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Repetition of Apoptosis Induced by Amiloride Derivatives in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (제대정맥 내피세포에서 Amiloride 유도체에 의한 Apoptosis 반복)

  • Park, Kyu Chang;Park, Kyu Sang;Moon, Soo Jee
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.46 no.1
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    • pp.56-66
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    • 2003
  • Purpose : Human umbilical vein endothelial cells(HUVECs) play an important role in regulating blood flow by releasing vasoactive substances. It has been reported that endothelial impairment and dysfunction might be a primary cause of placental vascular disease, which is manifested clinically as preeclampsia in mother and intrauterine growth restriction in fetus. Furthermore, the frequency of apoptotic changes is increased in umbilical and placental tissues from growth-restricted pregnancies. However, the various mechanisms of umbilical endothelial cell apoptosis have not been broadly proposed. We investigate the effects of amiloride derivatives on apoptotic death of HUVECs and identify their ionic mechanism. Methods : HUVECs were purchased from Clonetics, and cultured on endothelial cell growth medium. MTT assay and flow cytometry were used for assessing cytotoxic effect and confirming the apoptosis. Changes in intracellular ion concentrations were measured with specific fluorescent dyes and fluorescence imaging analysis system. Results : Amiloride derivatives elicited cytotoxic effects on HUVECs with dose-dependent manners and the rank order of potency is HMA($IC_{50}\;11.2{\mu}M$), MIA>EIPA>>amiloride. HMA-induced cytotoxicity is dependent on extra- and intracellular pH, that is, increase extra- and intracellular pH augmented the cytotoxic effects of HMA. HMA dose-dependently reduced intracellular major ions, such as $K^+$ and $Cl^-$. Interestingly, the depletion of intracellular ions induced by HMA was also significantly enhanced at alkaline extracellular pH. Conclusion : Amiloride derivatives induce apoptosis of HUVECs with dose and pH dependent manners. They reduce intracellular $K^+$ and $Cl^-$ concentration, which is also extracellular pH dependent.

Protective effect of Gabjubaekmok (Diospyros kaki) extract against amyloid beta (Aβ)-induced cognitive impairment in a mouse model (아밀로이드 베타(amyloid beta)로 유도된 인지장애 마우스 모델에서 갑주백목(Diospyros kaki) 추출물의 인지기능 및 뇌 신경세포 보호 효과)

  • Yoo, Seul Ki;Kim, Jong Min;Park, Seon Kyeong;Kang, Jin Yong;Han, Hye Ju;Park, Hyo Won;Kim, Chul-Woo;Lee, Uk;Heo, Ho Jin
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.51 no.4
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    • pp.379-392
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    • 2019
  • The current study investigated the effect of Gabjubaekmok (Diospyros kaki) ethanolic extract (GEE) on $H_2O_2$-induced human neuroblastoma MC-IXC cells and amyloid beta $(A{\beta})_{1-42}$-induced ICR (Institute of Cancer Research) mice. GEE showed significant antioxidant activity that was evaluated based on ABTS, DPPH scavenging activity, and inhibition of malondialdehyde (MDA) and acetylcholinesterase activity. Further, GEE inhibited ROS production and increased cell viability in $H_2O_2$-induced MC-IXC cells. Administration of GEE ameliorated the cognitive dysfunction on $A{\beta}$-induced ICR mice as evaluated using Y-maze, passive avoidance, and Morris water maze tests. Results of ex vivo test using brain tissues showed that, GEE protected the cholinergic system and mitochondrial functions by increasing the levels of antioxidants such as ROS, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) against $A{\beta}$-induced cognitive dysfunction. Moreover, GEE decreasd the expression levels of apoptosis-related proteins such as $TNF-{\alpha}$, p-JNK, p-tau, BAX and caspase 3. While, expression levels of p-Akt and $p-GSK3{\beta}$ increased than $A{\beta}$ group. Finally, gallic acid was identified as the main compound of GEE using high performance liquid chromatography.

