• Title, Summary, Keyword: carotenoids

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Carotenoids: Functions and Recent Research Progress

  • Yeum, Kyung-Jin
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.1 no.2
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    • pp.256-261
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    • 1996
  • Carotenoids are abundant int he Korean food supply. The intake of foods rich in carotenoids appears to be associated with optimal health, and a reduction in the risk of cancer, cardiovascular disease, macular degeneration and cataract formation. Specific dietary carotenoids may be responsible for these specific protective effects. Hydrocarbon carotenoids such as $\alpha$-,$\beta$-carotenes and lycopene may reduce the risk of cancer and heart disease, whereas oxygenated carotenoids, such as lutein and zeaxanthin, may be important in protection of the eye. Dietary carotenoids, such as lutein, cryptoxanthin, $\alpha$-carotene, $\beta$-carotene and lycopene can be readily obtained from the diet, Green leafy vegetables, such as spinach and broccoli, contain both oxygenated and hydrocarbon carotenoids ; yellow or orange vegetables, such as carrots, have high levels of $\alpha$-carotene and $\beta$-carotene ; and tomatoes contain high amounts of lycopene. Besides being important vitamin A sources, provitamin A carotenoids such as $\alpha$-carotene, $\beta$-carotene and cryptoxanthin, participate in the cell defense systems that are associated with radical quenching. Non-provitamin A carotenoids, such as lutein and lycopene, major carotenoids in human plasma, have also been reported to possess strong antioxidant capability. The alteration of dietary sources of carotenoids can modify their levels in the circulation and target tissues, and thus prevent or delay the onset of these chronic diseases.

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Excitation energy transfer from carotenoids probed by femtosecond time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy

  • Akimoto, Seiji;Yamazaki, Iwao;Mimuro, Mamoru
    • Journal of Photoscience
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.78-81
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    • 2002
  • Fluorescence rise and decay curves of carotenoids were measured in solutions and in pigment protein complexes with a femtosecond time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. For linear carotenoids, the S$_2$ lifetimes showed the maximum value around n = 9-10. The conjugation of a keto-carbonyl group shortened the S$_2$lifetime and prolonged the S$_1$lifetime. The excitation relaxation dynamics within carotenoids and the excitation energy transfer kinetics from carotenoids to chlorophylls are discussed as a function of molecular structure of carotenoids.

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Comparison of Dietary Carotenoids Metabolism and Effects to Improve the Body Color of Cultured Fresh-water Fishes and Marine Fishes (양식 담수어 및 해산어의 사료 Carotenoids 대사의 비교와 체색개선에 미치는 영향)

