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Effect of Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy on Axillary Lymph Node Positivity and Numbers in Breast Cancer Cases

  • Uyan, Mikail;Koca, Bulent;Yuruker, Savas;Ozen, Necati
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.1181-1185
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    • 2016
  • Background: The aim of this study is to compare the numbers of axillary lymph nodes (ALN) taken out by dissection between patients with breast cancer operated on after having neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) treatment and otherswithout having neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and to investigate factors affecting lymph node positivity. Materials and Methods: A total of 49 patients operated due to advanced breast cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy and 144 patients with a similar stage of the cancer having primary surgical treatment without chemotherapy at the general surgery clinic of Ondokuz Mayis University Medicine Faculty between the dates 01.01.2006 and 31.10.2012 were included in the study. The total number of lymph nodes taken out by axillary dissection (ALND) was categorized as the number of positive lymph nodes and divided into <10 and ${\geq}10$. The variables to be compared were analysed using the program SPSS 15.0 with P<0.05 accepted as significant. Results: Median number of dissected lymph nodes from the patient group having neoadjuvant chemotherapy was 16 (16-33) while it was 20 (5-55) without chemotherapy. The respective median numbers of positive lymph nodes were 5 (0-19) and 10 (0-51). In 8 out of 49 neoadjuvant chemotherapy patients (16.3%), the number of dissected lymph nodes was below 10, and it was below 10 in 17 out of 144 primary surgery patients. Differences in numbers of dissected total and positive lymph nodes between two groups were significant, but this was not the case for numbers of <10 lymph nodes. Conclusions: The number of dissected lymph nodes from the patients with breast cancer having neoadjuvant chemotherapy may be less than without chemotherapy. This may not always be attributed to an inadequate axillary dissection. More research to evaluate the numbers of positive lymph nodes are required in order to increase the reliability of staging in the patients with breast cancer undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

Leucogen Tablets at 60 mg Three Times per Day are Safe and Effective to Control Febrile Neutropenia

  • Huang, Xin-En;Cao, Jie;Qian, Zhi-Ying;Xu, Xia;Shi, Lin;Wu, Xue-Yan;Liu, Jin;Wang, Lin
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.19
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    • pp.8495-8497
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: To investigate whether it is safe to use leucogen tablets 60 mg three times per day (180 mg for a day) and whether this regimen could reduce the incidence of febrile neutropenia caused by chemotherapy. Methods: This prospectively designed study focused on the safety and effectiveness of leucogen tablets 60mg three times per day for a group of cancer patients during chemotherapy for mainly lung or gastric cancers. The tablets were administered from 5 days before until the termination of chemotherapy. Neutropenia and other healthcare encounters were defined as events and occurrence was estimated for comparison. Results: We identified 39 patients receiving leucogen tablets 60mg three times per day, including 11 with gastric, 12 with lung and 16 with other sites of cancer. The mean age was 65 (29-75) years and there were 27 male and 12 female patients. The mean duration of leucogen tablets intake was 59 days. Eighteen patients were treated with taxane-based, 4 with irinotecan-based and 17 with other chemotherapy. The incidence of febrile neutropenia was 0%. Twelve patients were found severe neutropenia (grade III/IV), and the duration of severe neutropenia (grade III/IV) was 5 days. Treatment-emergent adverse events were attributable to complications of myelosuppressive chemotherapy or the primary disease (i.e., alopecia, nausea, asthenia, neutropenia, and severe hepatic renal dysfunction). No chemotherapy was delayed and no treatment related death was observed. Conclusions: This study suggested that leucogen tablets 60mg three times per day (180mg for a day) are safe and could be effective for preventing febrile neutropenia in patients with chemotherapy.

