• Title, Summary, Keyword: chemotherapy response

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Comparison of Metabolic and Anatomic Response to Chemotherapy Based on PERCIST and RECIST in Patients with Advanced Stage Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  • Ordu, Cetin;Selcuk, Nalan A.;Akosman, Cengiz;Eren, Orhan Onder;Altunok, Elif C.;Toklu, Turkay;Oyan, Basak
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.321-326
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    • 2015
  • Background: The aim of this study was to explore the prognostic role of metabolic response to chemotherapy, determined by FDG-PET, in patients with metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Materials and Methods: Thirty patients with metastatic NSCLC were analyzed for prognostic factors related to overall survival (OS) and progression free survival (PFS). Disease evaluation was conducted with FDG-PET/CT and contrast-enhanced CT prior to and at the end of first-line chemotherapy. Response evaluation of 19 of 30 patients was also performed after 2-3 cycles of chemotherapy. Morphological and metabolic responses were assessed according to RECIST and PERCIST, respectively. Results: The median OS and PFS were 11 months and 6.2 months, respectively. At the end of first-line chemotherapy, 10 patients achieved metabolic and anatomic responses. Of the 19 patients who had an interim response analysis after 2-3 cycles of chemotherapy, 3 achieved an anatomic response, while 9 achieved a metabolic response. In univariate analyses, favorable prognostic factors for OS were number of cycles of first-line chemotherapy, and achieving a response to chemotherapy at completion of therapy according to the PERCIST and RECIST. The OS of patients with a metabolic response after 2-3 cycles of chemotherapy was also significantly extended. Anatomic response at interim analysis did not predict OS, probably due to few patients with anatomic response. In multivariate analyses, metabolic response after completion of therapy was an independent prognostic factor for OS. Conclusions: Metabolic response is at least as effective as anatomic response in predicting survival. Metabolic response may be an earlier predictive factor for treatment response and OS in NSCLC patients.

Prognostic Factors for Second-line Treatment of Advanced Non-small-cell Lung Cancer: Retrospective Analysis at a Single Institution

  • Inal, Ali;Kaplan, M. Ali;Kucukoner, Mehmet;Urakci, Zuhat;Karakus, Abdullah;Isikdogan, Abdurrahman
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.1281-1284
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    • 2012
  • Background: Platinum-hased chemotherapy for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is still considered the first choice, presenting a modest survival advantage. However, the patients eventually experience disease progression and require second-line therapy. While there are reliable predictors to identify patients receiving first-line chemotherapy, very little knowledge is available about the prognostic factors in patients who receive second-line treatments. The present study was therefore performed. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 107 patients receiving second-line treatments from August 2002 to March 2012 in the Dicle University, School of Medicine, Department of Medical Oncology. Fourteen potential prognostic variables were chosen for analysis in this study. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to identify prognostic factors associated with survival. Result: The results of univariate analysis for overall survival (OS) were identified to have prognostic significance: performance status (PS), stage, response to first-line chemotherapy response to second-line chemotherapy and number of metastasis. PS, diabetes mellitus (DM), response to first-line chemotherapy and response to second-line chemotherapy were identified to have prognostic significance for progression-free survival (PFS). Multivariate analysis showed that PS, response to first-line chemotherapy and response to second-line chemotherapy were considered independent prognostic factors for OS. Furthermore, PS and response to second-line chemotherapy were considered independent prognostic factors for PFS. Conclusion: In conclusion, PS, response to first and second-line chemotherapy were identified as important prognostic factors for OS in advanced NSCLC patients who were undergoing second-line palliative treatment. Furthermore, PS and response to second-line chemotherapy were considered independent prognostic factors for PFS. It may be concluded that these findings may facilitate pretreatment prediction of survival and can be used for selecting patients for the correct choice of treatment.