  • Ha, Bong-Seuk;Kweon, Moon-Jeong;Park, Mi-Yeon;Baek, Sung-Han;Kim, Soo-Young;Baek, In-Ok;Kang, Seok-Joong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.270-284
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    • 1997
  • Effects of dietary carotenoids were investigated on the metaboβsm and body pigmentation of rainbow trout(Salmo gairdneri), masu salmon(Oncorhynchus macrostomos), eel(Anguilla japonica), rock fish(Sebastes inermis) and black rock fish(Sebastes schlegeli). Three weeks later after depletion, these fishes were fed diet supplemented with ${\beta}-carotene$, lutein, canthaxanthin', astaxanthin or ${\beta}-apo-8'-carotenal$ for 4 to 5 weeks, respectively. Carotenoids distributed to and changed in integument were analyzed. In the integument of rainbow trout. zeaxanthin, ${\beta}-carotene$ and canthaxanthin were found to be the major carotenoids, while lutein, isocryptoxanthin and salmoxanthin were the minor carotenoids. In the integument of masu salmon, zeaxanthin was found to be the major carotenoids, while triol, lutein, tunaxanthin, ${\beta}-carotene$, ${\beta}-cryptoxanthin$ and canthaxanthin were the minor carotenoids. In the integument of eel, ${\beta}-carotene$ was found to be the major carotenoids, while lutein, zeaxanthin and ${\beta}-cryptoxanthin$ were the minor carotenoids. In the integument of rock fish, zeaxanthin, ${\beta}-carotene$, tunaxanthin$(A{\sim}C)$ and lutein were found to be the major carotenoids, while ${\beta}-cryptoxanthin$, ${\alpha}-cryptoxanthin$ and astaxanthin were the minor carotenoids. Likely in the integument of black rock fish, ${\beta}-carotene$, astaxanthin and zeaxanthin were found to be the major carotenoids, whereas ${\alpha}-cryptoxanthin$, ${\beta}-cryptoxanthin$, lutein and canthaxanthin were the minor contributor. The efficacy of body pigmentation by the accumulation of carotenoids in the integument of rainbow trout and masu salmon were the most effectively shown in the canthaxanthin group and of eel, rock fish and black rock fish were the most effectively shown in the lutein group. Based on these results in the integument of each fish, dietary carotenoids were presumably biotransformed via oxidative and reductive pathways. In the rainbow trout, ${\beta}-carotene$ was oxidized to astaxanthin via successively isocryptoxanthin, echinenone and canthaxanthin. Lutein was oxidized to canthaxanthin. Canthaxanthin was reduced to ${\beta}-carotene$ via isozeaxanthin, and astaxanthin was reduced to zeaxanthin via triol. In the masu salmon, ${\beta}-carotene$ was oxidized to zeaxanthin. Lutein was reduced to zeaxanthin via tunaxanthin. Canthaxanthin was reduced to zeaxanthin via ${\beta}-carotene$. and astaxanthin was reduced to zeaxanthin via triol. In the eel, ${\beta}-carotene$ and lutein were directly deposited but canthaxanthin was reduced to ${\beta}-carotene$, and cholesterol lowering effect by Meju supplementation might be resulted from the modulation of fecal axanthin, astaxanthin and ${\beta}-apo-8'-carotenal$ were oxidized and reduced to tunaxanthin via zeaxanthin. In the black roch fish, ${\beta}-carotene$ was oxidized to ${\beta}-cryptoxanthin$. Lutein was reduced to ${\beta}-carotene$ via ${\alpha}-cryptoxanthin$. Canthaxanthin was reduced to ${\alpha}-cryptoxanthin$ via successively ${\beta}-cryptoxanthin$ and zeaxanthin. Astaxanthin converted to tunaxanthin via isocryptoxanthin and zeaxanthin, and ${\beta}-apo-8'-carotenal$ was reduced to ${\alpha}-cryptoxanthin$ via ${\beta}-cryptoxanthin$ and zeaxanthin.

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Carotenoids Components of Tunicata, Shellfishes and Its Inhibitory Effects on Mutagenicity and Growth of Tumor Cell (미색동물 및 패류의 Carotenoids 색소성분과 돌연변이 및 종양세포 증식의 억제효과)