The Nutritional Status of the Patients with Cancer during the Chemotherapies (항암 화학치료요법중 환자의 영양상태 변화연구)

  • 양영희;권성준;김창임
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.31 no.6
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    • pp.978-987
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    • 2001
  • The purpose of this study was to determine the changing patterns of nausea, vomiting, anorexia and calorie intake. To examine the influence of those variables on the nutritional status of the cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Method: To assess nutritional status, anthropometry and blood test were performed on 94 stomach cancer patients receiving postoperational chemotherapy on the daily basis. NVA and calorie intake were measured during chemotherapy. Result: 93% of subjects had low level of hemoglobin and 45.7% was below the lymphocyte count. 57% of subjects lost 10% of usual weight. The value of anthropometry was reduced but the difference between pre- and post-chemotherapy did not reach any statistical significance. 27% of subjects was grouped into the malnutritional state. During chemotherapy, the higher the degree of NVA, the less calorie intake. The significant predictors for nutritional status were nausea and calorie intake. Conclusion: The chemotherapy affected the food intake of cancer patients through NVA. Though the influence of chemotherapy on anthropopmetry was not significant in this research, nausea and food intake were the most affecting factors for nutrition of cancer patients. Therefore we need to assess nutritional status and support for cancer patients receiving chemotherapy and to develop an intervention for improvement of symptoms and food intake.

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Retrospective Study of Adjuvant Chemotherapy Effects on Survival Rate after Three-Field Lymph Node Dissection for Stage IIA Esophageal Cancer

  • Chen, Hua-Xia;Wang, Zhou
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.13
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    • pp.5169-5173
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    • 2015
  • To determine the efficacy of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy with paclitaxel plus cisplatin (Taxol + DDP, TP therapy) for stage IIA esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and to investigate the expression of RUNX3 in lymph node metastasis-negative esophageal cancer and its relationship with medical prognosis, a retrospective summary of clinical treatment of 143 cases of stage IIA esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients was made. The patients were divided into two groups, a surgery alone control group (52 patients) and a chemotherapy group that received postoperative TP therapy (91 patients). The disease-free and 5 year survival rates were compared between the groups and a multivariate analysis of prognostic factors was performed. The same analysis was performed for cases classified as RUNX3 positive and negative, with post-operative specimens assessed by immunohistochemistry. Although the disease-free and 5 year survival rates in control and chemotherapy groups did not significantly differ and there was no significance in RUNX3 negative cases, postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy in the chemotherapy group was shown to improve disease-free and 5 year survival rate compared to the control group in RUNX3 positive cases. On Cox regression multivariate analysis, postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy (P<0.01) was an independent prognostic factor for RUNX3 positive cases, suggesting that postoperative TP may be effective as adjuvant chemotherapy for stage IIA esophageal cancer patients with RUNX3 positive lesions.

Further Study on Pemetrexed based chemotherapy in Treating Patients with Advanced Gastric Cancer (AGC)

  • Liu, Jin;Huang, Xin-En;Feng, Ji-Feng
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.16
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    • pp.6587-6590
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    • 2014
  • Objective: To further observe the efficacy and safety of pemetrexed, combined with Irinotecan or oxaliplatin or cisplatin in treating patients with advanced gastric cancer as second-line or third-line chemotherapy. Methods: From September 2013 to February 2014 we recruited 50 patients with advanced gastric cancer, with stage IV disease or postoperative recurrence, or unresectable. Then treated with pemetrexed based chemotherapy. After two cycles of treatment, efficacy and toxicity were evaluated. Results: Pemetrexed based chemotherapy was used as second-line in 33 patients, RR(CR+PR) is 41.2%. And achieved 36.4% when used as third-line. Overall response rate of 50 patients treated with Pemetrexed based treatment was 38% (CR+PR). Treatment related side effects were bone marrow suppression, vomiting, hepatic dysfunction and malaise.No treatment related death occurred. Conclusions: Treatment with pemetrexed based chemotherapy is active and is well tolerated in patients with advanced gastric cancer.

Could Adjuvant Chemotherapy after Surgery Benefit Elderly Patients with Advanced Gastric Cancer?

