• Title, Summary, Keyword: cell migration

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Differentiation of Border Cells During Oogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster (노랑초파리 난자 형성과정 동안의 경계세포의 분화)

  • Gye, Myung-Chan;Cho, Kyoung-Sang;Lee, Chung-Choo
    • Development and Reproduction
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.45-52
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    • 1998
  • An enhncer detector line(EDL) having P[1ArB] insertion in X chromosome with expression of reporter gene (lacZ) in the polar cells and border cell of egg chamber was established and used to monitor the differentiation and migration of border cells during the oogenesis of Drosophila. differentiation of border cell from the anterior polar follicle cells was evident in stage-9 egg chamber of EDL149 which was characterized by migration of columnar follicle cells toward posterior of egg chamber surrounding the oocyte. Migration of border cells was observed in the stage-9 and -10 egg chambers. \beta -galactosidase activities were rapidly increased during the first 4 days after eclosion, and it coincided with the timing of border cell differentiation in the ovary during adult life. Homozygote of EDL149 showed some retardation of border cell migration , resulting absence of migration of some border cells in the anterior part of egg chamber or delayed migration of some border cells in the stage-10 egg chamber. These results suggest that the P[1ArB] of EDL149 is inserted at the locus of the structural gene required for the border cell migration. In addition to the expression in egg chambers, lacZ expression was also detected in the meiotic germ cells of testis and antenna, suggesting the possible requirement of the trapped gene function in these organ. this EDL and enhancer trapped gene might be useful for the study of developmentally regulated cell migration.

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Chitin from Cuttlebone Activates Inflammatory Cells to Enhance the Cell Migration

  • Lim, Sung Cil;Lee, Ki-Man;Kang, Tae Jin
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.333-338
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    • 2015
  • Our previous report showed that the extract from cuttlebone (CB) had wound healing effect in burned lesion of rat and the extract was identified as chitin by HPLS analysis. We herein investigated the morphology in CB extract using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Chitin was used as a control. There is no difference in morphology between CB extract and chitin. We also assessed the role of CB extract on the production of inflammatory mediators using murine macrophages and the migration of inflammatory cells. The extract induced the production of nitric oxide (NO) in macrophages. While the extract of CB itself stimulated macrophages to increase the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-${\alpha}$, interleukin (IL)-$1{\beta}$, and IL-6, CB extract suppressed the production of those cytokines by LPS. CB extract also induced the production of mouse IL-8 which is related to the cell migration, and treatment with CB enhanced fibroblast migration and invasion. Therefore, our results suggest that CB activates inflammatory cells to enhance the cell migration.

TRAIL Suppresses Human Breast Cancer Cell Migration via MADD/CXCR7

  • Wang, Rui;Li, Jin-Cheng
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.7
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    • pp.2751-2756
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    • 2015
  • Background: Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) can specifically induce apoptosis limited to various cancer cells, so this reagent is considered a promising medicine for cancer therapy. TRAIL also exerts effects on non-apoptotic signals, relevant to processes such as metastasis, autophagy and proliferation in cancer cells. However, the mechanisms of TRAIL-regulated non-apoptotic signals are unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate MADD/CXCR7 effects in TRAIL-mediated breast cancer cell migration. Materials and Methods: The ability of MADD/CXCR7 to regulate MVP signaling in TRAIL-mediated breast cancer cells migration was evaluated by transwell migration assay, quantitative RT-PCR, Western blotting and knock down experiments. Results: In this study, we found that treatment with TRAIL resulted in induced expression levels of MADD and CXCR7 in breast cancer cells. Knock down of MADD followed by treatment with TRAIL resulted in increased cell migration compared to either treatment alone. Similarly, through overexpression and knockdown experiments, we demonstrated that CXCR7 also positively regulated TRAIL-inhibited migration. Surprisingly, knock down of MADD lead to inhibition of TRAIL-induced CXCR7 mRNA and protein expression and overexpression of CXCR7 lead to the reduction of MADD expression, indicating that MADD is an upstream regulatory factor of TRAIL-triggered CXCR7 production and a negative feedback mechanism between MADD and CXCR7. Furthermore, we showed that CXCR7 is involved in MADD-inhibited migration in breast cancer cells. Conclusions: Our work defined a novel signaling pathway implicated in the control of breast cancer migration.