Synergistic effect of ionizing radiation and $\beta$-lapachone against tumor in vitro and in vivo

  • Park, Eun-Kyung;Kim, Young-Seok;Lee, Sang-wook;Ahn, Seung-Do;Shin, Seong-Soo;Park, Heon-Joo;Song, Chang-Won
    • Proceedings of the Korean Biophysical Society Conference
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    • pp.80-80
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    • 2003
  • ${\beta}$-lapachone(${\beta}$-Lap), a natural o-naphthoquinone, presents in the bark of the Lapacho tree. ${\beta}$-Lap is cytotoxic against a variety of human cancer cells and it potentiates the anti-tumor effect of Taxol. In addition, ${\beta}$-Lap has been reported to radiosensitize cancer cells by inhibiting the repair of radiation-induced DNA damage.In the present study, we investigated the cytotoxicity of ${\beta}$-Lap against RKO human colorectal cancer cells as well as the combined effect of ${\beta}$-LaP and ionizing radiation. An incubation of RKO cells with 5 ${\mu}$M of ${\beta}$-Lap for 4 h killed almost 90% of the clonogenic cells. An incubation of RKO cells with 5 ${\mu}$M of ${\beta}$-Lap for 4 h or longer also caused massive apoptosis. Unlike other cytotoxic agents, ${\beta}$-Lap did not increase the expression of p53 and p21 and it suppressed the NFkB expression. The expression of Caspase 9 and 3 was minimally altered by ${\beta}$-Lap. Radiation and ${\beta}$-Lap acted synergistically in inducing clonogenic cell death and apoptosis in RKO cells when ${\beta}$-Lap treatment was applied after but not before the radiation exposure of the cells. Interestingly, a 4 h treatment with 5 ${\mu}$M of ${\beta}$-Lap starting 5 h after irradiation was as effective as that starting immediately after irradiation. The mechanisms of ${\beta}$-Lap-induced cell killing is controversial but a recent hypothesis is that ${\beta}$-Lap is activated by NAD(P)H: quinone-onidoreductase (NQO1) in the cells followed by an elevation of cytosolic Ca$\^$2+/ level and activation of proteases leading to apoptosis. It has been reported that NQO1 level in cells is markedly up-regulated for longer than 10 h after irradiation. Indeed, using immunological staining of NQO1, we observed a significant elevation of NQO1 expression in RKO cells 5h after 2-4 Gy irradiation. Such a prolonged elevation of NQO1 level after irradiation may be the reasons why the ${\beta}$-Lap treatment applied S h after irradiation was as effective as that applied immediately after irradiation in killing the cells. In view of the fact that the repair of radiation-induced damage is usually completed within 1-2 h after irradiation, it is highly likely that the ${\beta}$-Lap treahment applied 5 h after irradiation could not inhibit the repair of radiation-induced damage. For in vivo study, RKO cells were injected S.C. into the hind-leg of Nu/Nu mice, and allowed to grow to 130 mm3 tumor. The mice were i.p. injected with ${\beta}$-lapachone or saline 2 h after irradiation of tumors with 10 Gy of X-rays. The radiation induced growth delay was increased by 2.4 $\mu\textrm{g}$/g of ${\beta}$-lapachone. Taken together, we may conclude that the synergistic interaction of radiation and ${\beta}$-Lap in killing cancer cells is not due to radiosensitization by ${\beta}$-Lap but to an enhancement of ${\beta}$-Lap cytotoxicity by radiation through an upregulation of NQO1. The fact that NQO1 is elevated in tumors and that radiation causes prolonged increase of the NQO1 expression may be exploited to preferentially kill tumor cells using ${\beta}$-Lap in combination with radiotherapy.

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ω3-Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids-induced Inhibition of Tumorigenicity and Invasion by Suppression of COX-2/MMPs/VEGF through NF-kB in Colon Cancer Cells (오메가-3 지방산에 의한 COX-2/MMPs/VEGF 억제에 따른 대장암세포의 종양 형성 및 침윤 억제)

