• Title, Summary, Keyword: casein kinase $2{\alpha}$

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Casein Kinases I and 2α Phosphorylate Oryza Sativa Pseudo-Response Regulator 37 (OsPRR37) in Photoperiodic Flowering in Rice

  • Kwon, Choon-Tak;Koo, Bon-Hyuk;Kim, Dami;Yoo, Soo-Cheul;Paek, Nam-Chon
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.81-88
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    • 2015
  • Flowering time (or heading date) is controlled by intrinsic genetic programs in response to environmental cues, such as photoperiod and temperature. Rice, a facultative short-day (SD) plant, flowers early in SD and late in long-day (LD) conditions. Casein kinases (CKs) generally act as positive regulators in many signaling pathways in plants. In rice, Heading date 6 (Hd6) and Hd16 encode $CK2{\alpha}$ and CKI, respectively, and mainly function to delay flowering time. Additionally, the major LD-dependent floral repressors Hd2/Oryza sativa Pseudo-Response Regulator 37 (OsPRR37;hereafter PRR37) and Ghd7 also confer strong photoperiod sensitivity. In floral induction, Hd16 acts upstream of Ghd7 and CKI interacts with and phosphorylates Ghd7. In addition, Hd6 and Hd16 also act upstream of Hd2. However, whether CKI and $CK2{\alpha}$ directly regulate the function of PRR37 remains unclear. Here, we use in vitro pull-down and in vivo bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays to show that CKI and $CK2{\alpha}$ interact with PRR37. We further use in vitro kinase assays to show that CKI and $CK2{\alpha}$ phosphorylate different regions of PRR37. Our results indicate that direct posttranslational modification of PRR37 mediates the genetic interactions between these two protein kinases and PRR37. The significance of CK-mediated phosphorylation for PRR37 and Ghd7 function is discussed.

Casein Kinase 2 interacts with human mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase MSK1 and phosphorylates it at Multiple sites

  • Shi, Yan;Han, Guanghui;Wu, Huiling;Ye, Kan;Tian, Zhipeng;Wang, Jiaqi;Shi, Huili;Ye, Mingliang;Zou, Hanfa;Huo, Keke
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.42 no.12
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    • pp.840-845
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    • 2009
  • Mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase (MSK1) palys a crucial role in the regulation of transcription downstream of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2) and mitogen-activated protein kinase p38. MSK1 can be phosphorylated and activated in cells by both ERK1/2 and p38$\alpha$. In this study, Casein Kinase 2 (CK2) was identified as a binding and regulatory partner for MSK1. Using the yeast two-hybrid system, MSK1 was found to interact with the CK2$\beta$ regulatory subunit of CK2. Interactions between MSK1 and the CK2$\alpha$ catalytic subunit and CK2$\beta$ subunit were demonstrated in vitro and in vivo. We further found that CK2$\alpha$ can only interact with the C-terminal kinase domain of MSK1. Using site-directed mutagenesis assay and mass spectrometry, we identified five sites in the MSK1 C-terminus that could be phosphorylated by CK2 in vitro: Ser757, Ser758, Ser759, Ser760 and Thr793. Of these, Ser757, Ser759, Ser760 and Thr793 were previously unknown.

Estrogen Induces CK2α Activation via Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species

  • Jeong, Soo-Yeon;Im, Suhn-Young
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.23-31
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    • 2019
  • The protein kinase $CK2{\alpha}$ (formerly Casein Kinase II) is implicated in tumorigenesis and transformation. However, the mechanisms of $CK2{\alpha}$ activation in breast cancer have yet to be elucidated. This study investigated the mechanisms of $CK2{\alpha}$ activation in estrogen signaling. Estrogen increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, $CK2{\alpha}$ activity, and protein expression in estrogen receptor positive ($ER^+$) MCF-7 human breast cancer cells, which were inhibited by the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine. $H_2O_2$ enhanced $CK2{\alpha}$ activity and protein expression. Human epidermal growth factor (EGF) increased ROS production, $CK2{\alpha}$ activity and protein expression in EGF receptor 2 (HER2)-overexpressing MCF-7 (MCF-7 HER2) cells, but not in MCF-7 cells. Estrogen induced the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). The p38 inhibitor, SB202190, blocked estrogen-induced increases in ROS production, $CK2{\alpha}$ activity and $CK2{\alpha}$ protein expression. The data suggest that ROS/p38 MAPK is the key inducer of $CK2{\alpha}$ activation in response to estrogen or EGF.

