• Title, Summary, Keyword: caspases

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Identification of the novel substrates for caspase-6 in apoptosis using proteomic approaches

  • Cho, Jin Hwa;Lee, Phil Young;Son, Woo-Chan;Chi, Seung-Wook;Park, Byoung Chul;Kim, Jeong-Hoon;Park, Sung Goo
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.46 no.12
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    • pp.588-593
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    • 2013
  • Apoptosis, programmed cell death, is a process involved in the development and maintenance of cell homeostasis in multicellular organisms. It is typically accompanied by the activation of a class of cysteine proteases called caspases. Apoptotic caspases are classified into the initiator caspases and the executioner caspases, according to the stage of their action in apoptotic processes. Although caspase-3, a typical executioner caspase, has been studied for its mechanism and substrates, little is known of caspase-6, one of the executioner caspases. To understand the biological functions of caspase-6, we performed proteomics analyses, to seek for novel caspase-6 substrates, using recombinant caspase-6 and HepG2 extract. Consequently, 34 different candidate proteins were identified, through 2-dimensional electrophoresis/MALDI-TOF analyses. Of these identified proteins, 8 proteins were validated with in vitro and in vivo cleavage assay. Herein, we report that HAUSP, Kinesin5B, GEP100, SDCCAG3 and PARD3 are novel substrates for caspase-6 during apoptosis.

Regulatory roles of ginseng on inflammatory caspases, executioners of inflammasome activation

  • Yun, Miyong;Yi, Young-Su
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.373-385
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    • 2020
  • Inflammation is an immune response that protects against pathogens and cellular stress. The hallmark of inflammatory responses is inflammasome activation in response to various stimuli. This subsequently activates downstream effectors, that is, inflammatory caspases such as caspase-1, 4, 5, 11, and 12. Extensive efforts have been made on developing effective and safe anti-inflammatory therapeutics, and ginseng has long been traditionally used as efficacious and safe herbal medicine in treating various inflammatory and inflammation-mediated diseases. Many studies have successfully shown that ginseng plays an anti-inflammatory role by inhibiting inflammasomes and inflammasome-activated inflammatory caspases. This review discusses the regulatory roles of ginseng on inflammatory caspases in inflammatory responses and also suggests new research areas on the anti-inflammatory function of ginseng, which provides a novel insight into the development of ginseng as an effective and safe anti-inflammatory herbal medicine.

Production of Nitric Oxide by Siegesbeckia Glabrescens is Associated with Apoptosis of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell (희렴의 Nitric Oxide 유리를 통한 평활근세포에서의 Apoptosis유도)

  • Jun Soo Young;Shin Dong Hoon;Son Chang Woo;Shin Heung Mook
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.1055-1060
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    • 2004
  • Apoptosis is the ability of cells to self-destruct by the activation of an intrinsic cellular suicide program when the cells are no longer needed or when they are seriously damaged. Morphologically, apoptosis is characterized by the appearance of membrane blebbing, cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation, DNA cleavage, and the fragmentation of the cell membrane-bound apoptotic bodies. Siegesbeckia glabrescens Makino (Siegesbeckiae Herba, SG) has been widely used as treatments for arthritis, and fever, as well as detoxification properties. The present studies were undertaken to evaluate if SG has an anti-apoptotic property. Cell viability was measured by XTT and tryphan blue stain. Morphological characteristic of human aortic smooth muscle cells(HASMC) were visualized with a phase-contrast microscope. SG significantly reduced HASMC, but not human umbilical vein endothelial cell(HUVEC), viability in a dose-dependent manner. Confluent untreated cells at 24hrs showed normal morphology, flat with a uniform polygonal shape. SG-treated cells (0.5㎎/㎖) at 24hrs showed apoptotic morphology. Cells became irregular with elongated lamellipodia, and exhibited condensed chromatin in nuclei with occasional endoucleation. There was an increase in the number of apoptotic cells rounding-up and being detached from the substrate. TUNEL staining of SG-treated cells showed dark-brown stains in nuclei and cytosol. Caspases are central components of the machinery responsible for apoptosis and are generally divided into two categories; the initiator caspases, which include caspases-2,-8,-9, and -10, and the effector caspases, which include caspases-3,-6, and -7. SG decreased anti-caspase-3 protein expression, which means activation of caspases-3 activity. It has been reported that there is a link between NO formation and apoptosis. NO production was accelerated by SG treatment in HASMC. L-NNA, NOS inhibitor, inhibited SG-induced apoptosis. These results, therefore, indicated that both caspases-3 and NO production are involved in apoptosis in smooth muscle cells. According to these results, SG may have a potential effect in the treatment of hypertensive atherosclerosis.

