• Title, Summary, Keyword: cervix

Search Result 538, Processing Time 0.039 seconds

The evaluation of dose of TSEI with TLD and diode dector of the uterine cervix cancer (열형광선량계와 반도체검출기를 이용한 전신피부전자선조사의 선량평가)

  • Je Young Wan;Na Keyung Su;Yoon IL Kyu;Park Heung Deuk
    • The Journal of Korean Society for Radiation Therapy
    • /
    • v.17 no.1
    • /
    • pp.57-71
    • /
    • 2005
  • Purpose : To evaluate radiation dose and accuracy with TLD and diode detector when treat total skin with electron beam. Materials and Methods : Using Stanford Technique, we treated patient with Mycosis Fungoides. 6 MeV electron beam of LINAC was used and the SSD was 300 cm. Also, acrylic speller(0.8 cm) was used. The patient position was 6 types and the gantry angle was 64, 90 and $116^{\circ}$. The patient's skin dose and the output were detected 5 to 6 times with TLD and diode. Result : The deviations of dose detected with TLD from tumor dose were CA $+\;6\%$, thigh $+\;8\%$, umbilicus $+\;4\%$, calf $-\;8\%$, vertex $-\;74.4\%$, deep axillae $-\;10.2\%$, anus and testis $-\;87\%$, sole $-\;86\%$ and nails shielded with 4mm lead $+4\%$. The deviations of dose detected with diode were $-4.5\%{\sim}+5\%$ at the patient center and $-1.1\%{\sim}+1\%$ at the speller. Conclusion : The deviation of total skin dose was $+\;8\%{\sim}-\;8\%$ and that deviation was within the acceptable range(${\pm}\;10\%$). The boost dose was irradiated for the low dose areas(vertex, anus, sole). The electron beam output detected at the sootier was stable. It is thought that the deviation of dose at patient center detected with diode was induced by detection point and patient position.

  • PDF

Cytotoxic Effects of Tenebrio molitor Larval Extracts against Hepatocellular Carcinoma (갈색거저리 유충 추출물의 간암세포에 대한 세포독성 효능)

  • Lee, Ji-Eun;Lee, An-Jung;Jo, Da-Eun;Cho, Ju Hyeong;Youn, Kumju;Yun, Eun-Young;Hwang, Jae-Sam;Jun, Mira;Kang, Byoung Heon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
    • /
    • v.44 no.2
    • /
    • pp.200-207
    • /
    • 2015
  • Various natural products or their derivatives, mostly originating from plants, fungi, and bacteria, have been exploited as therapeutic drugs to treat various human diseases. In addition to previously explored organisms, research on natural compounds has now expanded into unexamined living organisms in order to identify novel bioactive substances. Here, we determined whether or not the larval form of the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor, a species of darkling beetle, contains cytotoxic substances that exclusively affect cancer cell viability. Ethanol extract and its solvent partitioned fractions, hexane and ethyl acetate fractions, showed anticancer effects against various human cancer cells derived from the prostate (PC3 and 22Rv1), cervix (HeLa), liver (PLC/PRF5, HepG2, Hep3B, and SK-HEP-1), colon (HCT116), lung (NCI-H460), breast (MDA-MB231), and ovary (SKOV3). Cell death induced by the fractions was a mix of apoptosis, necrosis, and autophagy. The hexane fraction was administered intraperitoneally to nude mice bearing a hepatocellular carcinoma SK-HEP-1 and showed inhibition of tumor growth in vivo. Therefore, we concluded that worm extracts contain cytotoxic substances, which can be enriched by proper fractionation protocols, and further separation and purification could lead to the identification of novel molecules to treat human cancers.