Quantification of Serum Free RNA as a Predictive Biomarker for the Response to Chemotherapy in Patients with Lung Cancer: A Pilot Study

  • Um, Soo-Jung;Lee, Su-Mi;Lee, Soo-Keol;Son, Choon-Hee;Ko, Mee-Kyung;Roh, Mee-Sook;Lee, Ki-Nam;Choi, Pil-Jo
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.70 no.4
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    • pp.301-306
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    • 2011
  • Background: It is well-known that cell-free nucleic acids rise in patients with many types of malignancies. Several recent experimental studies using cancer cell lines have shown that changes in cell-free RNA are predictive of the response to chemotherapy. The objective of this study was to determine whether quantification of free RNA can be used as a biomarker for clinical responses to chemotherapy in patients with lung cancer. Methods: Thirty-two patients with lung cancer (non-small cell lung cancer, n=24; small cell lung cancer, n=8) were divided into 2 groups according to their responses to chemotherapy (response group, n=19; non-response group, n=13). Blood samples were collected before and after two cycles of chemotherapy. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR was used for transcript quantification of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene. Results: The pre chemotherapy values (Response group $41.36{\pm}1.72$ vs. Non-response group $41.33{\pm}1.54$, p=0.78) and post chemotherapy values (Response group $39.92{\pm}1.81$ vs. Non-response group $40.41{\pm}1.47$, p=0.40) for cell free RNA concentrations, expressed as Ct GAPDH (threshold cycle glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene) levels, was not different between the two groups. There was no significant relationship between changes in the cell free RNA level clinical responses after chemotherapy (p=0.43). Conclusion: We did not find a correlation between quantification of serum cell free RNA levels and clinical responses to chemotherapy in patients with lung cancer. Further investigations are needed to determine whether the cell free RNA level is a useful predictor of responses to chemotherapy in patients with lung cancer.

Phase II Study of Pemetrexed as Second or Third Line Combined Chemotherapy in Patients with Colorectal Cancer

  • Wu, Xue-Yan;Huang, Xin-En;You, Shan-Xi;Lu, Yan-Yan;Cao, Jie;Liu, Jin;Xiang, Jin
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.2019-2022
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    • 2013
  • Purpose: To investigate the safety and efficacy of pemetrexed combined with chemotherapy as second or third line in patients with stage IV colorectal cancer (CRC). Patients and Methods: This trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of pemetrexed given to patients with recurrent or metastatic colorectal carcinoma who previously received 5-FU-based chemotherapy. All patients were required to have a histological diagnosis of colorectal adenocarcinoma with measurable metastatic disease and prior chemotherapy. Patients received pemetrexed at a dose of 500 $mg/m^2$ by 10 minute infusion on day 1, repeated every 21 days. Doses were modified depending on nadir counts. Combined chemotherapy included Oxaliplatin, Irinotecan and cis-platinum. Results: Thirty patients were enrolled and twenty-nine were evaluable for response. One patient did not have repeat radiological testing to determine response because he went off study after only one cycle of treatment for economic reasons. For 29 evaluable patients, 1 partial response, 6 stable disease and 22 progressive disease were recorded. Response rate was 3.45% (1/29). All responses occurred in patients receiving a starting dose of pemetrexed 500 $mg/m^2$. Median time to progression for all eligible patients was 2.5 months. The most common toxicities experienced were mild to moderate fever, hepatic damage, myelosuppression, nausea, vomiting, constipation, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and skin rash. Conclusion: Pemetrexed at 500 $mg/m^2$ given every three weeks combined with chemotherapy is associated with moderate response and good tolerability in patients with stage IV CRC.