  • 하봉석;백승한;김수영
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.29 no.5
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    • pp.922-934
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    • 2000
  • To investigate the composition of carotenoids present in marine organisms and the biological activity of the carotenoids, carotenoids of the muscles and tunic of tunicates and shellfishes were isolated and identified. Anitmutagenic activities of the carotenoids for S. typhimurium TA 98 and cytotoxic activity for cancer cell lines were determined. Total carotenoid contents in the muscle of tunicata ranged from 18.65 mg% to 2.39 mg%. The highest amount of the total carotenoid was found in the muscle of Halocynthia aurantium, followed by Styela clava (HERDMAN), H. roretzi, H. hilgendorfi f. igaboya, H. hilgendorfi f. retteri, S. plicata (LESUEUR) in order. Interestingly, total carotenoid content in the muscle of S. clava (HERDAMAN) was higher than that of H. roretzi. Total carotenoid content of all tunicata, other than H. aurantium and H. roretzi, were higher in muscle than tunic. The major carotenoids in H. roretzi, H. aurantium, S. plicata (LESUEUR), and S. clava (HERDAMAN) were cynthiaxanthin (25.1∼42.2%), halocynthiaxanthin (9.7∼26.3%), diatoxanthin (8.0∼18.7%) and β-carotene (7.7%∼21.7%). Similarly, cantaxanthin (19.6%), cynthiaxanthin (15.4%), halocynthiaxanthin (14.8%), and (3R, 3'R), (3S, 3'S)-astaxanthin (22.6%) in H. hilgendorfi f. retteri and fucoxanthin (26.6%), cynthiaxanthin (21.8%), halocynthiaxanthin (15.2%), and β-carotene (9.3%) in H. hilgendorfi f. igaboya were major carotenoids in both tunicate. However, the composition of carotenoids in muscle and tunic of tunicata was similar each other. Among the shellfishes examined, total carotenoid content of the muscle of Peronidia venulosa (Schrenck) and Corbicula fluminea, and of the gonad of Atrina pinnata and Chlamys farreri, was ranged from 2.51 to 6.83 mg% which were relatively higher than that of other shellfishes. The composition of the carotenoids of shellfishes, which might depend upon their living environments, was varied. But cynthiaxanthin (15.9∼39.0%) and zeaxanthin (9.6∼21.9%) in gonad of C. farreri, and muscles of Buccinum Volutharpa perryi (JAY) and Crassostrea gigas, cynthiaxanthin (21.5∼48.6%) and mytiloxanthin (14.6%) in muscle of C.fluminea and gonad of A. pinnata, and canthaxanthin (60.6%) and isozeaxanthin (20.5%) in muscles of P. venulosa (Schrenck), and β-carotene (23.7%∼37.8%) and zeaxanthin (18.2∼20.4) in muscles of Semisulcospira libertina and Meretrix lusoria were major carotenoids. Interestingly, diester type-carotenoids were present along with free type-carotenoids in muscles of C. gigas. antimutagenic effect of the carotenoids isolated from tunicata and shellfishes against 2-amino-3-methylimidazol [4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) for S. typhimurium TA 98 was proportional to the amount (20, 50 and 100㎍/plate) treated. Mutagenicity of IQ was significantly reduced by astaxanthin, isozeaxanthin, mytiloxanthin and halocynthiaxanthin, whereas the mutagenicity of aflatoxin B₁(AFB₁) was significantly reduced by β-carotene, isozeaxanthin, and mytiloxnthin. Growth inhibition effect of carotenoids isolated from tunicata and shellfishes for cancer cell was proportional to the amount (5, 10, and 20㎍/plate) treated. The growth of HeLa cell by β-carotene, cynthiaxanthin, astaxanthin and halocynthiaxanthin, NCI-H87 cell by β-carotene, astaxanthin, cynthiaxanthin, and halocynthiaxanthin, HT-29 cell by β-carotene, cynthiaxanthin, mytiloxanthin and halocynthiaxanthin, and MG-63 cells by β-carotene, cynthiaxanthin, astaxanthin, canthaxanthin and halocynthiaxanthin were statistically reduced.

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Biological Functions and Production Technology of Carotenoids (Carotenoids의 생리 기능성과 생산기술)

  • 홍상필;김명희;황재관
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.27 no.6
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    • pp.1297-1306
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    • 1998
  • Carotenoids are yellow to orange red pigments that are ubiquitous in the nature and its annual pro duction amounts to one hundred million ton. This review discussed physicochemical properties, antiox idative activity, anticancer activity of carotenoids and its production technology. Carotenoids, mainly used as food colourants, are characterized by its strong reactive conjugated double bonds, related to oxidation by heat, light, acid, and metal ions. The provitamin A activity of carotenoids is higher in trans form than in cis form. Antioxidative properties of carotenoids are related to ionone structure and long, conjugated polyene chain number. In particular, carotene, astaxanthin, canthaxanthin, and lycopene possess strong antioxidant activity, compared with tocopherol. Especially, carotene, astaxanthin, carotene, fucoxanthin, halocynthiaxanthin and peridinin impart strong anticancer activity against lung cancer, breast cancer, buccal pouch cancer and nerve cell cancer. Carotene and astaxanthin are produced by biotechnology using algae such as Dunaliella salina and Haematococcus pluvalis. But the change of cultivation conditions and screening of algae, efficiently producing carotenoids, are needed for its commercial production. Carotenoids are expected to be used in the various fields through explanation of its biological activity and establishment of commercial production technology.

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Biological Activities and Analysis of Carotenoids in Plants (Carotenoid의 생리활성과 함량분석)

  • 김정봉;하선화;이종렬;김행훈;윤상홍;김용환
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.48
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    • pp.72-78
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    • 2003
  • Carotenoids are the major pigment of pepper (Capsicum annuum) and tomato (Lycopersicon esulentum) which are very important foods in Korea. However the analysis of carotenoids is quite complicated because of their diversity and the presence of cis-trans isomeric forms of these compounds. The objective of this review is to collect the achievements on the field of the chromatographic separation of carotenoids in food and some vegetables, to describe and critically evaluate the techniques, And to compare the benefits and shortcomings of the various chromatographic methods such as adsorption and reversed-phase HPLC and thin-layer chromatography. HPLC equipped with ultra-violet or photodiode array detection is most often employed in routine use for the analysis of carotenoids. Here, the method to analyze carotenoids by HPLC separation after solvent extration and purification from pepper powder samples done in our laboratory is also mentioned.

