• Title, Summary, Keyword: cervical cancer risk factors

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Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Women in Maldives Related to the Risk Factors, Prevention and Early Detection of Cervical Cancer

  • Basu, Partha;Hassan, Salma;Fileeshia, Fathmath;Mohamed, Sizna;Nahoodha, Aminath;Shiuna, Aminath;Sulaiman, Asma Ibrahim;Najeeb, Nazeera;Saleem, Fathmath Jeehan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.16
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    • pp.6691-6695
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    • 2014
  • Background: A population-based cervical cancer screening program using visual inspection with acetic acid was launched in Maldives in 2014. Our study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of women in relation to risk factors of cervical cancer, early detection of the disease and its prevention. Materials and Methods: The questionnaire based survey was conducted among 20 to 50 year old women, systematically sampled to represent three regions of Maldives. Trained investigators interviewed a total of 2,845 women at home. Results: The prevalence of the risk factors of cervical cancer like early age at marriage and childbirth, multiple marriages, multiple marriages of the husbands, and multiple pregnancies was high. More women knew about breast cancer than cervical cancer. Even among the small number of women who knew of cervical cancer, only 34.6% had the knowledge of at least one early symptom. Very few women knew that the cancer could be prevented by any test. Only 6.2% of the women reported having ever undergone a Pap smear. Many women had the misconception that cervical cancer was infectious. In Maldives the younger women have high literacy rate due to the policy of universal free education and those with higher levels of education had improved knowledge of cervical cancer and its risk factors. The prevalence of risk factors also reduced with improved literacy. Conclusions: Awareness about risk factors and prevention of cervical cancer is limited among Maldivian women in spite of having high exposure to some of the risk factors. A universal literacy program in the country has helped to improve the knowledge of cervical cancer prevention and to reduce the exposure to various risk factors in the younger population.

Risk Factors for Cervical Cancer and CIN3 in Jewish Women in Israel - Two Case Control Studies

  • Bassal, Ravit;Schejter, Eduardo;Bachar, Rachel;Perri, Tamar;Korach, Jacob;Jakobson-Setton, Ariella;Ben-David, Liat Hogen;Cohen, Daniel;Keinan-Boker, Lital
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.2067-2073
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: The aim of the study was to identify risk and protective factors/markers for cervical cancer and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3 (CIN3) in Israeli Jewish women in order to settle the discrepancy of low incidence rate of cervical cancer and relatively high incidence rate of CIN3. Materials and Methods: We conducted two case control studies, which examined the association between potential risk and protective factors/markers for cervical cancer or CIN3 using self administered detailed questionnaires. Results: For studying cervical cancer, 40 cases and 40 matched controls were interviewed. In the univariable and multivariable analyses older age, depression or anxiety and ever smoking seemed to act as independent risk factors/markers, while older age at first intercourse was protective. For studying CIN3, 99 cases and 79 controls were interviewed. Multivariable analysis has demonstrated that being born in Israel, depression or anxiety and ever smoking were independent risk factors/markers for CIN3. Conclusions: The risk factors/markers studied, that were associated with cervical cancer or CIN3 among Jewish women in Israel, are similar to those reported in other parts of the world, and do not explain the observed discrepancy of high in-situ cervical cancer rates and low invasive cervical cancer incidence in Israel.

Socio Demographic and Reproductive Risk Factors for Cervical Cancer - a Large Prospective Cohort Study from Rural India

  • Thulaseedharan, Jissa V.;Malila, Nea;Hakama, Matti;Esmy, Pulikottil O.;Cheriyan, Mary;Swaminathan, Rajaraman;Muwonge, Richard;Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswami
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.6
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    • pp.2991-2995
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    • 2012
  • Background: India shows some of the highest rates of cervical cancer worldwide, and more than 70% of the population is living in rural villages. Prospective cohort studies to determine the risk factors for cervical cancer are very rare from low and medium resource countries. The aim of this study was to quantify the effect of risk factors related to cervical cancer in a rural setting in South India. Material and methods: Sociodemographic and reproductive potential risk factors for cervical cancer were studied using the data from a cohort of 30,958 women who constituted the unscreened control group in a randomised screening trial in Dindigul district, Tamilnadu, India. The analysis was accomplished with the Cox proportional hazard regression model. Results: Women of increasing age (HR=2.4; 95% CI: 1.6, 3.8 in 50-59 vs 30-39), having many pregnancies (HR=7.1; 1.0, 52 in 4+ vs 0) and no education (HR=0.6; 0.2, 0.7 in high vs none) were found to be at significantly increased risk of cervical cancer. Conclusion: This cohort study gives very strong evidence to say that education is the fundamental factor among the sociodemographic and reproductive determinants of cervical cancer in low resource settings. Public awareness through education and improvements in living standards can play an important role in reducing the high incidence of cervical cancer in India. These findings further stress the importance of formulating public health policies aimed at increasing awareness and implementation of cervical cancer screening programmes.