Anti-cancer Potentials of Rhus verniciflua Stokes, Ulmus davidiana var. japonica Nakai and Arsenium Sublimatum in Human Gastric Cancer AGS Cells (AGS 인체위암세포에서 건칠, 유근피 및 신석 추출물의 항암 활성 비교 연구)

  • Baek, Ilsung;Im, Lyeng-Hae;Park, Cheol;Cho, Yung Hyun
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.25 no.8
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    • pp.849-860
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    • 2015
  • The anti-cancer activities of Rhus verniciflua Stokes (GC), Ulmus davidiana var. japonica Nakai (UGP) and arsenium sublimatum (SS) extracts, which have been used Oriental medicine therapy for various diseases, were investigated. The treatment of GC, UGP and SS alone, and combined treatment with GC, UGP and SS did not affect the cell viability in the mouse normal cell lines (RAW 264.7 macrophages and C2C12 myoblasts). However, co-treatment with GC, UGP and SS markedly induces apoptosis in human gastric cancer AGS cells, but not in other various cancer cell lines (human lung cancer A549, colon cancer HCT116, liver cancer Hep3B and bladder T24 cells) as evidenced by formation of apoptotic bodies, chromatin condensation, and accumulation of annexin-V positive cells. Co-treatment with GC, UGP and SS effectively induced the expression levels of Fas and Fas ligand, and inhibited the levels IAP family proteins such as XIAP, cIAP-1 and survivin, and anti-apoptotic Bcl-xL proteins compared with treatment with either agent alone. Combined treatment also significantly induced the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, which was associated with the activation of caspases (-3, -8, and -9) and degradation of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. However, the cytotoxic effects induced by co-treatment with GC, UGP and SS were significantly attenuated by pan-caspases inhibitor, z-VAD-fmk, indicating an important role for caspases. These results indicated that the caspases were key regulators of apoptosis in response to co-treatment of GC, UGP and SS in human gastric cancer AGS cells and further studies will be needed to identify the active compounds.

Intracellular pH is a Critical Element in Apoptosis Triggered by GM-CSF Deprivation in TF1 Cells

  • Yoon, Suk Ran;Choi, In Pyo
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
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    • v.3 no.4
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    • pp.268-275
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    • 2003
  • Background: Hemopoietic cells require the constant presence of growth factors for survival in vitro and in vivo. Caspases have been known as central executors of apoptotic cell death. We have, therefore, investigated the pathways that regulate caspase activity and apoptosis using the $CD34^+$ cell line, TF-1 which requires GM-CSF for survival. Methods: Apoptosis was measured by annexin V staining and mitochondrial membrane potential was measured by DiOC6 labelling. Intracellular pH was measured using pH sensitive fluorochrome, BCECF or SNARF-1, followed by flow cytometry analysis. Caspase activation was analyzed by PARP cleavage using anti-PARP antibody. Results: Removal of GM-CSF induceed PARP cleavage, a hallmark of caspase activity, concomitant with pHi acidification and a drop in mitochondrial potential. Treatment with ZVAD, a competitive inhibitor of caspases, partially rescued cell death without affecting pHi acidification and the reduction of mitochondrial potential, suggesting that both these events act upstream of caspases. Overexpression of Bcl-2 prevented cell death induced by GM-CSF deprivation as well as pHi acidification and the reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential. In parental cells maintained with GM-CSF, EIPA, a competitive inhibitor of $Na^+/H^+$ antiporter induced apoptosis, accompanied by a drastic reduction in mitochondrial potential. In contrast, EIPA induced apoptosis in Bcl-2 transfectants without causing mitochondrial membrane depolarization. Conclusion: Taken together, our results suggest that the regulation of $H^+$fluxes, either through a mitochondriondependent or independent pathway, is central to caspase activation and apoptosis.