Diagnostic Performance of HPV E6/E7 mRNA and HPV DNA Assays for the Detection and Screening of Oncogenic Human Papillomavirus Infection among Woman with Cervical Lesions in China

  • Wang, Hye-young;Lee, Dongsup;Park, Sunyoung;Kim, Geehyuk;Kim, Sunghyun;Han, Lin;Yubo, Ren;Li, Yingxue;Park, Kwang Hwa;Lee, Hyeyoung
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
    • /
    • v.16 no.17
    • /
    • pp.7633-7640
    • /
    • 2015
  • Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection worldwide and it is responsible for most cases of cervical uterine cancer. Although HPV infections of the cervix do not always progress to cancer, 90% of cervical cancer cases have been found to be associated with high risk HPV (HR-HPV) infection. HPV DNA testing is widely used, along with Papanicolaou (Pap) testing, to screen for cervical abnormalities. However, there are no data on the prevalence of genotype-specific HPV infections assessed by measuring HPV E6/E7 mRNA in women representative of the Chinese population across a broad age range. Materials and Methods: In the present study, we compared the results with the CervicGen HPV RT-qDx assay, which detects 16 HR-HPV genotypes (Alpha-9: HPV 16, 31, 33, 35, 52, and 58; Alpha-7: HPV 18, 39, 45, 51, 59, and 68; and Alpha-5, 6: HPV 53, 56, 66, and 69), and the REBA HPV-ID assay, which detects 32 HPV genotypes based on the reverse blot hybridization assay (REBA) for the detection of oncogenic HPV infection according to cytological diagnosis. We also investigated the prevalence and genotype distribution of HPV infection with a total of 324 liquid-based cytology samples collected in western Shandong province, East China. Results: The overall HPV prevalences determined by HPV DNA and HPV E6/E7 mRNA assays in this study were 79.9% (259/324) and 55.6% (180/324), respectively. Although the positivity of HPV E6/E7 mRNA expression was significantly lower than HPV DNA positivity, the HPV E6/E7 mRNA assay showed greater specificity than the HPV DNA assay (88.6% vs. 48.1%) in normal cytology samples. The prevalence of Alpha-9 (HPV 16, 31, 33, 35, 52, and 58) HPV infection among these women accounted for up to 80.3% and 76.1% of the high-grade lesions detected in the HPV mRNA and DNA tests, respectively. The HR-HPV genotype distribution, based on HPV DNA and E6/E7 mRNA expression by age group in patients with cytologically confirmed lesions, was highest in women aged 40 to 49 years (35.9% for cytologically confirmed cases, Pearson correlation r value=0.993, p<0.001) for high-grade lesions. Among the oncogenic HR-HPV genotypes for all age groups, there was little difference in the distribution of HPV genotypes between the HPV DNA (HPV -16, 53, 18, 58, and 33) and HPV E6/E7 mRNA (HPV -16, 53, 33, 58, and 18) assays. HPV 16 was the most common HPV genotype among women with high-grade lesions. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the HPV E6/E7 mRNA assay can be a sensitive and specific tool for the screening and investigation of cervical cancer. Furthermore, it may provide useful information regarding the necessity for early cervical cancer screenings and the development of additional effective HPV vaccines, such as one for HPV 53 and 58. Additionally, gaining knowledge of HPV distribution may also inform us about ecological changes in HPV after the vaccination.