  • Shin, Soyeon;Kim, Yong-Jo;Han, Seung-Hyeon;Silwal, Prashanta;Heo, Jun-Young;Jeon, Young-Joo;Park, Seung-Kiel;Kweon, Gi-Ryang;Park, Jong-Il;Lim, Kyu
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.27 no.9
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    • pp.1020-1030
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    • 2017
  • Epidemiology studies have reported a reduced incidence of colon cancer among populations that consume a large quantity of ${\omega}3-polyunsaturated$ fatty acids (${\omega}3-PUFAs$) of marine origin. Herein, we demonstrated a mechanism of anticancer action of ${\omega}3-PUFAs$, showing that they suppressed invasion and tumorigenicity in colon cancer cells. Docosahexaenoic acids (DHA) inhibited the cell growth of HT29 cells. This action likely involved apoptosis, given that the DHA treatment increased the cleaved form of PARP and sub G1 cells. Moreover, the invasiveness of HT29 cells was inhibited following DHA treatment, whereas arachidonic acid (AA) had no effect. The levels of Matrix-metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and MMP-2 mRNA decreased after DHA pretreatment. DHA treatment inhibited MMP-9 and MMP-2 promoter activities and reduced VEGF promoter activity. DHA pretreatment also inhibited the activities of prostaglandin-2 (PGE2)-induced MMPs and the VEGF promoter. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) overexpression increased the activity of MMPs and that of the Vascular endotherial growth factor (VEGF) promoter in HT29 cells, and DHA inhibited NF-kB and COX-2 promoter reporter activities. As shown by in vivo experiments, when mouse colon cancer cells (MCA38) were implanted into Fat-1 and wild-type mice, both the tumoral size and volume were dramatically inhibited in Fat-1 transgenic mice. Furthermore, TUNEL-positive cells increased in tumors from Fat-1 mice compared with wild mice. In immunohistochemistry, the intensity of CD31 in Fat-1 tumors was weaker. These findings suggest that ${\omega}3-PUFAs$ may inhibit tumorigenicity and angiogenesis as well as cancer cell invasion by suppression of COX-2, MMPs and VEGF via the reduction of NF-kB in colon cancer.

The Role of Heme Oxygenase-1 in Lung Cancer Cells (폐암세포주에서 Heme Oxygenase-1의 역할)

  • Jung, Jong-Hoon;Kim, Hak-Ryul;Kim, Eun-Jung;Hwang, Ki-Eun;Kim, So-Young;Park, Jung-Hyun;Kim, Hwi-Jung;Yang, Sei-Hoon;Jeong, Eun-Taek
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.60 no.3
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    • pp.304-313
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    • 2006
  • Background : Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is an inducible enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative degradation of heme to form biliverdin, carbon monoxide (CO), and free iron. The current evidence has indicated a critical role of HO-1 in cytoprotection and also in other, more diverse biological functions. It is known that the high expression of HO-1 occurs in various tumors, and that HO-1 has an important role in rapid tumor growth because of its antioxidative and antiapoptotic effects. Therefore, the role of HO-1 was analyzed in human lung cancer cell lines, and especially in the A549 cell line. Material and Methods : Human lung cancer cell lines, i.e., A549, NCI-H23, NCI-H157 and NCI-H460, were used for this study. The expression of HO-1 in the untreated state was defined by Western blotting. ZnPP, which is the specific HO inhibitor we used, and the viability of cells were tested for by conducting MTT assaysy. The HO enzymatic activity, as determined via the bilirubin level, was also indirectly measured. Moreover, the generation of intracellular hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was monitored fluorimetrically with using a scopoletin-horse radish peroxidase (HRP) assay and 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA). We have also transfected small HO-1 interfering RNA (siRNA) into A549 cells, and the apoptotic effects were evaluated by flow cytometric analysis and Western blotting. Results : The A549 cells had a greater expression of HO-1 than the other cell lines, whereas ZnPP significantly decreased the viability of the A549 cells more than the viability of the other lung cancer cells in a dose-dependant fashion. Consistent with the viability, the HO enzymatic activity also was decreased. Moreover, intracellular H2O2 generation via ZnPP was induced in a dose-dependent manner. Apoptotic events were, then induced in the HO-1 siRNA transfected A549 cells. Conclusion : HO-1 provides new important insights into the possible molecular mechanism of the antitumor therapy in lung cancer.