  • Jeong, Jin Woon;Kwon, In Gyu;Son, Young-Gil;Ryu, Seung Wan
    • Journal of Gastric Cancer
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.260-265
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate tolerance to adjuvant chemotherapy, and to compare survival between treatments using only surgery and using surgery with adjuvant chemotherapy, in elderly patients with advanced gastric cancer who were ${\geq}75years$ of age. Materials and Methods: Patients ${\geq}75years$ of age who were diagnosed with pathological stage II or III gastric cancer were identified retrospectively and categorized into the surgery only and surgery with adjuvant chemotherapy groups. Clinicopathological and survival data were compared between these two groups. Results: Among the 130 patients studied, 67 patients underwent curative surgery only, and 63 patients received adjuvant chemotherapy after curative surgery. In the latter group, adverse events were reported in 24 patients (38.1%). The treatments were discontinued in 19 patients (30.2%) owing to any reason. The overall 5-year survival rates of the surgery only and the surgery with adjuvant chemotherapy groups did not differ significantly (44.1% vs. 30.7%, respectively; P=0.804). Among 90 death events, deaths from recurrences of gastric cancer occurred in 42 patients. Multivariate analyses revealed that the American Society of Anesthesiologists score and the depths of tumor invasions were related to survival, and the addition of adjuvant chemotherapy after surgery did not influence survival. Conclusions: The decision for the addition of adjuvant chemotherapy for elderly patients should be taken after considering the condition of individual patients and their life expectancies.

Thalidomide Combined with Chemotherapy in Treating Patients with Advanced lung Cancer

  • Li, Li;Huang, Xin-En
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.5
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    • pp.2583-2585
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    • 2016
  • Objectives: To evaluate efficacy and toxicity in patients with advanced lung cancer, including non-small cell and small cell variants (NSCLC and SCLC), treated with thalidomide plus chemotherapy. Methods: Fourteen patients with advanced lung cancer were scheduled to receive chemotherapy combined with thalidomide. All patients in this study received thalidomide (100 mg orally per night before sleeping, produced by Changzhou Pharmaceutical Factory Co.Ltd) after the start of chemotherapy for at least 14 days. Chemotherapy was administered according to the condition of patients. After at least 14 days of treatment, efficacy and toxicity were evaluated. Results: There were 6 female and 8 male patients with advanced lung cancer recruited into this study, including 2 with SCLC and 12 with NSCLC. The median age was 56.7 (44-65) years. Progressive disease was observed in 12 patients (12/14), and stable disease in 2 (2/14). Grade 1 to 2 myelosuppression was observed in 4/14 patients, and Grade 1 to 2 elevation of hepatic enzymes was recorded in 5/14 patients. Adverse effects on the gastrointestinal tract were documented in 2/14 patients, all beingGrade 1. No Grade 3-4 toxicity was recorded. No treatment related deaths occurred. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that thalidomide combined with chemotherapy is mildly effective and safe for treating patients with advanced lung cancer. However, further evaluation of this combination is warranted.

Recent Advances in Intra-peritoneal Chemotherapy for Gastric Cancer

  • Chia, Daryl K.A.;So, Jimmy Bok Yan
    • Journal of Gastric Cancer
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.115-126
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    • 2020
  • Peritoneal metastasis (PM) frequently occurs in patients with gastric cancer (GC) and confers a dismal prognosis despite advances in systemic chemotherapy. While systemic chemotherapy has poor peritoneal penetration, intraperitoneal (IP) chemotherapy remains sequestered, resulting in high peritoneal drug concentrations with less systemic side-effects. The first application of IP treatment was hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) with cytoreductive surgery (CRS) for gastric cancer peritoneal metastasis (GCPM); but was associated with an increased morbidity and mortality rate without significantly improving overall survival (OS). While CRS confers limited benefit, the potential role of prophylactic HIPEC and laparoscopic neoadjuvant HIPEC are currently being evaluated. Combination systemic and IP chemotherapy (SIPC) gained popularity in the 1990s, since it provided the benefits of IP treatment while reducing surgical morbidity, demonstrating promising early results in multiple Phase II trials. Unfortunately, these findings were not confirmed in the recent PHOENIX-GC randomized controlled trial; therefore, the appropriate treatment for GCPM remains controversial. Small observational studies from Japan and Singapore have reported successful downstaging of PM in GC patients receiving SIPC who subsequently underwent conversion gastrectomy with a median OS of 21.6-34.6 months. Recently, the most significant development in IP-directed therapy is pressurized IP aerosol chemotherapy (PIPAC). Given that aerosol chemotherapy achieves a wider distribution and deeper penetration, the outcomes of multiple ongoing trials assessing its efficacy are eagerly awaited. Indeed, IP-directed therapy has evolved rapidly in the last 3 decades, with an encouraging trend toward improved outcomes in GCPM, and may offer some hope for an otherwise fatal disease.