The Role of MnSOD in the Mechanisms of Acquired Resistance to TNF (TNF에 대한 내성획득에서 MnSOD의 역할에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Hyuk-Pyo;Yoo, Chul-Gyu;Kim, Young-Whan;Han, Sung-Koo;Shim, Young-Soo
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
    • /
    • v.44 no.6
    • /
    • pp.1353-1365
    • /
    • 1997
  • Background : Tumor necrosis factor(TNF) has been considered as an important candidate for cancer gene therapy based on its potent anti-tumor activity. However, since the efficiency of current techniques of gene transfer is not satisfactory, the majority of current protocols is aiming the in vitro gene transfer to cancer cells and re-introducing genetically modified cancer cells to host. In the previous study, it was shown that TNF-sensitive cancer cells transfected with TNF-$\alpha$ cDNA would become highly resistant to TNF, and the probability was shown that the acquired resistance to TNF might be associated with synthesis of some protective protein. Understanding the mechanisms of TNF -resistance in TNF-$\alpha$ cDNA transfected cancer cells would be. an important step for improving the efficacy of cancer gene therapy as well as for better understandings of tumor biology. This study was designed to evaluate the role of MnSOD, an antioxidant enzyme, in the acquired resistance to TNF of TNF-$\alpha$ cDN A transfected cancer cells. Method : We transfected TNF-$\alpha$ c-DNA to WEHI164(murine fibrosarcoma cell line), NCI-H2058(human mesothelioma cell line), A549(human non-small cell lung cancer cell line), ME180(human cervix cancer cell line) cells using retroviral vector(pLT12SN(TNF)) and confirm the expression of TNF with PCR, ELISA, MIT assay. Then we determined the TNF resistance of TNF-$\alpha$ cDNA transfected cells(WEHI164-TNF, NCIH2058-TNF, A549-TNF, ME180-TNF) and the changes of MnSOD mRNA expressions with Northern blot analysis. Results : The MnSOD mRNA expressions of parental cells and genetically modified cells of WEHI164 and ME180 cells(both are naturally TNF sensitive) were not significantly different The MnSOD mRNA expressions of genetically modified cells of NCI-H2058 and A549(both are naturally TNF resistant) were higher than those of the parental cells, while those of parental cells with exogenous TNF were also elevated. Conclusion : The acquired resistance to TNF after TNF-$\alpha$ cDNA transfection may not be associated with the change in the MnSOD expression, but the difference in natural TNF sensitivity of each cell may be associated with the level of the MnSOD expression.

  • PDF

Comparison of CT based-CTV plan and CT based-ICRU38 plan in brachytherapy planning of uterine cervix cancer (자궁경부암 강내조사 시 CT를 이용한 CTV에 근거한 치료계획과 ICRU 38에 근거할 치료계획의 비교)

  • Shim JinSup;Jo JungKun;Si ChangKeun;Lee KiHo;Lee DuHyun;Choi KyeSuk
    • The Journal of Korean Society for Radiation Therapy
    • /
    • v.16 no.2
    • /
    • pp.9-17
    • /
    • 2004
  • Purpose : Although Improve of CT, MRI Radio-diagnosis and Radiation Therapy Planing, but we still use ICRU38 Planning system(2D film-based) broadly. 3-Dimensional ICR plan(CT image based) is not only offer tumor and normal tissue dose but also support DVH information. On this study, we plan irradiation-goal dose on CTV(CTV plan) and irradiation-goal dose on ICRU 38 point(ICRU38 plan) by use CT image. And compare with tumor-dose, rectal-dose, bladder-dose on both planning, and analysis DVH Method and Material : Sample 11 patients who treated by Ir-192 HDR. After 40Gy external radiation therapy, ICR plan established. All the patients carry out CT-image scanned by CT-simulator. And we use PLATO(Nucletron) v.14.2 planing system. We draw CTV, rectum, bladder on the CT image. And establish plan irradiation-$100\%$ dose on CTV(CTV plan) and irradiation-$100\%$ dose on A-point(ICRU38 plan) Result : CTV volume($average{\pm}SD$) is $21.8{\pm}26.6cm^3$, rectum volume($average{\pm}SD$) is $60.9{\pm}25.0cm^3$, bladder volume($average{\pm}SD$) is $116.1{\pm}40.1cm^3$ sampled 11 patients. The volume including $100\%$ dose is $126.7{\pm}18.9cm^3$ on ICRU plan and $98.2{\pm}74.5cm^3$ on CTV plan. On ICRU planning, the other one's $22.0cm^3$ CTV volume who residual tumor size excess 4cm is not including $100\%$ isodose. 8 patient's $12.9{\pm}5.9cm^3$ tumor volume who residual tumor size belows 4cm irradiated $100\%$ dose. Bladder dose(recommended by ICRU 38) is $90.1{\pm}21.3\%$ on ICRU plan, $68.7{\pm}26.6\%$ on CTV plan, and rectal dose is $86.4{\pm}18.3\%,\;76.9{\pm}15.6\%$. Bladder and Rectum maximum dose is $137.2{\pm}50.1\%,\;101.1{\pm}41.8\%$ on ICRU plan, $107.6{\pm}47.9\%,\;86.9{\pm}30.8\%$ on CTV plan. Therefore CTV plan more less normal issue-irradiated dose than ICRU plan. But one patient case who residual tumor size excess 4cm, Normal tissue dose more higher than critical dose remarkably on CTV plan. $80\%$over-Irradiated rectal dose(V80rec) is $1.8{\pm}2.4cm^3$ on ICRU plan, $0.7{\pm}1.0cm^3$ on CTV plan. $80\%$over-Irradiated bladder dose(V80bla) is $12.2{\pm}8.9cm^3$ on ICRU plan, $3.5{\pm}4.1cm^3$ on CTV plan. Likewise, CTV plan more less irradiated normal tissue than ICRU38 plan. Conclusion : Although, prove effect and stability about previous ICRU plan, if we use CTV plan by CT image, we will reduce normal tissue dose and irradiated goal-dose at residual tumor on small residual tumor case. But bigger residual tumor case, we need more research about effective 3D-planning.

