• Title, Summary, Keyword: chemotherapy sensitivity

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Clinical Application of the Adenosine Triphosphate-based Response Assay in Intravesical Chemotherapy for Superficial Bladder Cancer

  • Ge, Wen-Qing;Pu, Jin-Xian;Zheng, Shi-Ying
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.689-692
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    • 2012
  • Objective: To investigate correlations between adenosine triphosphate chemotherapy response assay (ATP-CRA) and clinical outcomes after ATP-CRA-based chemotherapy for drug selection in patients receiving intravesical chemotherapy to prevent recurrence of superficial bladder cancer after surgery. Methods: The chemosensitivities of 12 anticancer drugs were evaluated, including 5-Fu ADM, and EPI, using ATP-CRA and primary tumor cell culture in 54 patients. In addition, a further 58 patients were treated according to clinical experience. Differences in post-chemotherapeutical effects between drug sensitivity assay and experience groups were compared. Results: The evaluable rate of the test was 96.3%, the clinical effective rate was 80.8%, the sensitivity rate was 97.6% (41/42), the specificity was 20%, the total predicting accuracy was 74.3%, the positive predictive value was 83.7% (41/49), the negative predictive value was 66.7% (2/3); in the drug sensitivity test group, the clinical effective rate was 80.8%, the experience group response rate was 63.8%, with a significant difference in clinical effects between the ATP-based sensitivity and experience groups (${\chi}^2$=7.0153, P<0.01). Conclusion: ATP-CRA is a stable, accurate and potentially practical chemosensitivity test providing a predictor of chemotherapeutic response in patients with superficial bladder cancer.

Predictive Value of Baseline Plasma D-dimers for Chemotherapy-induced Thrombocytopenia in Patients with Stage III Colon Cancer: A Pilot Study

  • Tanriverdi, Ozgur
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.293-297
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    • 2013
  • Background: : Chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia (CIT) is an important cause of morbitity in patients with cancer. Aim: To investigate the effect of the baseline plasma D-dimer level, an important marker for thrombotic activity, on chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia in patients with stage III colon cancer. Materials and Methods: A total of 43 (28 men) eligible patients were divided into two groups according to whether they exhibited chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia: Group 1 (n=21) and Group 2 (n=22). Comparison was made using demographic, histopathologic, and laboratory variables. Additionally, baseline plasma D-dimer levels underwent receiver operation characteristics curve analysis, and areas under the curve were calculated. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative likelihood rates were then determined. Results: The incidence of chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia had a significant correlation with baseline platelet count (r=0.568, P=0.031) and baseline plasma D-dimer levels (r=0.617, P=0.036). When the cut-off point for the latter was set as 498 ng/mL, the area under the curve was 0.89 (95%CI: 0.74-0.93), the sensitivity was 91.4%, the specificity was 89.7%, the positive likelihood rate was 3.64 and the negative likelihood rate was 0.24 for chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia diagnosis. Conclusions: The baseline level of plasma D-dimer could help to differentiate high-risk patients for chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia.

IDH1 Overexpression Induced Chemotherapy Resistance and IDH1 Mutation Enhanced Chemotherapy Sensitivity in Glioma Cells in Vitro and in Vivo

  • Wang, Ju-Bo;Dong, Dan-Feng;Wang, Mao-De;Gao, Ke
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.427-432
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    • 2014
  • Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) is of great importance in cell metabolism and energy conversion. IDH mutation in glioma cells is reported to be associated with an increased overall survival. However, effects biological behavior of therapy of gliomas are unclear. Here, we investigated the influence of wild-type and mutated IDH genes on glioma cell biological behavior and response to chemotherapy. Relevant mechanisms were further explored. We designed our study on the background of the IDHR132H mutation. Stable cell lines were constructed by transfection. The CCK-8 method was used to assess cell proliferation, flow cytometry for the cell cycle and cell apoptosis, and the transwell method for cell invasion. Nude mouse models were employed to determine tumorigenesis and sensitivity to chemotherapy. Western blotting was used to detect relevant protein expression levels. We found that overexpression of wild IDH1 gene did not cause changes in the cell cycle, apoptosis and invasion ability. However, it resulted in chemotherapy resistance to a high dose of temozolomide (TMZ) in vivo and in vitro. The IDH1 mutation caused cell cycle arrest in G1 stage and a reduction of proliferation and invasion ability, while raising sensitivity to chemotherapy. This may provide an explanation for the better prognosis of IDH1 mutated glioma patients and the relative worse prognosis of their wild-type IDH1 counterparts. We also expect IDH1 mutations may be optimized as new targets to improve the prognosis of glioma patients.