Pathologic Risk Factors and Oncologic Outcomes in Early-stage Cervical Cancer Patients Treated by Radical Hysterectomy and Pelvic Lymphadenectomy at a Thai University Hospital: A 7 year Retrospective Review

  • Ruengkhachorn, Irene;Therasakvichya, Suwanit;Warnnissorn, Malee;Leelaphatanadit, Chairat;Sangkarat, Suthi;Srisombat, Jutatip
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.14
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    • pp.5951-5956
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    • 2015
  • Background: To evaluate the rate of pathologic high-risk factors, intermediate-risk factors, and treatment outcomes in early-stage cervical cancer patients undergoing radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy (RHPL). Materials and Methods: Medical records of stage IA-IIA1 cervical cancer patients who underwent RHPL during the 2006 to 2012 time period and patient follow-up data until December 2013 were reviewed. Results: Of 331 patients, 52 women (15.7%) had pathologic high-risk factors and 59 women (17.8%) had intermediate-risk factors without high-risk factors. All studied patients had an initial complete response. At median follow-up time of 40.9 months (range 1-103.3 months) and mean follow-up time of$ 43.3{\pm}25.3$ months, 37 women had disease recurrence and 4 women had died of disease. The most common site of recurrence was the pelvis (64.8%). Five-year and 10-year disease free survival rates were 96.1% and 91.5%, respectively. Five-year and 10-year overall survival rates were 100% and 99.4%, respectively. Independent factors related to recurrence were pelvic node metastasis (odds ratio [OR], 2.670; 95%CI, 1.001-7.119), and >1/3 cervical stromal invasion (OR, 3.763; 95%CI, 1.483-9.549). Conclusions: The rates of pathologic high-risk and intermediate-risk factors should be considered and disclosed when counseling patients regarding primary treatment by RHPL. Oncologic outcomes of primary surgical treatment for early-stage cervical carcinoma were found to be excellent.

Socio-Demographic and Behavioural Risk Factors for Cervical Cancer and Knowledge, Attitude and Practice in Rural and Urban Areas of North Bengal, India

  • Raychaudhuri, Sreejata;Mandal, Sukanta
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.1093-1096
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    • 2012
  • Background: Cervical cancer is common among women worldwide. A multitude of risk factors aggravate the disease. This study was conducted to: (1) determine the prevalence and (2) make a comparative analysis of the socio-demographic and behavioural risk factors of cervical cancer and knowledge, attitude and practice between rural and urban women of North Bengal, India. Study Design: Community-based cross-sectional study. Methods: A survey (first in North Bengal) was conducted among 133 women in a rural area (Kawakhali) and 88 women in an urban slum (Shaktigarh) using predesigned semi-structured questionnaires. The respondents were informed of the causes (including HPV), signs and symptoms, prevention of cervical cancer and treatment, and the procedure of the PAP test and HPV vaccination. Results: The prevalence of risk factors like multiparity, early age of marriage, use of cloth during menstruation, use of condom and OCP, early age of first intercourse was 37.2%, 82%, 83.3%, 5.4%, 15.8% and 65.6% respectively. Awareness about the cause, signs and symptoms, prevention of cervical cancer, PAP test and HPV vaccination was 3.6%, 6.3%, 3.6%, 9.5% and 14.5% respectively. Chi-square testing revealed that in the study population, significant differential at 5% exists between rural and urban residents with respect to number of children, use of cloth/sanitary napkins, family history of cancer and awareness regarding causes of cervical cancer. Regarding KAP, again using chi-square tests, surprisingly, level of education is found to be significant for each element of KAP in urban areas in contrast to complete absence of association between education and elements of KAP in rural areas. Conclusions: A large number of risk factors were present in both areas, the prevalence being higher in the rural areas. The level of awareness and role of education appears to be insignificant determinants in rural compared to urban areas. This pilot study needs to be followed up by large scale programmes to re-orient awareness campaigns, especially in rural areas.