  • PDF

Morphological Changes of Mouse Ovary by X-Ray Irradiation (방사선 조사선량에 따른 생쥐 난소의 형태학적 변화)

  • Yoon, Chul-Ho;Choi, Jong-Woon;Yoon, Surk-Hwan
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
    • /
    • v.32 no.4
    • /
    • pp.140-156
    • /
    • 2007
  • This research was performed to investigate the morphological changes of folliculus ovary according to the radiation dose. The whole body radiation of 200 cGy, 400 cGy, and 600 cGy was given to the each groups of 5 months-aged female mouse. Various staining methods used in this research are: Hematosylin-Eosin method, and immunohistochemistrical methods using BrdU, TUNEL, p53, p21, PCNA and inhibin. The minute structural changes of folliculus ovary were observed through an electron microscope with high magnification. The morphological changes of growing folliculus ovary became distinct as the dose of X-rays increased. Especially, the nuclei of granular cells showed manifest condensation and the changes of the transparent zone were distinct. As a result of histochemical reaction according to Masson's trichrome method and reticular fiber method, the changed granular cells, the deformed basilar membrane of folliculus ovary and the abnormal arrangement of the reticular fiber were observed. In the reaction of BrdU, the granular cells of normal folliculus ovary with positive reaction rapidly decreased according to the increase of the dose of X-rays. In TUNEL study, granular cells showing positive reaction in retarded folliculus ovary were expanded to growing folliculus ovary and primordial folliculus ovary according to the increase of the dose of X-rays. In case of 600 cGy of X-rays, oocyte underwent apoptosis. In p53 immunohistochemistry, p53 manifested to be stronger as the dose of X-rays increased. p53 reactivity was manifested distinctively in all cells comprising folliculus ovary following irradiation of 600 cGy. p21 was manifested in granular cells of folliculus ovary and showed very positive reaction around follicular antrum according to the increase of the dose of X-rays. In PCNA, positive reaction was manifested in growing folliculus ovary, mature folliculus ovary and primordial folliculus ovary, but the extent of the reaction decreased as the dose of the X-rays decreased. The finding that the reaction of granular cells around folliculus ovary was stronger than that near follicular membrane indicates that what was damaged first by X-ray was the cells near folliculus ovary and follicular antrum. The reactivity of $inhibin-{\alpha}$ showed difference according to the growing stage of folliculus ovary: $inhibin-{\alpha}$ showed the most strong reaction in mature folliculus ovary with follicular antrum. There was strong reaction in granular cells around follicular membrane but $inhibin-{\alpha}$ did not occur at all in theca cells comprising follicular membrane. $Inhibin-{\alpha}$ in ovary tissue exposed to 400 cGy of X-rays was manifested more strongly than in ovary tissue exposed to 600 cGy of X-rays, which was related to the phenomenon that granular cells of mature folliculus ovary underwent necrosis or apoptosis increasingly due to X-rays. In an electron microscope with high magnification, nuclei and protoplasm of granular cells in growing folliculus ovary abruptly underwent minute structural changes according to the increase of dose of X-rays. Cell residue, by-product of cell decease, neutrophil and macrophage around follicular antrum were observed. The minute structural changes in granular cells showed typical characteristics of apoptosis: the increase of electronic density due to nuclear condensation, fragmentation of nuclei and atrophy of protoplasm. Necrosis of cells was identified but it was not so remarkable. Macrophage with apoptotic bodies was scattered. Proportional to the radiation dose, we found that the generation of heterogeneous substance of normal ovary texture's follicular fluid, the emergence of dyeing characteristic in the basilar membrane of folicle, the generation of apoptosis, and the transformation of macrophages, etc. From this results, we can infer the possible radiation hazard on the ovary of cervix cancer patient with radiation therapy.

