• Title, Summary, Keyword: cervical cancer screening

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Cervical Cancer Screening in Korean American Women: Findings from Focus Group Interviews

  • Kim, Hoo-Ja;Lee, Kyung-Ja;Lee, Sun-Ock;Kim, Sung-Jae
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.617-624
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    • 2004
  • Purpose. Korean American women have twice the rate of cervical cancer than white women and demonstrate low rates in participation in cervical cancer screening. This study was to describe the perceptions about cervical cancer and factors related to cervical cancer screening among Korean American women. Method. Focus group methods. Results. Five themes emerged. First, knowledge about cervical cancer; misconceptions about cervical cancer, its causes, reproductive anatomy and the treatment Second, perceived meanings of having cervical cancer; most of the women felt that cervical cancer represented a loss of femininity and existential value of woman-hood. Third, knowledge about cervical cancer screening; regular medical check-ups were necessary for early detection and prevention of cervical cancer. Forth, experiences and perceived meanings of cervical cancer screening; the participants expressed their feelings; embarrassment, fear, shame and shyness. Fifth, practices of cervical cancer screening; various intervals in participating in cervical cancer screening. But they mentioned several deterrents, language, insurance, time constraint, embarrassment, fear of the screening results, misbelief about susceptibility, lack of health prevention behavior, and lack of information written in Korean. Conclusion: Results emphasize the critical need for culturally appropriate health education to encourage participation of Korean American women in cervical cancer screening.

Attitudes and Practice of Cervical Cancer Screening among Female University Students from 25 Low, Middle Income and Emerging Economy Countries

  • Pengpid, Supa;Peltzer, Karl
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.17
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    • pp.7235-7239
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    • 2014
  • Cervical cancer, the third commonest cancer in women worldwide, can be prevented through early detection by cervical screening (Pap smear). The aim of this study was to investigate the attitudes and practice of cervical cancer screening among female undergraduate university students from 25 low, middle income and emerging economy countries. Using anonymous questionnaires, data were collected from 9,194 female undergraduate university students aged 18-26 years (mean age 20.9, SD=2.0) from 26 universities in 25 countries across Asia, Africa and the Americas. Overall, 11.6% of the female students indicated that they had conducted one or more times a cervical (Pap) smear test; 8.3% among 18-20 year-olds and 15.6% among 21-26 year-old students. There was considerable country variation on having had a cervical (Pap) smear test among 21-26 year-old female university students, ranging from 59.2% in Colombia and 50.9% in Barbados to 0% in India and 1.0% in Tunesia. Logistic regression showed that cervical cancer screening importance or positive attitude were highly associated with the cervical screening practice. Moreover, risky sexual behaviour and tobacco use, two cervical cancer risk factors, were associated with screening. Cervical cancer screening practices were found to be inadequate and e fforts should be made to develop programmes that can increase the uptake of cervical cancer screening.

Cervical Cancer Screening: Knowledge, Attitude and Practices among Nursing Staff in a Tertiary Level Teaching Institution of Rural India

  • Shekhar, Shashank;Sharma, Chanderdeep;Thakur, Sita;Raina, Nidhi
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.3641-3645
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    • 2013
  • Background: Assessment of the nursing staff knowledge, attitude and practices about cervical cancer screening in a tertiary care teaching institute of rural India. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional, descriptive, interview-based survey was conducted with a pretested questionnaire among 262 staff nurses of a tertiary care teaching and research institute. Results: In this study 77% respondents knew that Pap smear is used for detection of cervical cancer, but less than half knew that Pap smear can detect even precancerous lesions of cervix. Only 23.4% knew human papilloma virus infection as a risk factor. Only 26.7% of the respondents were judged as having adequate knowledge based on scores allotted for questions evaluating knowledge about cervical cancer and screening. Only 17 (7%) of the staff nurses had themselves been screened by Pap smear, while 85% had never taken a Pap smear of a patient. Adequate knowledge of cervical cancer and screening, higher parity and age >30 years were significantly associated with self screening for cervical cancer. Most nurese held a view that Pap test is a doctor procedure, and nearly 90% of nurses had never referred a patient for Pap testing. Conclusions: The majority of nursing staff in rural India may have inadequate knowledge about cervical cancer screening, and their attitude and practices towards cervical cancer screening could not be termed positive.