Minocycline Directly Blocks Activation of Caspases After Oxidative Stress in PC12 Cells

  • Choi, Yu-Keum;Kim, Gab-Seok;Han, Byung-Hee
    • Proceedings of the PSK Conference
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    • pp.79.2-79
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    • 2003
  • Minocycline is known to protect neurons from microglia-mediated cell death in many experimental models of brain diseases including ischemic stroke, Huntington's disease (HD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), traumatic brain injury, multiple sclerosis, and Parkinson's disease. Activation of caspase-2, 3, 8, and 9 was evident within 2-8 hr following oxidative insult with 0.5 mM hydrogen peroxide in PC12 cells. Minocycline significantly attenuated activation of these caspases up to 18 hr, resulting a significant increase in cell viability as assessed by MTT assay. (omitted)

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Astaxanthin Inhibits $H_2O_2$-Mediated Apoptotic Cell Death in Mouse Neural Progenitor Cells via Modulation of P38 and MEK Signaling Pathways

  • Kim, Jeong-Hwan;Choi, Woo-Bong;Lee, Jong-Hwan;Jeon, Sung-Jong;Choi, Yung-Hyun;Kim, Byung-Woo;Chang, Hyo-Ihl;Nam, Soo-Wan
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.19 no.11
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    • pp.1355-1363
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    • 2009
  • In the present study, the neuroprotective effects of astaxanthin on $H_2O_2$-mediated apoptotic cell death, using cultured mouse neural progenitor cells (mNPCs), were investigated. To cause apoptotic cell death, mNPCs were pretreated with astaxanthin for 8 h and followed by treatment of 0.3 mM $H_2O_2$. Pretreatment of mNPCs with astaxanthin significantly inhibited $H_2O_2$-mediated apoptosis and induced cell growth in a dose-dependent manner. In Western blot analysis, astaxanthin-pretreated cells showed the activation of p-Akt, p-MEK, p-ERK, and Bcl-2, and the reduction of p-P38, p-SAPK/JNK, Bax, p-GSK3b, cytochrome c, caspase-3, and PARP. Because $H_2O_2$ triggers caspases activation, this study examined whether astaxanthin can inhibit caspases activation in $H_2O_2$-treated mNPCs. After $H_2O_2$ treatment, caspases activities were prominently increased, but astaxanthin pretreatment significantly inhibited $H_2O_2$-mediated caspases activation. Astaxanthin pretreatment also significantly recovered the ATP production ability of $H_2O_2$-treated cells. These findings indicate that astaxanthin inhibits $H_2O_2$-mediated apoptotic features in mNPCs. Inhibition assays with SB203580 ($10\;{\mu}M$, a specific inhibitor of p38) and PD98059 ($10\;{\mu}M$, a specific inhibitor of MEK) clearly showed that astaxanthin can inhibit $H_2O_2$-mediated apoptotic death via modulation of p38 and MEK signaling pathways.