The Analysis of Dose in a Rectum by Multipurpose Brachytherapy Phantom (근접방사선치료용 다목적 팬톰을 이용한 직장 내 선량분석)

  • Huh, Hyun-Do;Kim, Seong-Hoon;Cho, Sam-Ju;Lee, Suk;Shin, Dong-Oh;Kwon, Soo-Il;Kim, Hun-Jung;Kim, Woo-Chul;K. Loh John-J.
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
    • /
    • v.23 no.4
    • /
    • pp.223-229
    • /
    • 2005
  • Purpose: In this work we designed and made MPBP(Multi Purpose Brachytherapy Phantom). The MPBP enables one to reproduce the same patient set-up in MPBP as the treatment of the patient and we tried to get an exact analysis of rectal doses in the phantom without need of in-vivo dosimetry. Materials and Methods: Dose measurements were tried at a point of rectum 1, the reference point of rectum, with a diode detector for 4 patients treated with tandem and ovoid for a brachytherapy of a cervix cancer. Total 20 times of rectal dose measurements were made with 5 times a patient. The set-up variation of the diode detector was analyzed. The same patient set-ups were reproduced in self-made MPBP and then rectal doses were measured with TLD. Results: The measurement results of the diode detector showed that the set-up variation of the diode detector was the maximum $11.25{\pm}0.95mm$ in the y-direction for Patient 1 and the maximum $9.90{\pm}4.50mm,\;20.85{\pm}4.50mm,\;and\;19.15{\pm}3.33mm$ in the z-direction for Patient 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Un analyzing the degree of variation in 3 directions the more variation was showed in the z-direction than x- and y-direction except Patient 1. The results of TLD measurements in MPBP showed the relative maximum error of 8.6% and 7.7% at a point of rectum 1 for Patient 1 and 4, respectively and 1.7% and 1.2% for Patient 2 and 3, respectively. The doses measured at R1 and R2 were higher than those calculated except R point of Patient 2. this can be thought to related to the algorithm of dose calculation, whcih corrects for air and water but is guessed not to consider the correction for the scattered rays, but by considering the self-error (${\pm}5%$) TLD has the relative error of values measured and calculated was analyzed to be in a good agreement within 15%. Conclusion: The reproducibility of dose measurements under the same condition as the treatment could be achieved owing to the self-made MPMP and the dose at the point of interest could be analyzed accurately. If a treatment is peformed after achieving dose optimization using the data obtained in the phantom, dose will be able to be minimized to important organs.