The Influence Factors on Cervical and Breast Cancers Screening Behavior of Women in a City (성인 여성의 자궁경부암 및 유방암 조기검진 수검행위에 영향을 미치는 요인)

  • 김영복;노운녕;이원철;박용문;맹광호
    • Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.155-170
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    • 2000
  • This study was aimed at preparing basic data required for establishment of a cancer screening program by examining the status of cancer screenings performed by women in a city and the factors that had an influence on cervical and breast cancers screening behavior of women. In order to find out the status of cervical and breast cancers screening and the factors having an influence on cervical and breast cancers screening behavior, 1,113 women were selected as study area and subjects by a random cluster sampling method, and the subjects were answered by questionnaires. The major results were as follows: 1. In the cases of the breast and the cervical cancers, 16.7% and 55.7% of the subjects turned out to have had one or more screenings respectively in their life-time. Also the rate of screening group of cervical and breast cancers was 16.7%, the rate of screening group of only cervical cancer was 38.9%, and the rate of non-screening group was 44.4%. 2. As to the screening pattern of cervical and breast cancer, there were significantly for age, income, occupation, married status, spouse, the factors associated with health promotion (doctor visiting, exercising), married age, number of children, and breast feeding(p〈0.05). 3. The factors associated with screening behaviors for cervical and breast cancers were age, income, occupation, married status, doctor visiting, exercising, married age, number of children, and breast feeding(p〈0.05). Based on the above-mentioned results obtained by this study, it was anticipated that this study may be playa vital role as basic data for the development and execution of cervical and breast cancers screening program for women in a community. And the analysis, done on the basis of the status of the cancer screening, of the influence factors on cervical and breast cancers screening behavior showed that for the development of a cancer screening program, the factors like age, social-economic class, married status, health promotion behavior, and reproductive characteristics should be considered.

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Proximity of Health Care Center and Cervical Cancer Screening Uptake in Thailand

  • Polrit, Kornnika;Kamsa-ard, Siriporn;Jirapornkul, Chananya;Promthet, Supannee
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.7
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    • pp.2899-2902
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    • 2015
  • Background: Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers among women worldwide, and in Thailand is the second most common cancer among women. In 2008, a national cervical cancer screening programme was implemented in Thailand, but coverage remains relatively low. Objectives: The purpose of the study was to investigate whether cervical cancer screening uptake is associated with the area of residency in Thailand. Materials and Methods: A case-control study was carried out in women aged 30 to 60 year-old, who live in Sikhiu district, Nakhon Ratchasima province, Thailand. Structured-questionnaires were used to interview 226 women (cases) who had attended cervical cancer screening in the last five years and 226 women (controls) who had not. Multiple logistic regression was used to investigate the association between the area of residency and cervical cancer screening uptake. Results: After controlling for parity, marital status and duration of hormonal contraceptive use, an association between the area of residence and cervical cancer screening uptake could not demonstrated ($OR_{adj}$ 1.27, 95%CI: 0.79, 2.04). Conclusions: We found no evidence to suggest remoteness to health care center led to lower cervical cancer screening uptake.

Related Factors to Screening or Repeat Screening for Cervical and Breast Cancer among Women (자궁경부암과 유방암 선별검사 수검 및 반복수검 관련요인 조사)

  • Jeong, Ihn-Sook;Ju, Hyeon-Ok;Bae, Eun-Sook
    • Korean Journal of Women Health Nursing
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.150-161
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    • 2004
  • The importance of screening or repeat screening for cervical and breast cancer is well known to decrease the chance of death from cancer. Few data is avaliable regarding factors associated with participation in cervical and breast cancer screening and repeat screening examinations. This study was to investigate the associations of demographic factors, health status and cancer risk recognition, attitude to cancer screening, health behaviors, and inhibiting or facilitating factors to cervical and breast cancer screening with participation in the screening tests. Data was collected with self-administrated questionnaires from 342 women, aged 40 to 69 years. The cancer screenings were classified into have had or never groups and repeat or not repeated groups. In the case of cervical and breast cancer screening, the have had group was 90 (26.3%), and 82 (24.0%) and the repeat group was 17 (5.0%), and 13 (3.8%) respectively. According to logistic regression analysis, age (<60 vs ${\geq}60$ : OR=3.25, 95% CI=1.27-8.26), breast cancer screening (Do vs Don't : OR=14.49, 95% CI=7.46-27.78) and other person's cancer (Yes vs No : OR=4.27, 95% CI=1.01-18.05) were statistically significantly associated with participation in screening for cervical cancer. Regular exercise (Do vs Don't : OR=2.76, 95% CI=1.30-5.88) and cervical cancer screening (Do vs Don't : OR=13.70, 95% CI=7.09-26.32) were statistically significantly related to participation in screening for breast cancer.