Cordycepin inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced cell migration and invasion in human colorectal carcinoma HCT-116 cells through down-regulation of prostaglandin E2 receptor EP4

  • Jeong, Jin-Woo;Park, Cheol;Cha, Hee-Jae;Hong, Su Hyun;Park, Shin-Hyung;Kim, Gi-Young;Kim, Woo Jean;Kim, Cheol Hong;Song, Kyoung Seob;Choi, Yung Hyun
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.51 no.10
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    • pp.532-537
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    • 2018
  • Prostaglandin $E_2$ ($PGE_2$), a major product of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), plays an important role in the carcinogenesis of many solid tumors, including colorectal cancer. Because $PGE_2$ functions by signaling through $PGE_2$ receptors (EPs), which regulate tumor cell growth, invasion, and migration, there has been a growing amount of interest in the therapeutic potential of targeting EPs. In the present study, we investigated the role of EP4 on the effectiveness of cordycepin in inhibiting the migration and invasion of HCT116 human colorectal carcinoma cells. Our data indicate that cordycepin suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-enhanced cell migration and invasion through the inactivation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 as well as the down-regulation of COX-2 expression and $PGE_2$ production. These events were shown to be associated with the inactivation of EP4 and activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Moreover, the EP4 antagonist AH23848 prevented LPS-induced MMP-9 expression and cell invasion in HCT116 cells. However, the AMPK inhibitor, compound C, as well as AMPK knockdown via siRNA, attenuated the cordycepin-induced inhibition of EP4 expression. Cordycepin treatment also reduced the activation of CREB. These findings indicate that cordycepin suppresses the migration and invasion of HCT116 cells through modulating EP4 expression and the AMPK-CREB signaling pathway. Therefore, cordycepin has the potential to serve as a potent anti-cancer agent in therapeutic strategies against colorectal cancer metastasis.

Effects of TESTIN Gene Expression on Proliferation and Migration of the 5-8F Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Cell Line

  • Zhong, Zhun;Zhang, Fei;Yin, Shu-Cheng
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.6
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    • pp.2555-2559
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    • 2015
  • Purpose: To investigate effects of the TESTIN (TES) gene on proliferation and migration of highly metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line 5-8F and the related mechanisms. Materials and Methods: The target gene of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line 5-8F was amplified by PCR and cloned into the empty plasmid pEGFP-N1 to construct a eukaryotic expression vector pEGFP-N1-TES. This was then transfected into 5-8F cells. MTT assays, flow cytometry and scratch wound tests were used to detect the proliferation and migration of transfected 5-8F cells. Results: A cell model with stable and high expression of TES gene was successfully established. MTT assays showed that the OD value of 5-8F/TES cells was markedly lower than that of 5-8F/GFP cells and 5-8F cells (p<0.05). Flow cytometry showed that the apoptosis rate of 5-8F/TES cells was prominently increased compared with 5-8F/GFP cells and 5-8F cells (p<0.05). In vitro scratch wound assays showed that, the width of the wound area of 5-8F/TES cells narrowed slightly, while the width of the wound area of 5-8F/ GFP cells and 5-8F cells narrowed sharply, suggesting that the TES overexpression could inhibit the migration ability. Conclusions: TES gene expression remarkably inhibits the proliferation of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line 5-8F and reduces its migration in vitro. Thus, it may be a potential tumor suppressor gene for nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

EFFECTS OF UNIFORM SHEAR STRESS ON THE MIGRATION OF VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL CELL (균일한 전단응력에 의한 혈관내피세포의 운동성 변화)

  • Shin, Jennifer H.;Song, Suk-Hyun
    • Proceedings of the KSME Conference
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    • pp.1404-1408
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    • 2008
  • The migration and proliferation of vascular endothelial cells (VEC), which play an important role in vascular remodeling, are known to be regulated by hemodynamic forces in the blood vessels. When shear stresses of 2, 6, 15 dynes/$cm^2$ are applied on mouse micro-VEC in vitro, cells surprisingly migrate against the flow direction at all conditions. While higher flow rate imposes more resistance against the cells, reducing their migration speed, the horizontal component of the velocity parallel to the flow increases with the flow rate, indicating the higher alignment of cells in the direction parallel to the flow at a higher shear stress. In addition, cells exhibit substrate stiffness and calcium dependent migration behavior, which can be explained by polarized remodeling in the mechanosensitive pathway under shear stress.

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Identification of ANXA1 as a Lymphatic Metastasis and Poor Prognostic Factor in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma

