• Title/Summary/Keyword: casein kinase I

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Casein Kinases I and 2α Phosphorylate Oryza Sativa Pseudo-Response Regulator 37 (OsPRR37) in Photoperiodic Flowering in Rice

  • Kwon, Choon-Tak;Koo, Bon-Hyuk;Kim, Dami;Yoo, Soo-Cheul;Paek, Nam-Chon
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.81-88
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    • 2015
  • Flowering time (or heading date) is controlled by intrinsic genetic programs in response to environmental cues, such as photoperiod and temperature. Rice, a facultative short-day (SD) plant, flowers early in SD and late in long-day (LD) conditions. Casein kinases (CKs) generally act as positive regulators in many signaling pathways in plants. In rice, Heading date 6 (Hd6) and Hd16 encode $CK2{\alpha}$ and CKI, respectively, and mainly function to delay flowering time. Additionally, the major LD-dependent floral repressors Hd2/Oryza sativa Pseudo-Response Regulator 37 (OsPRR37;hereafter PRR37) and Ghd7 also confer strong photoperiod sensitivity. In floral induction, Hd16 acts upstream of Ghd7 and CKI interacts with and phosphorylates Ghd7. In addition, Hd6 and Hd16 also act upstream of Hd2. However, whether CKI and $CK2{\alpha}$ directly regulate the function of PRR37 remains unclear. Here, we use in vitro pull-down and in vivo bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays to show that CKI and $CK2{\alpha}$ interact with PRR37. We further use in vitro kinase assays to show that CKI and $CK2{\alpha}$ phosphorylate different regions of PRR37. Our results indicate that direct posttranslational modification of PRR37 mediates the genetic interactions between these two protein kinases and PRR37. The significance of CK-mediated phosphorylation for PRR37 and Ghd7 function is discussed.