Comparison Different Methods of Intraoperative and Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy for Patients with Gastric Cancer: A Meta-analysis

  • Huang, Jin-Yu;Xu, Ying-Ying;Sun, Zhe;Zhu, Zhi;Song, Yong-Xi;Guo, Peng-Tao;You, Yi;Xu, Hui-Mian
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.9
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    • pp.4379-4385
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    • 2012
  • Purpose: To investigate the efficacy and safety of intraperitoneal chemotherapy (IPC) for patients with gastric cancer and to compare effects between different regimens of IPC. Method: Randomized controlled trials comparing the effects of surgery plus intraperitoneal chemotherapy with surgery alone or comparing the efficacy between different regimens of intraperitoneal chemotherapy were searched for in Medline, Embase, Pubmed, the Cochrane Library and the Chinese BioMedical Disc and so on by two independent reviewers. After quality assessment and data extraction, data were pooled for meta-analysis using RevMan5.16 software. Tests of interaction were used to test for differences of effects among subgroups grouped according to different IPC regimens. Results: Fifteen RCTs with a total of 1713 patients with gastric cancer were included for quality assessment and data extraction. Ten studies were judged to be of fair quality and entered into meta-analysis. Hyperthermic intraoperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HR=0.60, P<0.01), hyperthermic intraoperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy plus postoperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HR=0.47, P<0.01) and normothermic intraoperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HR=0.70, P=0.01) were associated with a significant improvement in overall survival. Tests of interaction showed that hyperthermia and additional postoperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy did not impact on its effect. Further analysis revealed that intraperitoneal chemotherapy remarkably decrease the rate of postoperative hepatic metastasis by 73% (OR=0.27, 95% CI=0.12 to 0.67, P<0.01). However, intraperitoneal chemotherapy increased risks of marrow depression (OR=5.74, P<0.01), fever (OR=3.67, P=0.02) and intra-abdominal abscess (OR=3.57, P<0.01). Conclusion: The present meta-analysis demonstrates that hyperthermic intraoperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy and normothermic intraoperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy should be recommended to treat patients with gastric cancer because of improvement in overall survival. However, it is noteworthy that intraperitoneal chemotherapy can increase the risks of marrow depression, intra-abdominal abscesses, and fever.

Effect of Preoperative Chemotherapy on Survival in High-grade Localized Osteosarcoma of the Extremity (골육종에서 수술 전 항암 약물치료가 생존에 미치는 영향)

  • Choi, Eun-Seok;Han, Ilkyu;Cho, Hwan Seong;Kim, Han-Soo
    • The Journal of the Korean bone and joint tumor society
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.59-65
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    • 2012
  • Purpose: Multidisciplinary approaches of surgical resection and chemotherapy have been widely used for the treatment of non-metastatic osteosarcomas. We aimed to assess the effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for metastasis and disease-specific survival. Materials and Methods: Authors retrospectively reviewed 225 young (<30 years old) and non-metastatic osteosarcoma patients who underwent surgical resection and postoperative chemotherapy between February 1984 and July 2010. Mean age was 14.4 years old (ranged: 4-29 years old) and average follow-up period was 9.1 years (2-28 years). The patients were divided into two groups according to the application of preoperative chemotherapy. Both groups were compared with clinical characteristics, metastasis-free survival and disease-specific survival. Results: All of 225 patients, 32 patients were treated with postoperative chemotherapy and 193 patients were performed preoperative and postoperative chemotherapy. Postoperative chemotherapy group showed significantly high rate of amputation (p<0.001). Metastasis was occurred in 101 patients. Postoperative chemotherapy group indicated significant higher rate of metastasis (69% vs 41%, p=0.004) and early development of metastasis (mean: 11.5 vs 20.3 months, p=0.045) than pre-and postoperative chemotherapy group. Fifty-seven patients were died of osteosarcoma. Postoperative chemotherapy group revealed significant lower rate of 5-year disease-specific survival than pre-and postoperative chemotherapy group (51% vs 84%, p=0.001). Adult (>15 years) and large sized tumor (>8 cm) were meaningful risk factors of metastasis and disease-specific survival. Although, local recurrences were occurred in 13 patients, there was no significant difference. Conclusion: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy offers better disease-specific survival and metastasis-free survival.