Induction of Apoptosis by Aqueous Extract of Cordyceps militaris Through Activation of Caspases and Inactivation of Akt in Human Breast Cancer MDA-MB-231 Cells

  • Jin, Cheng-Yun;Kim, Gi-Young;Choi, Yung-Hyun
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.18 no.12
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    • pp.1997-2003
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    • 2008
  • Cordyceps militaris is well known as a traditional medicinal mushroom and has been shown to exhibit immunostimulatory and anticancer activities. In this study, we investigated the apoptosis induced by an aqueous extract of C. militaris (AECM) via the activation of caspases and altered mitochondrial membrane permeability in human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells. Exposure to AECM induced apoptosis, as demonstrated by a quantitative analysis of nuclear morphological change and a flow cytometric analysis. AECM increased hyperpolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential and promoted the activation of caspases. Both the cytotoxic effect and apoptotic characteristics induced by AECM treatment were significantly inhibited by z-DEVD-fmk, a caspase-3 inhibitor, which demonstrates the important role of caspase-3 in the observed cytotoxic effect. AECM-induced apoptosis was associated with the inhibition of Akt activation in a time-dependent manner, and pretreatment with LY294002, a PI3K/Akt inhibitor, significantly increased AECM-induced apoptosis. The results indicated that AECM-induced apoptosis may relate to the activation of caspase-3 and mitochondria dysfunctions that correlate with the inactivation of Akt.

Shikonin Modulates Cell Proliferation by Inducing Apoptosis in LLC Cells via MAPK Regulation and Caspase Activation

  • Lee, Soo-Jin;Kim, Sung-Hoon
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.501-507
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    • 2005
  • Shikonin is a chemically characterized component of traditional herbal medicine, the root of Lithospermum erythrorhizon and has been shown to possess antitumor activities. Here we investigated anticancer potential of shikonin and its possible mechanism of action in LLC cells. Shikonin inhibited the proliferation of LLC cells in a concentration-dependent manner. It was also demonstrated that shikonin induced apoptosis in LLC cells by Annexin V staining and TUNEL staining analysis. Shikonin treatment was caused that decrease of Bcl-2, activation of caspases and cleavage of PARP. And shikonin also induced that the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), such as extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38. Interestingly, the cell proliferation inhibition induced by shikonin was recovered by specific inhibitors of JNK and p38 but the inhibitor of MEK, the upstream kinase of ERK, did not recover. Additionally, shikonin administration at doses of 5 mg/kg in C57BL/6 mice strongly inhibited the primary tumor growth of LLC. Taken together, these results suggest that shikonin may suppress LLC cell proliferation by inducing an apoptotic process via activation of caspases and MAPKs

Induction of Apoptosis by Hwangheuk-san in AGS Human Gastric Carcinoma Cells through the Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species and Activation of Caspases (AGS 인체 위암세포에서 황흑산에 의한 ROS 생성 및 caspase 활성 의존적 apoptosis 유발)

  • Hong, Su Hyun;Park, Cheol;Kim, Kyoung Min;Choi, Yung Hyun
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.25 no.11
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    • pp.1235-1243
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    • 2015
  • Hwangheuk-san (HHS) is a Korean multi-herb formula comprising four medicinal herbs. HHS, which was recorded in “Dongeuibogam,” has been used to treat patients with inflammation syndromes and digestive tract cancer for hundreds of years. However, little is known about its anti-tumor efficacy. The present study investigated the pro-apoptotic effect and mode of action of HHS against AGS human gastric carcinoma cells. HHS inhibited the cell growth of AGS cells in a dose-dependent manner, which was associated with the induction of apoptotic cell death, as evidenced by the formation of apoptotic bodies, chromatin condensation, and an accumulation of cells in the sub-G1 phase. HHS-induced apoptotic cell death was associated with the up-regulation of pro-apoptotic Bax protein expression, down-regulation of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein, and the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria to the cytosol. The treatment of AGS cells with HHS significantly elevated the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Additionally, apoptosis-inducing concentrations of HHS induced the activation of both caspase-9 and -8, initiator caspases of the mitochondrial-mediated intrinsic and death receptor-mediated extrinsic pathways, respectively, and caspase-3, accompanied by proteolytic degradation of poly (ADP-ribose)-polymerase. However, ROS scavenger and pan-caspases inhibitor significantly blocked HHS-induced growth inhibition and apoptosis. Taken together, these findings suggest that HHS induces apoptosis through ROS- and caspase-dependent mechanisms and that HHS may be a potential chemotherapeutic agent for the control of human gastric cancer.