Methodology of Carotenoids Chemistry (Carotenoids 화학의 연구방법)

  • 김재웅
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.360-366
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    • 2001
  • This brief review is organized to integrate methodology of carotenoids chemistry from the author's experimental conceps. The majors include classification of carotenoids. extraction·phase separation, purification. crystalyzation, identification, quantitation, spectroscopic properties, organic reactions, and analytical methods of carotenoproteins. The goal is not write a important conceps of carotenoid but to provide a technical methods that may be useful to researchers of natural products chemistry.

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Carotenoids Biosynthesis and Their Metabolic Engineering in Plants (식물에서 Carotenoid 생합성 경로와 대사공학적 응용)

  • Ha, Sun-Hwa;Kim, Jung-Bong;Park, Jong-Sug;Ryu, Tae-Hun;Kim, Kyung-Hwan;Hahn, Bum-Soo;Kim, Jong-Bum;Kim, Youg-Hwan
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.81-95
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    • 2003
  • Carotenoids are synthesized from the plastidic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (GAP)/pyruvate pathway in isoprenoids biosynthetic system of plants. They play a crucial role in light harvesting, work as photoprotective agents in photosynthesis of nature, and are also responsible for the red, orange and yellow colors of fruits and flowers in plants. In addition to biological actions of carotenoids as antioxidants and natural pigments, they are essential components of human diet as a source of vitamin A. It has been also suggested that some kinds of carotenoids might provide protection against cancer and heart disease as human medicines. In this article, we review the commercial applications on the basis of biological functions of carotenoids, summarize the studies of genes involved in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway, and introduce recent results achieved in metabolic engineering of carotenoids. This effort for understanding the carotenoids metabolism will make us to increase the total carotenoid contents of crop plants, direct the carotenoid biosynthetic machinery towards other useful carotenoids, and produce a new array of carotenoids by further metabolizing the new precursors that are created when one or two key enzymes in carotenoid biosynthetic pathway are exchanged through gene manipulation in the near future.

Carotenoids pigment extraction from a wasted persimmon peel (폐기 감 과피를 이용한 Carotenoids색소의 추출)

  • 오상룡;차원섭;박준희;조영제;홍주헌;이원영
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.8 no.4
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    • pp.456-461
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    • 2001
  • To develop the use of natural pigment for food, carotenoids from wasted persimmon peel were extracted with seven organic solvents. Among the solvents, acetone was a high yielding solvent of carotenoids. Extraction trends depending on process variables(temperature, time, solvent ratio to persimmon peel) were explained through response surface which was made by central composite experimental design. Carotenoid contents were increased with the extraction time and solvent ratio but it decreaed in the higher experimental design. Carotenoid contents were increased with the extraction time and solvent ratio but it decreased in the higher extraction temperature. The optimum conditions of extraction process variables were predicted as 29$\^{C}$, 93min. at fixed solvent ratio(1:27).

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Changes in Carotenoids Contents in Pureed and Cooked Carrot and Spinach during Storage (가열처리 및 저장조건에 따른 당근과 시금치퓨레의 Carotenoids 함량변화와 이성질화 형성에 관한 연구)

  • ;;Robert M, Russell
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.83-95
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    • 2003
  • Investigations were conducted on the changes in carotenoids content, and quantification of cis-trans-${\beta}$-carotene Isomers in pureed and cooked carrot and spinach during storage. The isomerization and degradation of carotenoids were monitored by high-performance liquid chromatography on a C$\_$30/ reversed-phase column with diode-array detection. The results showed that lutein, ail-trans-${\beta}$-carotene, ${\alpha}$-carotene, 9-cis-${\beta}$-carotene and 13-cis-${\beta}$-carotene were present in carrot and spinach. Zeaxanthin and cryptoxanthin were present in raw spinach. The contents of lutein, zeaxanthin, cryptoxanthin, ${\alpha}$-carotene and all-trans-${\beta}$-carotene in pureed and cooked carrot and spinach decreased with increasing storage period. The 9-cis and 13-cis carotenoid isomers were the major types formed in cooked carrot during storage. Cooking was not found to alter the carotenoid profile of the sample, but increased the total amount of carotenoids compared with pured ones. This increase could be explained that cooking itself increased the extraction efficiency and inactivated the enzymes degradating carotenoids.