• Title, Summary, Keyword: charged aerosol detection

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Simultaneous Determination of Triterpenoid Saponins from Pulsatilla koreana using High Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with a Charged Aerosol Detector (HPLC-CAD)

  • Yeom, Hye-Sun;Suh, Joon-Hyuk;Youm, Jeong-Rok;Han, Sang-Beom
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.31 no.5
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    • pp.1159-1164
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    • 2010
  • Several triterpenoid saponins from root of Pulsatilla koreana Nakai (Ranunculaceae) were studied and their biological activities were reported. It is difficult to analyze triterpenoid saponins using HPLC-UV due to the lack of chromophores. So, evaporative light scattering detection (ELSD) is used as a valuable alternative to UV detection. More recently, a charged aerosol detection (CAD) has been developed to improve the sensitivity and reproducibility of ELSD. In this study, we developed and validated a novel method of high performance liquid chromatography coupled with a charged aerosol detector for the simultaneous determination of four triterpenoid saponins: pulsatilloside E, pulsatilla saponin H, anemoside B4 and cussosaponin C. Analytes were separated by the Supelco Ascentis$^{(R)}$ Express C18 column (4.6 mm ${\times}$ 150 mm, 2.7 ${\mu}m$) with gradient elution of methanol and water at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min at $30^{\circ}C$. We examined various factors that could affect the sensitivity of the detectors, including various concentrations of additives, the pH of the mobile phase, and the CAD range. Linear calibration curves were obtained within the concentration ranges of 2 - 200 ${\mu}g$/mL for pulsatilloside E, anemoside $B_4$ and cussosaponin C, and 5 - 500 ${\mu}g$/mL for pulsatilla saponin H with correlation coefficient ($R^2$) greater than 0.995. The limit of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were 0.04 - 0.2 and 2 - 5 ${\mu}g$/mL, respectively. The validity of the developed HPLC-CAD method was confirmed by satisfactory values of linearity, intra- and inter-day accuracy and precision. This method could be successfully applied to quality evaluation, quality control and monitoring of Pulsatilla koreana.

Effect of Performance of Aerosol Charge Neutralizers on the Measurement of Highly Charged Particles Using a SMPS (에어로졸 중화기의 성능이 고하전 입자의 크기분포 측정에 미치는 영향)

  • Ji, Jun-Ho;Bae, Swi-Nam;Hwang, Jung-Ho
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B
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    • v.27 no.10
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    • pp.1498-1507
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    • 2003
  • A SMPS(scanning mobility particle sizer) system measures the number size distribution of particles using electrical mobility detection technique. An aerosol charge neutralizer, which is a component of the SMPS, is a bipolar charger using a radioactive source to apply an equilibrium charge distribution to aerosols of unknown charge distribution. However, the performance of aerosol charge neutralizers is not well known, especially for highly charged particles. In this study, the effect of the particle charging characteristics of two aerosol charge neutralizers on the measurement using a SMPS system was experimentally investigated for highly charged polydisperse particles. One has radioactive source of $^{85}$ Kr (beta source, 2 mCi) and the other has $^{210}$ Po (alpha source, 0.5 mCi). The air flow rate passing through each aerosol charge neutralizer was changed from 0.3 to 3.0 L/min. The results show that the non-equilibrium character in particle charge distribution appears as the air flow rate increases although the particle number concentration is relatively low in the range of 1.5∼2x10$^{6}$ particles/㎤. The low neutralizing efficiency of the $^{85}$ Kr aerosol charge neutralizer for highly charged particles can cause to bring an artifact in the measurement using a SMPS system. However, the performance of the $^{210}$ Po aerosol charge neutralizer is insensitive to the air flow rate.

The Use of the Online Two-dimensional Liquid Chromatography Coupled with a Universal Detector for the Screening of Non-volatile Potential Migrants in Food Packaging Materials (식품포장재내 비휘발성 잠재 이행물질들의 스크리닝을 위한 이차원크로마토 그래피와 범용검출기의 이용)

  • Yoon, Chan-Suk;Lee, Keun-Taik
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF PACKAGING SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.9-18
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    • 2010
  • For screening test of the non-volatile compounds which migrate from food packaging materials into foodstuffs, the traditional high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) systems suffer from the lack of universal detector with high sensitivity and universality and high efficiency HPLC separation column which provides complete separation of complex mixtures into all individual substances. In this work, the use possibility of online two-dimensional liquid chromatography (2D-LC) system coupled with a charged aerosol detector (CAD), a universal detector, was reviewed. 2D-LC system permits to improve peak capacity and resolving power for complex mixtures. Charged aerosol detector (CAD) offers a new feasibility for detection of any non-volatile compounds with high sensitivity and constant response factor in a calibration range. The combination of size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and normal phase HPLC (NP-HPLC) is most frequently used for the separation of the natural and synthetic polymers which are mainly used as raw materials for the manufacture of food packaging materials. However, there is no commercial software available for data acquisition and handling and therefore the quantification in 2D-LC analysis is still rare.