CK2 phosphorylates AP-2α and increases its transcriptional activity

  • Ren, Kaiqun;Xiang, Shuanglin;He, Fangli;Zhang, Wenfeng;Ding, Xiaofeng;Wu, Yanyang;Yang, Liping;Zhou, Jianlin;Gao, Xiang;Zhang, Jian
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.44 no.7
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    • pp.490-495
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    • 2011
  • Transcription factor AP-$2{\alpha}$ involves in the process of mammalian embryonic development and tumorigenesis. Many studies have shown that AP-$2{\alpha}$ functions in association with other interacting proteins. In a two-hybrid screening, the regulatory subunit ${\beta}$ of protein casein kinase 2 ($CK2{\beta}$) was identified as an interacting protein of AP-$2{\alpha}$; we confirmed this interaction using in-vitro GST pull-down and in-vivo co-immunoprecipitation assays; in an endogenous co-immunoprecipitation experiment, we further found the catalytic subunit ${\alpha}$ of protein casein kinase 2 ($CK2{\alpha}$) also exists in the complex. Phosphorylation analysis revealed that AP-$2{\alpha}$ was phosphorylated by CK2 kinase majorly at the site of Ser429, and such phosphorylation could be blocked by CK2 specific inhibitor 4,5,6,7-tetrabromobenzotriazole (TBB) in a dose-dependent manner. Luciferase assays demonstrated that both $CK2{\alpha}$ and $CK2{\beta}$ enhanced the transcription activity of AP-$2{\alpha}$; moreover, $CK2{\beta}$ increased the stability of AP-$2{\alpha}$. Our data suggest a novel cellular function of CK-2 as a transcriptional co-activator of AP-$2{\alpha}$.

Discovery of Cyclin-dependent Kinase Inhibitor, CR229, Using Structure-based Drug Screening

  • Kim, Min-Kyoung;Min, Jae-Ki;Choi, Bu-Young;Lim, Hae-Young;Cho, Youl-Hee;Lee, Chul-Hoon
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.17 no.10
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    • pp.1712-1716
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    • 2007
  • To generate new scaffold candidates as highly selective and potent cyelin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors, structure-based drug screening was performed utilizing 3D pharmacophore conformations of known potent inhibitors. As a result, CR229 (6-bromo-2,3,4,9-tetrahydro-carbolin-1-one) was generated as the hit-compound. A computational docking study using the X-ray crystallographic structure of CDK2 in complex with CR229 was evaluated. This predicted binding mode study of CR229 with CDK2 demonstrated that CR229 interacted effectively with the Leu83 and Glu81 residues in the ATP-binding pocket of CDK2 for the possible hydrogen bond formation. Furthermore, biochemical studies on inhibitory effects of CR229 on various kinases in the human cervical cancer HeLa cells demonstrated that CR229 was a potent inhibitor of CDK2 ($IC_{50}:\;3\;{\mu}M$), CDKI ($IC_{50}:\;4.9\;{\mu}M$), and CDK4 ($IC_{50}:\;3\;{\mu}M$), yet had much less inhibitory effect ($IC_{50}:>20\;{\mu}M$) on other kinases, such as casein kinase 2-${\alpha}1$ (CK2-${\alpha}1$), protein kinase A (PKA), and protein kinase C (PKC). Accordingly, these data demonstrate that CR229 is a potent CDK inhibitor with anticancer efficacy.

A Natural L-Arginine Analog, L-Canavanine-Induced Apoptosis is Suppressed by Protein Tyrosine Kinase p56lck in Human Acute Leukemia Jurkat T Cells (인체 급성백혈병 Jurkat T 세포에 있어서 L-canavanine에 의해 유도되는 세포자살기전에 미치는 단백질 티로신 키나아제 p56lck의 저해 효과)

  • Park, Hae-Sun;Jun, Do-Youn;Woo, Hyun-Ju;Rue, Seok-Woo;Kim, Sang-Kook;Kim, Kyung-Min;Park, Wan;Moon, Byung-Jo;Kim, Young-Ho
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.19 no.11
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    • pp.1529-1537
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    • 2009
  • To elucidate further the antitumor effects of a natural L-arginine analogue, L-canavanine, the mechanism underlying apoptogenic activity of L-canavanine and its modulation by protein tyrosine kinase $p56^{lck}$ was investigated in human Jurkat T cells. When the cells were treated with 1.25 to 2.5 mM L-canavanine for 36 h, several apoptotic events including mitochondrial membrane potential (${\Delta\Psi}m$) loss, activation of caspase-9, -3, -8, and -7, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) degradation, and DNA fragmentation were induced without alteration in the levels of Fas or FasL. These apoptotic changes were more significant in $p56^{lck}$-deficient Jurkat clone JCaM1.6 than in $p56^{lck}$-positive Jurkat clone E6.1. The L-canavanine-induced apoptosis observed in $p56^{lck}$-deficient JCaM1.6 cells was significantly reduced by introducing $p56^{lck}$ gene into JCaM1.6 cells by stable transfection. Treatment of JCaM1.6/lck cells with L-canavanine caused a transient 1.6-fold increase in the kinase activity of $p56^{lck}$. Both FADD-positive wild-type Jurkat T cell clone A3 and FADD-deficient Jurkat T cell clone I2.1 exhibited a similar susceptibility to the cytotoxicity of L-canavanine, excluding involvement of Fas/FasL system in triggering L-canavanine-induced apoptosis. The L-canavanine-induced apoptotic sub-$G_1$ peak and activation of caspase-3, -8, and -7 were abrogated by pan-caspase inhibitor (z-VAD-fmk), whereas L-canavanine-induced activation of caspase-9 was not affected. These results demonstrated that L-canavanine caused apoptosis of Jurkat T cells via the loss of ${\Delta\Psi}m$, and the activation of caspase-9, -3, -8, and -7, leading to PARP degradation, and that the $p56^{lck}$ kinase attenuated the ${\Delta\Psi}m$ loss and activation of caspases, and thus contributed as a negative regulator to L-canavanine-induced apoptosis.