Knowledge about Cervical Cancer Early Warning Signs and Symptoms, Risk Factors and Vaccination among Students at a Medical School in Al-Ahsa, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

  • Al-Darwish, Abdulaziz Ahmed;Al-Naim, Abdullah Fouad;Al-Mulhim, Khalid Saleh;Al-Otaibi, Nasser Khaled;Morsi, Mohammed Saad;Aleem, Ansari Mukhtar
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.6
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    • pp.2529-2532
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    • 2014
  • Background: Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among females and also the most preventable. In the literature there is abundant evidence that awareness regarding cervical cancer and its prevention is low in the developing countries. Medical students are the future health professionals and can play an important role in increasing awareness among the general population. To assess the knowledge regarding symptoms, risk factors and prevention of cervical carcinoma among medical students in th Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, the present study was planned. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire with students at the College of Medicine, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa, KSA, from December 2012 to May 2013. Results: The responses of 188 students (males 111, females 77) in their second, third, fourth, and fifth years were recorded and used in the data analysis. The majority of the students were not aware of the early warning signs, symptoms and risk factors. On average, only 43.7% males and 56% of females were aware about the early signs and symptoms whereas 51.4% males and 57.8% females had knowledge about the risk factors of cervical cancers. Some 55% males and 46.8% females were unable to select the correct answer regarding human papilloma virus (HPV) infection as the cause of cervical cancer. Majority of the students (67%) were not aware about the availability of vaccine against HPV. Conclusions: Lack of knowledge regarding early signs and symptoms, risk factors and prevention of cervical cancer was observed in the present study.

Differencies in Risk Factors for Cervical Dysplasia with the Applied Diagnostic Method in Serbia

  • Antic, Ljiljana Gojko;Vukovic, Dejana Srboljub;Vasiljevic, Mladenko Drago;Antic, Dragan Zivojin;Aleksopulos, Hristos Georgios
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.16
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    • pp.6697-6701
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    • 2014
  • Background: In the etiology of cervical cancer not only HPV infection is important, but also other factors such as demographic influences andsexual and reproductive health attitudes, as well as others related to preventive measure usage (or non usage). The aim of this study was to examine factors associated with cervical dysplasia in asymptomatic women who were examined by routine cytology and cervical biopsy for early detection of cervical cancer. Materials and Methods: Socio-demographic and other characteristics were obtained from medical files of 85 examinees with pathologic cytologic findings (Pap test) and histopathologic (HP) findings after biopsy. Results: ccording to the Pap test result, a greater probability for development of cervical dysplasia was noted with examinees having a larger number of sexual partners (OR= 5.01, 95% CI 1.04-24.10), and those who are afraid of the Pap finding. Risk factors for development of cervical dysplasia according to the bioptic finding were early beginning with sexual activities, presence of any STD in personal medical history and fear of the Pap test finding. Conclusions: The only risk factor found to be important for both methods was fear of the Pap testing finding.

Risk Factors for Cervical Cancer in Northeastern Thailand: Detailed Analyses of Sexual and Smoking Behavior