RNAi-induced K-Ras Gene Silencing Suppresses Growth of EC9706 Cells and Enhances Chemotherapy Sensitivity of Esophageal Cancer

  • Wang, Xin-Jie;Zheng, Yu-Ling;Fan, Qing-Xia;Zhang, Xu-Dong
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.12
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    • pp.6517-6521
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    • 2012
  • To analyze the growth, proliferation, apoptosis, invasiveness and chemotherapy sensitivity of EC9706 cells after K-Ras gene silencing, an expression carrier pSilencer-siK-Ras was constructed, and the EC9706 cell line was transfected using a liposome technique. Six groups were established: Control, siRNA NC (transfected with empty vector pSilencer2.1); Ras siRNA (transfected with pSilencer-siK-Ras2); Paclitaxel; Paclitaxel + siRNA NC; and Ras siRNA + Paclitaxel. After the treatment, RT-PCR, Western blotting, MTT assay, flow cytometry and the Transwell technique were used to assess expression of K-Ras mRNA and protein in EC9706 cells, as well as cell growth, proliferation, apoptosis and invasiveness. The effect of Paclitaxel chemotherapy was also tested. pSilencer-siK-Ras2 effectively down-regulated expression of K-Ras mRNA and protein in EC9706 cells, growth being significantly inhibited. Flow cytometry indicated obvious apoptosis of cells in the experimental group, with arrest in the G1 phase; cell migration ability was also reduced. After pSilencer-siK-Ras2 transfection or the addition of Paclitaxel, EC9706 cells were suppressed to different extents; the suppressive effect was strengthened by combined treatment. The results suggested that RNAi-induced K-Ras gene silencing could enhance chemotherapy sensitivity of esophageal cancer.

Prediction of Chemotherapeutic Response in Unresectable Non-small-cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) Patients by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) Assay

  • Chen, Juan;Cheng, Guo-Hua;Chen, Li-Pai;Pang, Ting-Yuan;Wang, Xiao-Le
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.3057-3062
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    • 2013
  • Background: Selecting chemotherapy regimens guided by chemosensitivity tests can provide individualized therapies for cancer patients. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2Htetrazolium, inner salt (MTS) assay is one in vitro assay which has become widely used to evaluate the sensitivity to anticancer agents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical applicability and accuracy of MTS assay for predicting chemotherapeutic response in unresectable NSCLC patients. Methods: Cancer cells were isolated from malignant pleural effusions of patients by density gradient centrifugation, and their sensitivity to eight chemotherapeutic agents was examined by MTS assay and compared with clinical response. Results: A total of 37 patients participated in this study, and MTS assay produced results successfully in 34 patients (91.9%). The sensitivity rates ranged from 8.8% to 88.2%. Twenty-four of 34 patients who received chemotherapy were evaluated for in vitro-in vivo response analysis. The correlation between in vitro chemosensitivity result and in vivo response was highly significant (P=0.003), and the total predictive accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for MTS assay were 87.5%, 94.1%, 71.4%, 88.9%, and 83.3%, respectively. The in vitro sensitivity for CDDP also showed a significant correlation with in vivo response (P=0.018, r=0.522). Conclusion: MTS assay is a preferable in vitro chemosensitivity assay that could be use to predict the response to chemotherapy and select the appropriate chemotherapy regimens for unresectable NSCLC patients, which could greatly improve therapeutic efficacy and reduce unnecessary adverse effects.