Induction of Apoptosis by Ethanol Extracts of Fermented Agabeans in AGS Human Gastric Carcinoma Cells (AGS 인체위암세포에서 발효된 아가콩 추출물에 의한 apoptosis 유도)

  • Kim, Sung-Ryeal;Lee, Hye-Hyeon;Kim, Min-Jeong;Seo, Min-Jeong;Hong, Su-Hyun;Choi, Yung-Hyun;Kang, Byoung-Won;Park, Jeong-Uck;Joo, Woo-Hong;Rhu, Eun-Ju;Jeong, Yong-Kee
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.20 no.12
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    • pp.1872-1881
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    • 2010
  • Extracts of soybeans fermented by Bacillus subtilis have a wide variety of functions, such as enhancing the body's immune function, fibrinolysis activity, anti-inflammation, anti-cancer, estrogen function and anti-infection effects. Recently, it was reported that the extracts of fermented beans exhibit strong anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties by suppressing the transcription of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes and induction of apoptosis, respectively. However, the mechanisms of their cytotoxicity in human gastric cancer cells are poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the effects of ethyl alcohol extracts from fermented soybean (FS) and yellow agabean (FYA) on cell growth and apoptosis in AGS human gastric cancer cells. A treatment of FS and FYA inhibited the growth of AGS cells in a concentration-dependent manner by inducing apoptosis. FS- and FYA-induced apoptosis were associated with down-regulation of XIAP and cIAP-2, and up-regulation of pro-apoptotic Bax expression. Moreover, a treatment of FS and FYA not only triggered an increase in the levels of death receptor (DR)4, DR5, Fas and FasL, but also induced the activation of casepase-3, -8 and -9. These findings illustrate that FS and FYA may have a therapeutic potential in human gastric AGS cells and as a functional food.

Effect of Hypoxia-induced XIAP Expression on Apoptosis of Trophoblast Cells in Placenta (Hypoxia에 의한 X-linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis 발현이 태반 내 영양막세포의 세포자멸사에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Jong-Sung;Jeon, Su-Yeon;Choi, Jong-Ho;Lee, Yoo-Jin;Cha, Dong-Hyun;Kim, Gi-Jin
    • Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.217-229
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    • 2010
  • Objective: Apoptosis plays an important role for the maintenance of the normal pregnancy. Expression of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) is able to effectively prevent apoptosis and controls trophoblast cells death throughout placental development, but it is still unknown in the function of XIAP in trophoblast cells exposed to hypoxic condition, which is one of the factors causing preeclampsia. Therefore, we conducted to compare XIAP expression in normal and pre-eclamptic placenta tissues and analyzed the function of XIAP in HTR-8/SVneo trophoblast cell line exposed to hypoxic condition. Methods: The expression of XIAP was analyzed in placental tissues from the following groups of patients (none underwent labor): 1) term normal placenta (n=15); 2) term with pre-eclamptic placeneta (n=15); and 3) pre-term with pre-eclamptic placenta (n=11) using semi-quantitative RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, and Western blot. In order to evaluate the function of XIAP in HTR-8/SVneo trophoblast cells under hypoxic condition, HIF-$1{\alpha}$ plasmids, and hypoxic condtion were transfected and treated into HTR-8/SVneo trophoblast cells for 24 hours, respectively. Results: We observed that XIAP are expressed in the syncytiotrophoblasts and syncytial knot of placental villi. The expression of XIAP was significantly decreased in preeclamptic placenta tissues than in normal placenta tissues without labor (p<0.05). Furthermore, we confirmed the XIAP expression in HTR-8/SVneo trophbolast cells exposed to hypoxia was translocated from cytoplasm into nucleus and decreased XIAP by hypoxic condition induced apoptosis in HTR-8/SVneo trophoblast cells through up-regulation of pro-apoptotic proteins. Conclusion: These results suggest that the expression of XIAP is involved in placental development as well as decreased expression of XIAP by hypoxia is associated with pre-eclampsia through inducing trophoblast cells apoptosis.

Radiographic, MRI and Histopathologic Assessment to Standardize Canine Spinal Cord Injury Model (척수손상 모델 견 표준화를 위한 방사선, 자기공명영상 및 조직 병리 평가)