  • Natphopsuk, Sitakan;Settheetham-Ishida, Wannapa;Sinawat, Supat;Pientong, Chamsai;Yuenyao, Pissamai;Ishida, Takafumi
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.11
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    • pp.5489-5495
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    • 2012
  • Cervical cancer is a serious public health problem in Thailand. We investigated possible risk factors for cervical cancer including HPV infection, p53 polymorphism, smoking and reproductive history among women in Northeast Thailand using a case control study with 177 cases and age-matched controls. Among the HPV carriers, a significantly increased risk for cervical cancer with an OR of 36.97(p<0.001) and an adjusted OR of 38.07(p<0.001) were observed. Early age at first sexual exposure, and multiple sexual partners increased the risk of cervical cancer with ORs ranging between 1.73-2.78(p<0.05). The interval between menarche and first sexual intercourse <6 years resulted in a significant increase in the risk for cervical cancer with ORs ranging between 3.32-4.09 and the respective adjusted OR range for the 4-5 and 2-3 year-old groups were 4.09 and 2.92. A higher risk was observed among subjects whose partner had smoking habits, whether currently or formerly; with respective ORs of 3.36(P<0.001) and 2.17(p<0.05); and respective adjusted ORs of 2.90(p<0.05) and 3.55(p<0.05). Other smoking characteristics of the partners including smoking duration ${\geq}20$ years, number of cigarettes smokes ${\geq}20$ pack-years and exposure time of the subject to passive smoking ${\geq}5$ hrs per day were found to be statistically significant risks for cervical cancer with adjusted ORs of 3.75, 4.04 and 11.8, respectively. Our data suggest that the risk of cervical cancer in Thai women is substantially associated with smoking characteristics of the partner(s), the interval between menarche and first sexual intercourse as well as some other aspects of sexual behavior.

Effect of Screening on the Risk Estimates of Socio Demographic Factors on Cervical Cancer - A Large Cohort Study from Rural India

  • Thulaseedharan, Jissa Vinoda;Malila, Nea;Hakama, Matti;Esmy, Pulikottil Okuru;Cherian, Mary;Swaminathan, Rajaraman;Muwonge, Richard;Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswami
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.589-594
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    • 2013
  • Background: Prospective cohort studies to determine cofactors with oncogenic HPV-infections for cervical cancer are very rare from developing countries and such data are limited to the few screening trials. Large screening trials provide such data as a by product. Some of the cases are prevented by screening and do not surface as invasive cancers at all. Also, pre-invasive lesions are detected almost entirely by screening. Screening causes selection bias if attendance in or effectiveness of screening is correlated with the risk factors. The aim of this study was to quantify the influence of screening on risk factors for cervical cancer. Materials and Methods: Our material stems from a rural cohort of 80,000 women subjected to a randomised screening trial. The effect of screening on the incidence of cervix cancer was estimated with reference to socio-demographic and reproductive risk factors of cervical cancer. We compared these risks with the incidence of cancer in the randomised control population by the same determinants of risk. Results: The results in the screening arm compared to the control arm showed that the women of low SES and young age were benefitting more than those of high SES and old age. The relative risk by age (30-39 vs 50-59) was 0.33 in the control arm and 0.24 in the screening arm. The relative risk by education (not educated vs educated) was 2.8 in the control arm and 1.8 in the screening arm. The previously married women did not benefit (incidence 113 and 115 per 100,000 women years in control vs screening arms) whereas the effect was substantial in those married (86 vs 54). Conclusions: The results in controls were consistent with the general evidence, but results in attenders and nonattenders of the screening arm showed that screening itself and self-selection in attendance and effectiveness can influence the effect estimates of risk factors. The effect of cervical cancer screening programmes on the estimates of incidence of cervical cancer causes bias in the studies on etiology and, therefore, they should be interpreted with caution.

Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Acceptability among Female University Students in South Africa

  • Hoque, Muhammad Ehsanul;Ghuman, Shanaz;Van Hal, Guido
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.8
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    • pp.4865-4869
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    • 2013
  • Background: The objectives of this present study were to assess the awareness of cervical cancer and its risk factors among female undergraduates in South Africa, and to determine the their level of acceptability of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in March 2013 among 440 full time undergraduate female students. Results: Of those students who never had sex (n=163), 96 (58.9%) had ever heard of cervical cancer and only 12 students (12.5%) knew that HPV causes cervical cancer. More than a third (35.4%) of the students correctly said that sexual intercourse before age of 18 years is a risk factor for cervical cancer and 55.2% of the students knew about the Pap smear test which is used for screening cervical cancer. The majority (77.3%) were willing to accept HPV vaccination. Results revealed that students who knew about the Pap smear test, and were aware that having multiple sex partners, sexual intercourse before the age of 18 years, smoking and having contracted any STDs are risk factors for cervical cancer were more likely to accept HPV vaccination compared to other groups. Conclusions: The general knowledge of South African female university students about cervical cancer is not sufficient but they have positive attitudes toward getting vaccinated with the HPV vaccine.