Packing effects on the intracavitary radiation Therapy 3-Dimension plan of the uterine cervix cancer (자궁경부암 강내조사 3차원 치료계획 시 Packing의 유용성 분석)

  • Si, Chang-Keun;Jo, Jung-Kun;Lee, Du-Hyun;Kim, Sun-Yeung;Kim, Tae-Yoon
    • The Journal of Korean Society for Radiation Therapy
    • /
    • v.17 no.1
    • /
    • pp.1-8
    • /
    • 2005
  • Purpose : An effect of a packing to uterine treatment of a cervical cancer using a dose-volume histogram for a point dose and a volume dose of the bladder and the rectum was analyzed by establishing a three-dimensional treatment plan using a CT image. Materials and methods : Reference points of the bladder and the rectum were marked, respectively at a treatment plan device (plato brachytherapy V14.2.4) by photographing CT(marconi, USA) when the packing was used and removed under the same condition and a treatment plan was performed to Apoint depending on ICRU38. However, in case of the rectum, a maximum point was looked up and compared with the above point because the point presented from the ICRU is not proper as a representative value of a rectum point dose. Further, the volume dose depending on volume of $50\%,\;80\%,\;and\;100\%$ point doses of the rectum and the bladder was measured. The measured values were used to analyze the effect of the packing through a Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test (a SAS statistical analysis process program). Result : The reference points at the bladder and rectum doses when the packing was removed were $116.94\;35.42\%$ and $117.59\;21.08\%$, respectively. The points when the packing was used were $107.08\;38.12\%$ and $95.19\;21.32\%$, respectively. After the packing was used, the reference points at the bladder and the rectum were decreased by $9.86\%$ and $22.4\%$, respectively. When the packing was removed, the maximum points at the bladder and the rectum were $164.51\;50.89\%,\;128.81\;33.05\%$, respectively. When the packing was used, the maximum points at the bladder and the rectum were $142.31\;44.79,\;110.08\;37.03\%$, respectively. After the packing was used, the maximum points at the bladder and the rectum were decreased by $22.2\%$ and $18.73\%$, respectively. When the packing was removed, the bladder volume at $50\%,\;80\%,\;and\;100\%$ point doses of the rectum and the bladder were $48.62{\pm}18.09\%,\;16.12{\pm}11.15\%,\;and\;7.51{\pm}6.63\%$, respectively and its rectum volume were $23.41{\pm}14.44\%,\;6.27{\pm}4.28\%,\;2.79{\pm}2.27\%$, respectively. When the packing was used, the bladder volume at $50\%,\;80\%,\;and\;100\%$ point doses of the rectum and the bladder were $40.33{\pm}16.72,\;11.63{\pm}8.72,\;and\;4.87{\pm}4.75\%$, respectively and its rectum volume were $18.96{\pm}8.37\%,\;4.75{\pm}2.58\%,\;and\;1.58{\pm}1.06\%$, respectively. After the packing was used, the bladder volume at $50\%,\;80\%,\;and\;100\%$ point doses of the rectum and the bladder were decreased by $8.29\%,\;4.49\%,\;and\;2.64\%$, respectively and its bladder volume were decreased by $4.45\%,\;1.52\%,\;and\;1.21\%$, respectively. Conclusion : Values at Reference point doses of the bladder and the rectum recommended from the ICRU 38 were 0.0781 and 0.0781, respectively and values of their maximum point doses were 0.0156 and 0.0156, respectively, as a result of which an effect of the packing using at the uterine intracavitary treatment of an uterine cervical cancer through the three-dimensional treatment plan used CT were measured. That is, the values at reference point doses and the values at maximum point doses show similar difference. However, P value was 0.15 at over $50\%,\;80\%,\;and\;100\%$ volume doses and the value shows no similar difference. In other words, the effect of the packing looks like having a difference at the point dose, but actually shows no difference at the volume dose. The reason is that the volume of the bladder and the rectum are wide but the volume of the packing is only a portion. Therefore, the effect of decreasing the point dose was not great. Further, the farer the distance is, the more weak the intensity of radiation is because the intensity of radiation is proportional to inverse square of a distance. Therefore, the effort to minimize an obstacle of the bladder and the rectum by using the packing should be made.

  • PDF