  • Seong, Yun-Sang;Yun, Sung-Ho;Park, Jai-Soon;Kim, Hee-Kyung;Chang, Yong-Min;Ku, Sae-Kwang;Park, Hyun-Jeong;Jang, Kwang-Ho
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.27 no.5
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    • pp.546-552
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    • 2010
  • Previous studies could not offer available guideline to decide size of balloon and grade of injury before induction of spinal cord injury (SCI) because grade of SCI was assessed after inserting a catheter and each experimental animal were different in body size and weight as well as in species. This study was performed to provide guideline for standardized SCI model. Eight healthy adult beagle dogs that had 8 mm of spinal canal height were assigned to four groups according to the diameter of balloon and compression time: 4 mm/3hrs, 4 mm/6hrs, 4 mm/12hrs and 6 mm/3hrs group. Radiography was performed to standardize between experimental animal and balloon before selecting balloon diameter to induce SCI. Behaviors outcomes, somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histopathological examination were evaluated. Behaviors outcomes and SEPs were not available to assess grade of SCI and those only indicate SCI. The damaged area was revealed clear hyperintensity on STIR image and T2WI after induction of SCI. The hyperintense area on MRI was cranially and caudally expanded with increasing of the diameter of balloon or the compression time. Well corresponded to expanding of hyperintense area on MRI, the damaged region and the numbers of caspase-3 and PARP immunoreactive cells were increased on histopathological findings. Therefore, these results will be considered fundamental data to induce standardized SCI model in experimental animal that has various weight and size.

Effects of a Lipid Mixture on Glucocorticoid-induced Barrier Impairment and Epidermal Atrophy in the Canine Skin (글루코코티코이드에 의해서 유발된 개 피부의 장벽기능이상과 위축에 대한 지질 혼합물의 효과)

  • Jin, Yeo-Won;Ahn, Mi-Ji;Ku, Sae-Kwang;Park, Hyun-Jeong;Lee, Keun-Woo;Oh, Tae-Ho
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.27 no.5
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    • pp.522-532
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    • 2010
  • The aims of the present study were to characterize the effect of glucocorticosteroids (GCs) on the normal canine skin and to evaluate the effect of a lipid mixture (LM), containing cholesterol, pseudoceramide, and free fatty acid, on the steroid-induced damaged skin of dogs. Five beagles were involved and the skin of the back of each dog was topically applied with four kinds of GCs twice daily for 28 days. LM was applied after that period of GCs application. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin hydration, and skin pH were assessed during experimental periods and histopathological evaluation was performed. TEWL was significantly increased, with a maximum increase obtained on day 28 (p < 0.01). Skin pH was significantly decreased, with a maximum decrease obtained on day 28 (p < 0.01). Skin surface hydration was significantly increased on day 3, but values of skin hydration were progressively decreased and finally reached those of baseline. In histology, as results of steroid application, losses of keratin layers in the stratum corneum and edematous changes in the upper parts of dermis, and consequently, thickness of the epidermis and the stratum corneum were decreased. In addition, the numbers of hair follicles were markedly decreased in steroid control as compared to intact control. However, these skin atrophic changes were markedly inhibited by treatment of LM as compared with steroid control in the present study. Moreover, all biophysical parameters were reached to the baseline after LM treatment. These results showed that the topically applied GCs induced skin barrier impairment and a LM should be effective on repair of disturbed skin barrier function in dogs. Therefore, it is concluded that a LM tested in the present study is expected to treat the steroid-induced skin damages.

Effects of Green Pepper (Capsicum annuum var.) on Antioxidant Activity and Induction of Apoptosis in Human Breast Cancer Cell Lines (품종별 청고추의 항산화 효과 및 유방암 세포주에서의 세포 사멸 연구)

  • Yoon, Hyo-Jin;Lee, Seul;Hwang, In-Kyeong
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.44 no.6
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    • pp.750-758
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    • 2012
  • This study investigated flavonoid, total phenol, total flavonoid content, antioxidant and antiproliferative activity on human breast cancer cells (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231). Four varieties of Korean green peppers (KP: kkuri pepper, PP: phut pepper, CP: cheongyang pepper, OP: ohi pepper) and one foreign green pepper (JP: jalapeno) were used. The contents of luteolin, quercetin and apigenin, which are abundant flavonoids in green pepper, were the highest in KP. Also, the contents of total phenol, and total flavonoids were the highest in KP, followed by CP, JP, PP, and OP (KP: total phenol $13.29{\pm}0.45$ mg GAE/g D.W., total flavonoid $7.02{\pm}0.13$ mg QE/g D.W. In DPPH ABTS radical-scavenging activity, KP showed the most potent antioxidant activity. In the result of viability in human breast cancer cells, KP had the highest antiproliferative effect. These results suggest that green peppers have significant antioxidant activity and can be a possible candidate for treatment of breast cancer.