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Cost-effectiveness Analysis of Cervical Cancer Screening Strategies Based on the Papanicolaou Smear Test in Korea

  • Ko, Min Jung;Kim, Jimin;Kim, Younhee;Lee, Yoon Jae;Hong, Sung Ran;Lee, Jae Kwan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.6
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    • pp.2317-2322
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    • 2015
  • Background: Despite the increasing number of screening examinations performed for cervical cancer utilizing the Papanicolaou smear test (Pap test), few studies have examined whether this strategy is cost-effective in Korea. Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of cervical cancer screening strategies incorporating the Pap test based on age at the start and end of screening as well as screening interval. Materials and Methods: We designed four alternative screening strategies based on patient age when screening was started (20 or 30 years) and discontinued (lifetime, 79 years). Each strategy was assessed at screening intervals of 1, 2, 3, or 5 years. A Markov model was developed to determine the cost-effectiveness of the 16 possible cervical cancer screening strategies, and this was evaluated from a societal perspective. The main outcome measures were average lifetime cost, incremental quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). Results: Compared with various strategies comprising younger starting age, discontinuation age, and longer screening intervals, strategies employing annual screening for cervical cancer starting at a target age of 30 years and above were the most cost-effective, with an ICER of 21,012.98 dollars per QALY gained (with a Korean threshold of 30,000,000 KRW or US$27,272). Conclusions: We found that annual screening for cervical cancer beginning at a target age of 30 years and above is most cost-effective screening strategy. Considering the potential economic advantages, more intense screening policies for cervical cancer might be favorable among countries with high rates of cervical cancer and relatively low screening costs.

Effectiveness of Cervical Cancer Screening Based on a Mathematical Screening Model using data from the Hiroshima Prefecture Cancer Registry

  • Ito, Katsura;Tsunematsu, Miwako;Satoh, Kenichi;Kakehashi, Masayuki;Nagata, Yasushi
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.8
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    • pp.4897-4902
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    • 2013
  • Here we assessed the effectiveness of cervical cancer screening using data from the Hiroshima Prefecture Cancer Registry regarding patient age at the start of screening and differences in screening intervals. A screening model was created to calculate the health status in relation to prognosis following cervical cancer screening and its influence on life expectancy. Epidemiological data on the mortality rate of cervical cancer by age groups and mortality rates from the Hiroshima Prefecture Cancer Registry were used for the model projections. Our results showed that life expectancy when screening rate was 100% compared with 0% was extended by approximately 1 month. Furthermore, when the incidence of cervical cancer was 0% compared with the screening rate was 100%, life expectancy was extended by a maximum of 3 months. Moreover, among individuals affected by cervical c ancer, a difference of 13 years in life expectancy was calculated between screened and unscreened groups.

Review of the Cervical Cancer Burden and Population-Based Cervical Cancer Screening in China

  • Di, Jiangli;Rutherford, Shannon;Chu, Cordia
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.17
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    • pp.7401-7407
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    • 2015
  • Cervical cancer continues to be a serious public health problem in the developing world, including China. Because of its large population with geographical and socioeconomic inequities, China has a high burden of cervical cancer and important disparities among different regions. In this review, we first present an overview of the cervical cancer incidence and mortality over time, and focus on diversity and disparity in access to care for various subpopulations across geographical regions and socioeconomic strata in China. Then, we describe population-based cervical cancer screening in China, and in particular implementation of the National Cervical Cancer Screening Program in Rural Areas (NACCSPRA) and the challenges that this program faces. These include low screening coverage, shortage of qualified health care personnel and limited funds. To improve prevention of cervical cancer and obtain better cancer outcomes, the Chinese government needs to urgently consider the following key factors: reducing disparities in health care access, collecting accurate and broadly representative data in cancer registries, expanding target population size and increasing allocation of government funding for training of personnel, improving health education for women, enhancing quality control of screening services and improving a system to increase follow up for women with positive results.

Perception of Cervical Cancer Screening Among Japanese University Students Who Have Never Had a Pap Smear: A Qualitative Study

  • Oshima, Sumiko;Maezawa, Masaji
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.7
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    • pp.4313-4318
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    • 2013
  • This study aimed to explore attitudes towards cervical cancer screening among Japanese university students who had never had a Pap smear. Four focus-group discussions, each with 15 female university students, took place in November and December 2009. Discussions were recorded and transcripts were analyzed to extract attitudes of young women towards cervical cancer screening. The four themes that emerged were: i) a low sense of reality about cervical cancer; ii) a lack of knowledge about both cervical cancer and Pap smears; iii) a lack of motivation to get screened, and iv) a reluctance to visit the gynecologist. Participants who were interested in undergoing screening for cervical cancer cited the influence of conversations with friends and family, a diagnosis of cancer within their family, and relevant information from the media. The results indicate the importance of getting young women more interested in cervical cancer screening and overcoming their tendency to avoid visiting a gynecologist.