Chemotherapy for Malignant Gliomas Based on Histoculture Drug Response Assay : A Pilot Study

  • Gwak, Ho-Shin;Park, Hyeon-Jin;Yoo, Heon;Youn, Sang-Min;Rhee, Chang-Hun;Lee, Seung-Hoon
    • Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
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    • v.50 no.5
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    • pp.426-433
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    • 2011
  • Objective : The Histoculture Drug Response Assay (HDRA), which measures chemosensitivity using minced tumor tissue on drug-soaked gelfoam, has been expected to overcome the limitations of in vitro chemosensitivity test in part. We analyzed interim results of HDRA in malignant gliomas to see if the test can deserve further clinical trials. Methods : Thirty-three patients with malignant gliomas were operated and their tumor samples were examined for the chemosensitivity to 10 chosen drugs by HDRA. The most sensitive chemotherapy regimen among those pre-established was chosen based on the number of sensitive drugs or total inhibition rate (IR) of the regimen. The response was evaluated by 3 month magnetic resonance image. Results : Among 13 patients who underwent total resection of the tumor, 12 showed no evidence of disease and one patient revealed progression. The response rate in 20 patients with residual tumors was 55% (3 complete and 8 partial responses). HDRA sensitivity at the cut-off value of more than one sensitive drug in the applied regimen showed a sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 60% and predictability of 70%. Another cut-off value of >80% of total IR revealed a sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 69%, and predictability of 80%. For 12 newly diagnosed glioblastoma patients, median progression-free survival of the HDRA sensitive group was 21 months, while that of the non-sensitive group was 6 months ($p$=0.07). Conclusion : HDRA for malignant glioma was inferred as a feasible method to predict the chemotherapy response. We are encouraged to launch phase 2 clinical trial with chemosensitivity on HDRA.

Influence of the MACC1 Gene on Sensitivity to Chemotherapy in Human U251 Glioblastoma Cells

  • Shang, Chao;Hong, Yang;Guo, Yan;Liu, Yun-Hui;Xue, Yi-Xue
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.195-199
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    • 2015
  • Background: This study was conducted to determine the influence of MACC1 expression on chemotherapy sensitivity in human U251 glioblastoma cells. Materials and Methods: Expression of the MACC1 gene in 49 cases of human brain glioma was determined by quantitative real-time PCR. Silencing effects of RNA interference on MACC1 was detected by Western-blotting. Flow cytometry methods and methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay (MTT) were used to determine the apoptosis and growth inhibitory rates of the U251 cells with MACC1 silencing. before and after treatment with cisplatin (DDP). Results: MACC1 mRNA in gliomas was up-regulated remarkably, to 158.8% of that in peri-cancerous tissues (P<0.05). The siRNA-MACC1 could inhibit the expression of MACC1 protein significantly (p<0.05), associated with an increase in apoptosis rate from 2.57% to 5.39% in U251 cells and elevation of the growth inhibitory rate from 1.5% to 17.8% (p<0.05 for both). After treatment with DDP at various concentrations (1, 3, $5{\mu}g/ml$), compared with control U251 cells, the apoptosis rate of MACC1-silenced U251 cells rose from 8.41%, 13.2% and 19.5% to 12.8%, 17.8% and 25.8%; the growth inhibitory rate increased from 16.2%, 19.3% and 24.5% to 23.7%, 28.4% and 36.3%. Conclusions: There is a notable relationship between over-expression of MACC1 and the characteristics of glioma cells. Silencing of MACC1 was found to enhance the apoptosis and growth inhibitory rates of U251 glioma cells, and thereby increase their sensitivity to DDP chemotherapy.

Economic Evaluation of Gemcitabine-cisplatin Chemotherapy for Non Small-Cell Lung Cancer Patient in an Outpatient Setting (비용-효과 분석 기법을 이용한 Gemcitabine 외래 항암 치료의 경제성 평가)