Clinical Research on Albumin-Bound Paclitaxel-Based Chemotherapy for Advanced Esophageal Cancer

  • Yuan, Yuan;Zhang, Yan;Shi, Lin;Mei, Jing-Feng;Feng, Jif-Eng;Shen, Bo
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.12
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    • pp.4993-4996
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    • 2015
  • Background: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of albumin-bound paclitaxel-based chemotherapy in treatment for patients with advanced esophageal cancer who failed in first-line chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: We collected29 advanced esophageal cancer patients who received albumin-bound paclitaxel-based chemotherapy fromJune 2009 to September 2013, and the efficacy and safety of the compound were evaluated. These patients were treated with $100-150mg/m^2$ nab-paclitaxel on days 1,8. The cycle was repeated every 3 weeks. Clinical efficacy was evaluated every two cycles. Results: Of the 29 patients, two persons interrupted treatment because of adverse reactions, failed to evaluate efficacy effect. The rest of 27 patients who could be evaluated for short-term response, 10 patients (37%) achieved partial response, 2 (7.4%) remained stable disease, and 15 (55.6%) had progressivedisease. The objective response rate was 37%, and the disease control rate was 44.4%.The median time to progression was 6.6 months.The major adverse reactions includedalopecia (62.07%), neutropenia (65.5%), gastrointestinalreaction (10.3%) andsensory neuropathy(6.8%). Conclusions: The albumin-bound paclitaxel-based chemotherapy is efficacy and safety in treatment for patients with advanced esophageal cancer who failed in first-line chemotherapy.

Effect of the ERCC1 (C118T) Polymorphism on Treatment Response in Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients Undergoing Platinum-Based Chemotherapy

  • Kaewbubpa, Walennee;Areepium, Nutthada;Sriuranpong, Virote
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.11
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    • pp.4917-4920
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    • 2016
  • For advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cases, a platinum-based regimen is the first-line chemotherapy treatment. The excision repair cross-complementing group 1 (ERCC1) plays an important role in DNA repair and has been related to resistance to platinum chemotherapy. This study aimed to investigate the effects of the ERCC1 (C118T) polymorphism on treatment response in 26 Thai advanced NSCLC patients receiving first line platinum-based chemotherapy during January to July 2015 at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital (KCMH). DNA was extracted from peripheral blood lymphocytes and the single nucleotide polymorphism of ERCC1 was genotyped using a real-time PCR method with the TaqMan assay. The distribution of C/C, C/T and T/T genotypes was 57.7 %, 34.6 % and 7.7 %, respectively. The response rate to platinum-based chemotherapy in the wild type (C/C) of ERCC1 (C118T) was better than with the variant types (C/T and T/T) but the difference was not statistically significant (29.7% vs 9.1%, P=0.274). The results showed that a genetic polymorphism in ERCC1 might influence patient response to platinum-based chemotherapy. Further multicenter studies are now required to confirm the results of our study.

Expression of Nuclear Factor Kappa B (NF-κB) as a Predictor of Poor Pathologic Response to Chemotherapy in Patients with Locally Advanced Breast Cancer

  • Prajoko, Yan Wisnu;Aryandono, Teguh
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.595-598
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    • 2014
  • Background: NF-${\kappa}B$ inhibits apoptosis through induction of antiapoptotic proteins and suppression of proapoptotic genes. Various chemotherapy agents induce NF-${\kappa}B$ translocation and target gene activation. We conducted the present study to assess the predictive value of NF-${\kappa}B$ regarding pathologic responses after receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: We enrolled 131 patients with locally advanced invasive ductal breast carcinoma. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to detect NF-${\kappa}B$ expression. Evaluation of pathologic response was elaborated with the Ribero classification. Results: Expression of NF-${\kappa}B$ was significantly associated with poor pathological response (p=0.02). From the multivariate analysis, it was found that the positive expression of NF-${\kappa}B$ yielded RR=1.74 (95%CI 0.77 to 3.94). Conclusions: NF-${\kappa}B$ can be used as a predictor of poor pathological response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

ERCC1 Expression Can Predict Response to Platinum-Based Induction Chemotherapy in Head and Neck Cancer Cases

