression tool of life culture as well. A new recognition and valuation visual image and media education is required to cultivate the capability of active, upright dealing with the changes of history of civilization. 1) Visual media education helps to cultivate a sensibility for images, which reacts to and deals with the circumstances. 2) It helps students to comprehend the contemporary arts and culture via new media. 3) It supplies a chance of students' experiencing a visual modeling by means of new media. 4) There are educational opportunities of images with temporality and spaciality, and therefore a discerning person becomes to increase. 5) The modeling activity via new media leads students to be continuously interested in the school and production of plastic arts. 6) It raises the ability of visual communications dealing with image information society. 7) An education of digital image is significant in respect of cultivation of man of talent for the future society of image information as well. To correspond to the changing and developing social, cultural circumstances, and the form and recognition of students' reception of them, visual arts education must arrange the field of studying on a new visual culture. Besides, a program needs to be developed, which is in more systematic and active level in relation to visual media education. Educational contents should be extended to the media for visual images, that is, photography, film, television, video, computer graphic, animation, music video, computer game and multimedia. Every media must be separately approached, because they maintain the modes and peculiarities of their own according to the conveyance form of message. The concrete and systematic method of teaching and the quality of education must be researched and developed, centering around the development of a course of study. Teacher's foundational capability of teaching should be cultivated for the visual media education. In this case, it must be paid attention to the fact that a technological level of media is considered as a secondary. Because school education doesn't intend to train expert and skillful producers, but intends to lay stress on the essential aesthetic one with visual media under the social and cultural context, in respect of a consumer including a man of culture.

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Hepatitis Complicated with Mycoplasma pneumoniae Infection in Children (소아의 Mycoplasma pneumoniae 폐렴에 합병된 간염)

  • Lee, Seung Min;Lee, Sung Moon;Tchah, Hann;Jeon, In Sang;Ryoo, Eell;Cho, Kang Ho;Seon, Yong Han;Son, Dong Woo;Hong, Hee Joo
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.48 no.8
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    • pp.832-838
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    • 2005
  • Purpose : Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection is relatively common in childhood. Its extrapulmonary manifestations have been reported so much, but hepatitis associated with it has been reported rarely in Korea. Methods : A clinical study was performed on 556 patients of M. pneumoniae pneumonia diagnosed serologically at Gil hospital from January 2001 to December 2004. We reviewed 65 cases among these patients, who had elevated level of serum AST and ALT greater than 50 IU/L respectively without evidence of hepatitis A, B, C, Cytomegalovirus and Ebstein-Barr virus infections. Results : Hepatitis occurred in 11.7% of Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia, especially in fall and winter times. Male to female ratio was 1.2 : 1 and the mean age was 4 years and 3 months. Besides hepatitis, cough(95.4%), sputum(52.3%) and dyspnea(12.3%) were common as pulmonary manifestations. And among gastrointestinal manifestations, nausea/vomiting(26.2%) was the most common symptom, followed by poor oral intake(12.3%), diarrhea(12.3%) and abdominal pain(6.2%). In addition to hepatomegaly(4.6%) and splenomegaly(4.6%), coarse breathing sound was the most common physical manifestation, followed by rale(63.1%), pharyngeal injection(26.2%), and rash(10.8%). Anemia was noted in 20.0%, neutrophilia in 10.8%, eosinphilia in 38.5% and thrombocytosis in 6.2%, respectively. Mean level of ESR and CRP was 32.02 mm/hr and 6.69 mg/dL, respectively. Mean level of AST and ALT was 293.80 IU/L and 181.48 IU/L, respectively. Hyperbilirubinemia was noted in 7.7% and hypoalbuminemia was noted in 58.5%. Lobar or lobular pneumonia(78.5%) was the most common finding in chest X-ray and left lower lobe(39.2%) was most commonly affected. Pleural effusion was noted in 26.2%. Mean duration of hospitalization was 9.91 days. Serum AST/ALT level was normalized within 9.94 days and pulmonary consolidation resolved within 14.29 days. Conclusion : The prognosis of M. pneumoniae hepatitis is good. However, liver function should be considerately checked in M. pneumoniae infection because its incidence is not so low.