  • Min, Su-Hyun;Ko, Su-Kyoung;Lim, Ji-Young
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.38 no.3
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    • pp.363-371
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    • 2008
  • Purpose: This analysis was conducted to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of gemcitabine-cisplatin chemotherapy for non small-cell lung cancer patients in an outpatient setting compared with the traditional inpatient setting. Methods: A cost-effective analysis was conducted from a societal perspective. The effects of treatment, which was measured as an adverse event rate, were abstracted from a published literature search and empirical data from one university hospital. The costs included both direct and indirect costs. Direct costs included hospitalizations, outpatient visits, and lab tests. Pharmaceutical costs were excluded in analysis because they were same for both options. Indirect costs included productivity loss of patients as well as care-givers. In order to determine the robustness of the results, sensitivity analysis on treatment protocol was conducted. Results: Literature search showed no difference in adverse effect rates between inpatient treatment protocol and outpatient treatment protocol. Therefore, this analysis is a cost-minimization analysis. Cost-savings in the outpatient setting was 555,936 won for one treatment cycle. Our sensitivity analysis indicated that the outpatient chemotherapy still showed cost-savings, regardless of changes in treatment protocol. Conclusion: The outpatient gemcitabine-cisplatin chemotherapy for non small-cell lung cancer resulted in cost savings compared to inpatient chemotherapy. More importantly, outpatient chemotherapy could improve the utilization of health service resources in terms of available beds.

Utility of Serum Peptidome Patterns of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Patients for Comprehensive Treatment

  • Wan, Qing-Lian;Hou, Xiang-Sheng;Zhao, Guang
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.2919-2923
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    • 2013
  • Esophageal cancer (EC) is one of the most common malignant tumors, and the incidence of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is highest in China. Early diagnosis and effective monitoring are keys to comprehensive treatment and discovering tumor metastases and recurrence in time. The aim of this study was to confirm serum peptidome pattern utility for diagnosis of ESCC, and assessment of operation success, postoperative chemotherapy results, tumor metastasis and recurrence. Serum samples were collected from 61 patients treated with surgery and chemotherapy and 20 healthy individuals. Spectral data generated with weak cationic-exchanger magnetic beads (WCX-MB) and MALDI-TOF MS by a support vector machine (SVM), were used to construct diagnostic models and system training as potential biomarkers. A pattern consisting of 11 protein peaks, separated ESCC (m/z 650.75), operated (m/z 676.61, 786.1, 786.58), postoperative chemotherapy (m/z 622.77, 650.66, 676.46) and tumor metastasis and recurrence (m/z 622.63, 650.56, 690.77, 676.12) from the healthy individuals with a sensitivity of 100.0% and a specificity of 100.0%. These results suggested that MALDITOF MS combined with MB separation yields significantly higher sensitivity and specificity for the detection of serum protein in patients with EC patients treated with surgery and chemotherapy.

Role of Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in the Management of Advanced Ovarian Cancer

  • Zhao, Dan;Wu, Ling-Ying;Wang, Xiao-Bing;Li, Xiao-Guang
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.6
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    • pp.2369-2373
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    • 2015
  • Objective: To analyze efficacy of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for advanced ovarian cancer. Materials and Methods: A total of 107 patients with advanced ovarian cancer undergoing cytoreductive surgery were divided into a neoadjuvant chemotherapy group (n=61) and a primary debulking group (n=46) and retrospectively analyzed. Platinum-based adjuvant chemotherapy was applied to both groups after cytoreductive surgery ande overall and progression-free survival times were calculated. Results: No significant difference was observed in duration of hospitalization ($20.8{\pm}6.1$ vs. $20.2{\pm}5.4$ days, p>0.05). The operation time of neoadjuvant chemotherapy group was shorter than the initial surgery group ($3.1{\pm}0.7$ vs. $3.4{\pm}0.8$ h, p<0.05). There were no significant differences in median overall survival time between neoadjuvant chemotherapy group and surgery group (42 vs. 55 months, p>0.05). Similarly, there was no difference in median progression-free survival between neoadjuvant chemotherapy group and surgery group (16 vs. 17 months, p>0.05). The surgical residual tumor size demonstrated no significant difference between initial surgery and neoadjuvant chemotherapy groups (p>0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that more than 3 cycles of regimen with neoadjuvant chemotherapy was associated with more resistance to chemotherapy compared with patients without receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy (OR: 5.962, 95%CI: 1.184-30.030, p<0.05). Conclusions:Neoadjuvant chemotherapy can shorten the operation time. However, it does not improve survival rates of advanced ovarian cancer patients.