  • Liu, Qing-Hua;Shi, Mei-Lin;Bai, Jin;Zheng, Jun-Nian
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.7
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    • pp.2719-2724
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    • 2015
  • Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical significance of annexin a1 (ANXA1) and provide molecular evidence to support that decreased ANXA1 expression could enhance cancer migration and invasion in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Materials and Methods: Immunohistochemistry of a tissue microarray with 162 surgically resected PDAC specimens was performed to examine the expression of ANXA1. We also investigated the relationship between ANXA1 expression and clinicopathological factors and prognosis of PDAC patients. We further studied the role of ANXA1 in PDAC cell proliferation, migration and invasion by cell proliferation assay, migration assay and matrigel invasion assay with reduced ANXA1 expression by RNAi. Western blotting was used to detect matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) expression. We also detected MMP-9 enzyme activity by gelatin zymography. Results: Decreased expression of ANXA1 was significantly associated with poor differentiation, lymph node metastasis and advanced TNM stage of PDAC patients (p<0.05). Moreover, decreased expression of ANXA1 was correlated with poor survival (p<0.05). Furthermore, we found that ANXA1 knockdown inhibited cell proliferation, induced G1 phase cell cycle arrest, increased PDAC cell migration and invasion capacity compared with controls. In addition, Western blotting showed that ANXA1 knockdown increased the MMP-9 protein level and decreased TIMP-1 expression. Gelatin zymography showed that MMP-9 enzyme activity was also elevated. Conclusions: Negative ANXA1 expression is a most unfavorable prognostic factor for PDAC patients. ANXA1 knockdown inhibits cell proliferation by inducing G1 phase cell cycle arrest and increases migration and invasion of PDAC cells through up-regulating MMP-9 expression and activity, implying that ANXA1 may serve as a promising prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for PDAC.

Gold Nanoparticles Inhibit AGEs Induced Migration and Invasion in Bovine Retinal Endothelial Cells (소망막내피세포에서 금 나노입자의 최종당화산물에 의한 세포 이동 및 침윤성 억제 효과)

  • Chae, Soo-Chul
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.8-13
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    • 2010
  • This study aimed the role of gold nanoparticles (AuNP) in advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) induced migration and invasion in bovine retinal endothelial cells (BRECs). BRECs were isolated from the retina. Cell viability was confirmed by the MTT assay. In vitro wound migration assay was performed to investigate the migration of BRECs. In vitro tube formation was measured by on-gel system. Apoptosis induced by AuNP was confirmed by caspase-3 assay. AGE-bovine serum albumin (BSA) demonstrated increase of cell migration and proliferation in BRECs. In addition, AuNP regardless of the existence of AGE-BSA suppressed proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis. AuNP suppressed AGE-BSA induced migration and invasion, and induced apoptosis through caspase-3. As a results, AuNP have a potential anti-angiogenic effect for AGE-induced angiogenesis in vitro and offer possibility for the treatment of diabetic retinopathy.

GPR78 promotes lung cancer cell migration and metastasis by activation of Gαq-Rho GTPase pathway

  • Dong, Dan-Dan;Zhou, Hui;Li, Gao
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.49 no.11
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    • pp.623-628
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    • 2016
  • GPR78 is an orphan G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) that is predominantly expressed in human brain tissues. Currently, the function of GPR78 is unknown. This study revealed that GPR78 was expressed in lung cancer cells and functioned as a novel regulator of lung cancer cell migration and metastasis. We found that knockdown of GPR78 in lung cancer cells suppressed cell migration. Moreover, GPR78 modulated the formation of actin stress fibers in A549 cells, in a RhoA- and Rac1-dependent manner. At the molecular level, GPR78 regulated cell motility through the activation of $G{\alpha}q$-RhoA/Rac1 pathway. We further demonstrated that in vivo, the knockdown of GPR78 inhibited lung cancer cell metastasis. These findings suggest that GPR78 is a novel regulator for lung cancer metastasis and may serve as a potential drug target against metastatic human lung cancer.

Fluvastatin inhibits advanced glycation end products-induced proliferation, migration, and extracellular matrix accumulation in vascular smooth muscle cells by targeting connective tissue growth factor

  • Hwang, Ae-Rang;Nam, Ju-Ock;Kang, Young Jin
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.193-201
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    • 2018
  • Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a novel fibrotic mediator, which is considered to mediate fibrosis through extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis in diabetic cardiovascular complications. Statins have significant immunomodulatory effects and reduce vascular injury. We therefore examined whether fluvastatin has anti-fibrotic effects in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and elucidated its putative transduction signals. We show that advanced glycation end products (AGEs) stimulated CTGF mRNA and protein expression in a time-dependent manner. AGE-induced CTGF expression was mediated via ERK1/2, JNK, and Egr-1 pathways, but not p38; consequently, cell proliferation and migration and ECM accumulation were regulated by CTGF signaling pathway. AGE-stimulated VSMC proliferation, migration, and ECM accumulation were blocked by fluvastatin. However, the inhibitory effect of fluvastatin was restored by administration of CTGF recombinant protein. AGE-induced VSMC proliferation was dependent on cell cycle arrest, thereby increasing G1/G0 phase. Fluvastatin repressed cell cycle regulatory genes cyclin D1 and Cdk4 and augmented cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p27 and p21 in AGE-induced VSMCs. Taken together, fluvastatin suppressed AGE-induced VSMC proliferation, migration, and ECM accumulation by targeting CTGF signaling mechanism. These findings might be evidence for CTGF as a potential therapeutic target in diabetic vasculature complication.