A Study of The Medical Classics in the '$\bar{A}yurveda$' (아유르베다'($\bar{A}yurveda$) 의경(醫經)에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Kj-Wook;Park, Hyun-Kuk;Seo, Ji-Young
    • The Journal of Dong Guk Oriental Medicine
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    • v.10
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    • pp.119-145
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    • 2008
  • Through a simple study of the medical classics in the '$\bar{A}yurveda$', we have summarized them as follows. 1) Traditional Indian medicine started in the Ganges river area at about 1500 B. C. E. and traces of medical science can be found in the "Rigveda" and "Atharvaveda". 2) The "Charaka(閣羅迦集)" and "$Su\acute{s}hruta$(妙聞集)", ancient texts from India, are not the work of one person, but the result of the work and errors of different doctors and philosophers. Due to the lack of historical records, the time of Charaka(閣羅迦) or $Su\acute{s}hruta$(妙聞)s' lives are not exactly known. So the completion of the "Charaka" is estimated at 1st$\sim$2nd century C. E. in northwestern India, and the "$Su\acute{s}hruta$" is estimated to have been completed in 3rd$\sim$4th century C. E. in central India. Also, the "Charaka" contains details on internal medicine, while the "$Su\acute{s}hruta$" contains more details on surgery by comparison. 3) '$V\bar{a}gbhata$', one of the revered Vriddha Trayi(triad of the ancients, 三醫聖) of the '$\bar{A}yurveda$', lived and worked in about the 7th century and wrote the "$Ast\bar{a}nga$ $Ast\bar{a}nga$ hrdaya $samhit\bar{a}$ $samhit\bar{a}$(八支集) and "$Ast\bar{a}nga$ Sangraha $samhit\bar{a}$(八心集)", where he tried to compromise and unify the "Charaka" and "$Su\acute{s}hruta$". The "$Ast\bar{a}nga$ Sangraha $samhit\bar{a}$" was translated into Tibetan and Arabic at about the 8th$\sim$9th century, and if we generalize the medicinal plants recorded in each the "Charaka", "$Su\acute{s}hruta$" and the "$Ast\bar{a}nga$ Sangraha $samhit\bar{a}$", there are 240, 370, 240 types each. 4) The 'Madhava' focused on one of the subjects of Indian medicine, '$Nid\bar{a}na$' ie meaning "the cause of diseases(病因論)", and in one of the copies found by Bower in 4th century C. E. we can see that it uses prescriptions from the "BuHaLaJi(布唅拉集)", "Charaka", "$Su\acute{s}hruta$". 5) According to the "Charaka", there were 8 branches of ancient medicine in India : treatment of the body(kayacikitsa), special surgery(salakya), removal of alien substances(salyapahartka), treatment of poison or mis-combined medicines(visagaravairodhikaprasamana), the study of ghosts(bhutavidya), pediatrics(kaumarabhrtya), perennial youth and long life(rasayana), and the strengthening of the essence of the body(vajikarana). 6) The '$\bar{A}yurveda$', which originated from ancient experience, was recorded in Sanskrit, which was a theorization of knowledge, and also was written in verses to make memorizing easy, and made medicine the exclusive possession of the Brahmin. The first annotations were 1060 for the "Charaka", 1200 for the "$Su\acute{s}hruta$", 1150 for the "$Ast\bar{a}nga$ Sangraha $samhit\bar{a}$", and 1100 for the "$Nid\bar{a}na$". The use of various mineral medicines in the "Charaka" or the use of mercury as internal medicine in the "$Ast\bar{a}nga$ Sangraha $samhit\bar{a}$", and the palpation of the pulse for diagnosing in the '$\bar{A}yurveda$' and 'XiZhang(西藏)' medicine are similar to TCM's pulse diagnostics. The coexistence with Arabian 'Unani' medicine, compromise with western medicine and the reactionism trend restored the '$\bar{A}yurveda$' today. 7) The "Charaka" is a book inclined to internal medicine that investigates the origin of human disease which used the dualism of the 'Samkhya', the natural philosophy of the 'Vaisesika' and the logic of the 'Nyaya' in medical theories, and its structure has 16 syllables per line, 2 lines per poem and is recorded in poetry and prose. Also, the "Charaka" can be summarized into the introduction, cause, judgement, body, sensory organs, treatment, pharmaceuticals, and end, and can be seen as a work that strongly reflects the moral code of Brahmin and Aryans. 8) In extracting bloody pus, the "Charaka" introduces a 'sharp tool' bloodletting treatment, while the "$Su\acute{s}hruta$" introduces many surgical methods such as the use of gourd dippers, horns, sucking the blood with leeches. Also the "$Su\acute{s}hruta$" has 19 chapters specializing in ophthalmology, and shows 76 types of eye diseases and their treatments. 9) Since anatomy did not develop in Indian medicine, the inner structure of the human body was not well known. The only exception is 'GuXiangXue(骨相學)' which developed from 'Atharvaveda' times and the "$Ast\bar{a}nga$ Sangraha $samhit\bar{a}$". In the "$Ast\bar{a}nga$ Sangraha $samhit\bar{a}$"'s 'ShenTiLun(身體論)' there is a thorough listing of the development of a child from pregnancy to birth. The '$\bar{A}yurveda$' is not just an ancient traditional medical system but is being called alternative medicine in the west because of its ability to supplement western medicine and, as its effects are being proved scientifically it is gaining attention worldwide. We would like to say that what we have researched is just a small fragment and a limited view, and would like to correct and supplement any insufficient parts through more research of new records.

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