  • Ameri, Ahmad;Mortazavi, Nafiseh;Ahmadi, Helaleh Khoshbakht;Novin, Kambiz
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.sup3
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    • pp.87-91
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    • 2016
  • To investigate whether excision repair cross complementing-group1 (ERCC1) expression status could serve as a bio-predictor of response to platinum-based induction chemotherapy for head and neck cancers (HNCs) patients with a diagnosis of epithelial HNC were studied retrospectively. Paraffin embedded tumor samples of the patients were analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to determine ERCC1 expression status and its correlation with response to platinum-based induction chemotherapy was investigated. Of 44 included patients, 33 were male (75%) and 11 were female (25%) with a mean age of 53 years. Some 36% of patients whose tumor samples had high ERCC1 expression showed no response to induction chemotherapy. The value for patients with low ERCC1 expression was 9% and the difference was statistically significant (p=0.03). The ERCC1 expression state did not significantly vary between patient groups according to sex, age, primary tumor site, and tumor and node stage. Our study indicates that ERCC1 expression status detected by RT-PCR might serve as a bio-predictor of response to platinum-based induction chemotherapy for epithelial HNCs.

Predictive Factors Determining Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Outcomes in Breast Cancer - a Single Center Experience

  • Yu, Yang;Xiang, Hua;He, Xiang-Ming;Yang, Hong-Jian;Zong, Xiang-Yun
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.2401-2406
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    • 2013
  • From January 1, 2008 to March 31, 2010, 101 patients with stage II-III breast cancer were enrolled in this study and subjected to an anthracycline-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy regimen with or without docetaxel. Surgery was performed after 2-6 cycles of chemotherapy, and the clinical response was determined by pathological and histochemical assessments. The clinical response rate, as indicated by complete response (CR), partial response (PR), stable disease (SD), and progressive disease (PD), were 6.9, 52.5, 36.6, and 4.0%, respectively. A multivariable correlation analysis indicated that the overall clinical response rate correlated with the number of metastatic lymph nodes, number of chemotherapy cycles, and vessel invasion status. Importantly, the CR rate was only associated with the number of chemotherapy cycles. Nonparametric tests failed to detect a correlation between HER2 or Topo $II{\alpha}$ status and clinical response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in these patients. When they were stratified by HER2 or HR status, for HER2-positive patients the CR rate was associated with vessel invasion and Topo $II{\alpha}$ status. Based on our findings, we propose that HR, HER-2 and Topo $II{\alpha}$ are not putative predictive biomarkers of chemotherapy outcome for breast cancer patients. Topo $II{\alpha}$ expression level was only inversely correlated with CR rate among HR-positive patients. Importantly, the achievement of CR was largely related to the number of chemotherapy cycles.

Meta-analysis of Excision Repair Cross-complementation Group 1 (ERCC1) Association with Response to Platinum-based Chemotherapy in Ovarian Cancer

  • Li, Feng-Ying;Ren, Xiao-Bin;Xie, Xin-You;Zhang, Jun
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.12
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    • pp.7203-7206
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    • 2013
  • Recent studies suggested that the ovarian cancers with negative excision repair cross-complementation group 1 enzyme (ERCC1) expression have a better response to platinum-based chemotherapy than those with positive ERCC1 expression. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether ERCC1 expression is associated with response to platinum-based chemotherapy in ovarian cancers. MEDLINE, PubMed, Web of Science and CNKI databases were used for searching studies relating to ERCC1 protein expression and response to platinum-based chemotherapy in ovarian cancers. Statistical analysis was based on the method for a fixed effects meta-analysis. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals for ERCC1 protein expression and response to platinum-based chemotherapy were generated. Publication bias was investigated with Begg's test. Five studies involving 306 patients with ovarian cancer were included. Compared to patients with positive ERCC1 expression, those with negative ERCC1 expression had a better response to platinum-based chemotherapy. The pooled OR was 5.264 (95% CI: 2.928-9.464, P < 0.001) and publication bias was not found (P = 0.904). The result was similar in both in Asians and Caucasians (P < 0.001 and P = 0.028, respectively). ERCC1 protein expression status is significantly associated with response to platinum-based chemotherapy in ovarian cancers.