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Design and Performance Evaluation of a Faraday Cage and an Aerosol Charger (패러데이 케이지와 에어로졸 하전기의 설계 및 성능평가)

  • Ji, Jun-Ho;Bae, Kwi-Nam;Hwang, Jung-Ho
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.315-323
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    • 2004
  • An electrical cascade impactor is a multi-stage impaction device to separate airborne particles into aerodynamic size classes using particle charging and electrical detection techniques. A Faraday cage and an aerosol charger, which are basic components of the electrical cascade impactor, were designed and evaluated in this study. The low-level current response of the Faraday cage was investigated with changing particle size and air flow rate by using sodium chloride (NaCl) particles. The response of the prototype Faraday cage was very similar to that of a commercial aerosol electrometer (TSI model 3068) within ${\pm}$5% for singly-charged particles. The response linearity of the prototype Faraday cage could be extended up to flow rate of 30 L/min. For the performance evaluation of the aerosol charger the monodisperse liquid dioctyl sebacate (DOS) particles, with diameters of 0.1∼0.8$\mu\textrm{m}$, were generated using spraying from an atomizer followed by evaporation-condensation process. Typical performance parameters of the aerosol charger such as P$.$n, wall loss, and elementary charges per particle were evaluated. The performance of the prototype aerosol charger was found to be close to that of the aerosol charger used in an electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI, Dekati).

Simultaneous Analysis Method for Polar and Non-polar Ginsenosides in Cultivated Wild Ginseng by Reversed-phase HPLC-CAD (HPLC-CAD에 의한 산양삼의 극성 및 비극성 ginsenoside 동시 분석)

  • Ok, Seon;Kang, Jae Seon;Kim, Kang Min
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.247-252
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    • 2016
  • Cultivated wild ginseng is a widely used dietary supplement and medicinal herb. The aim of this study was to optimize the ginseng using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)- charged aerosol detection (CAD) for ginsenoside analysis. CAD measures the physical property of an analyte and responds to almost all non-volatile species, independent of their nature, spectral properties, or particle size. It has become widely employed in pharmaceutical analysis. The cultivated wild ginseng extracts were analyzed for compositions of ginsenosides Rb1, Rd, Rg1, Rf, Re, and Rh1. The optimal analysis condition was set up from an experiment using a gradient. Ten grams of cultivated wild ginseng were extracted with 95% EtOH 100 ml for 24 hr at 80℃. The contents of the 6six major ginsenosides in the cultivated wild ginseng extract were Rb1 (5.48±0.12 mg/g), Rd (5.33±0.14 mg/g), Rg1 (12.80± 0.05 mg/g), Rf (19.08±0.68 mg/g), Re (19.87±0.05 mg/g), and Rh1 (16.47±0.16 mg/g), respectively. HPLC showed that the protopanaxatriol group (Rg1, Rf, Re, Rh1) had more content than the protopanaxadiol group (Rb1, Rd) in cultivated wild ginseng extract. In summary, the ginsenosides were identified with HPLC-CAD analysis, and their presence and quantity imply the importance of quality control, as well as the pharmacological activity of the ginseng root.

Design and Performance Evaluation of a Diode Type Corona Charger for Real-Time Measurement of the Submicron Aerosol (실시간 미세입자 측정을 위한 다이오드형 코로나 하전기의 설계 및 성능평가)

  • Cho, Myung-Hoon;Ji, Jun-Ho;Park, Dong-Ho;Bae, Gwi-Nam;Hwang, Jung-Ho
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B
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    • v.28 no.9
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    • pp.1066-1074
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    • 2004
  • With a diode corona charger, which is a component of ELPI(Electrical Low Pressure Impactor), aerosol particles are charged to make electrical detection possible before they are collected by the impactor. We designed and evaluated two cylindrical corona chargers, each of which had a central corona needle electrode. For the performance evaluation of each corona charger the polydisperse dioctyl sebacate(DOS) particles, with diameters of 0.1∼0.8 $\mu$m and NaCl particles, smaller than 0.1$\mu$m, were used. The particles were then led through an electrostatic classifier (TSI model 3081) to classify monodisperse aerosol with minimal size deviation. After evaluating the wall loss of the particles in the corona charger, we measured the product of penetration and number of charges, Pㆍn, to evaluate the corona charger efficiency at high positive voltages of 4, 5, 6 kV.

Experiment on Collection Characteristics of Sub micron Particles in Two-Stage Parallel-Plate Electrostatic Precipitators (2단 평행판 전기집진기의 서브마이크론 입자 포집특성 실험)

  • Oh, M.D.;Yoo, K.H.
    • Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering
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    • v.6 no.3
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    • pp.237-246
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    • 1994
  • Experimental data are reported for charging and collection of NaCl aerosols in the 0.03- to $0.2{\mu}m$-geometric-mean-diameter range in 2-stage parallel-plate electrostatic precipitators. The NaCl aerosols are generated with geometric standard deviation of about 1.74 and particle generation rate of about 10^9 particles/see by the constant output atomizer and injected into the air flow in the clean wind-tunnel. The 2-stage parallel-plate electrostatic precipitator installed in the test section of the wind-tunnel is operated with a positive corona discharge. The NaCl aerosols in the channel flow are sampled and transported to the aerosol particle number concentration measurement system by using the isoaxial sampling and transport system constructed based on the Okazaki and Willeke design. The aerosol particle number concentration measurement system measures the size distribution of submicrometer aerosols by an electrical mobility detection technique. It is confirmed from comparing the measured collection efficiencies in this study and the predicted ones by our previous theoretical analysis that the predicted collection efficiencies agree well with the experimental ones. It is also found from the comparison that below about $0.02{\mu}m$ all particles are not charged and the uncharged particles are not collected, and consequently 2-stage parallel-plate electrostatic precipitators are not suitable for that particle size range.

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