• Title, Summary, Keyword: carcinoid tumors

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A Case of Rectal Carcinoid Tumor in a Child (소아 직장 유암종 1예)

  • Kang, Yo-Han;Son, Hyeon-Ee;Kim, Jae-Young
    • Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.86-90
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    • 2007
  • Carcinoid tumors are derived from the enterochromaffin cells of neural crest origin. Most are commonly found in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The rectum is the third most common site for GI carcinoids. Rectal carcinoid tumors make up 13.7% of all carcinoid tumors and the vast majority occurs in the sixth decade of life. Approximately 80% of rectal carcinoid tumors are less than 1 cm in size, limited to the submucosa without metastasis and can be safely treated by local excision. We report a case of rectal carcinoid tumor in a 13 year-old child that was successfully treated by endoscopic polypectomy.

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Distribution and Characteristics of Pulmonary Neuroendocrine Tumors: Single Institution Experience in Lebanon

  • Kesrouani, Carole;Ghorra, Claude;Rassy, Marc;Kourie, Hampig Raphael;Kattan, Joseph
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.5
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    • pp.2579-2581
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    • 2016
  • Background: Neuroendocrine tumors represent 20% of primary lung neoplasms in some registries. According to the WHO classification of 2004, reconsidered for 2015, these lung tumors are divided into 4 groups: typical and atypical carcinoid, small cell and large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas. We report in this paper, for the first time in Lebanon, the distribution and the population characteristics of these tumors. Materials and Methods: This descriptive retrospective study concerned all the pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors (NET) with their characteristics diagnosed in $H\hat{o}tel$ Dieu de France in Beirut, Lebanon from 2001 to 2012, with attention to features like age, gender and subgroup. Results: Of 194 patients with pulmonary NET, 12.4% were typical carcinoid tumors, 3.6% atypical carcinoid, 66.5% small cell lung cancer, 7.7% combined small cell carcinomas and 9.8% large cell neuroendocrine tumors. The mean ages of patients were respectively 51.2 years in typical carcinoid, 64 years in atypical carcinoid, 64.2 years in small cell lung cancers, 67.2 in combined small cell lung cancer and 66.9 in large cells neuroendocrine tumors. The M/F sex ratios were respectively 0.3, 1.3, 1.4, 2.7 and 2.2. Conclusions: The characteristics of lung neuroendocrine tumors in our Lebanese institution are comparable to those reported in the literature.

Carcinoid Tumor Located in the Parietal Pleura (흉막에 위치한 카르시노이드 종양)

  • 홍장미;김영태;성숙환;김주현;박효진;정두현
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.36 no.1
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    • pp.47-50
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    • 2003
  • Pulmonary carcinoid tumors are thought to Originate from neuroendocrine Kulchitsky's cells in the bronchial epithelium. The majority of typical carcinoid tumors arc located centrally. However, atypical carcinoids are frequently situated peripherally and display malignant histologic features with aggressive behavior. Few reports arc discribing carcinoid tumors originating from the pleura. We report a typical carcinoid tumor located mainly in the parietal pleura invading the chest wall wilhout evidence of pulmonary parenchymal invasion.

A Case of atypical bronchial carcinoid with multiple distant metastasis (다발성 원격전이를 보인 비정형 기관지 유암종 1예)

  • Lee, Tae-Hun;Yang, Sung-Uk;Lee, Tae-Kwan;Kim, Byung-Koo;Kim, Ji-Young;Kim, Kwi-Wan;Lee, Kwang-Min
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.43 no.3
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    • pp.440-448
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    • 1996
  • Bronchial carcinoid tumors are uncommon, constituting approximately 3-5% of all primary lung cancers. Classification of these tumors has evolved substantially as our understanding of the cellular, biologic, and clinical aspects of these neoplasms has improved. Initially, bronchial carcinoids were thought to be benign and therefore were classified as bronchial adenomas. Currently, however, they are well recognized as having the potential for both local invasion and distant metastatic involvement. Consequently, carcinoid tumors are frankly malignant. Thus bronchial adenoma is a misnomer that should no longer be used for bronchial carcinoids. Most investigators currently favor classifying carcinoid tumors as a type of neuroendocrine neoplasm because of their potential to secrete a variety of chemical substances found in both the central nervous system and the epithelial cells of numerous organs. Bronchial carcinoids are usually characterized by a slow growth pattern and a low incidence of metastasis, and histologically conformed by the azurophil staining and the presence of the characteristic neurosecretary granule on electron microscopy. Atypical carcinoid tumor was first defined by Arrigoni et al, who proposed the following criteria for separation of atypical carcinoid from typical carcinoid tumor : 1) increased mitotic activity with 1 mitotic figure per 1-2 high power fields(or 5-10 mitoses /10 HPF), 2) nuclear pleomorphism, hyperchromatism, and an abnormal nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio, 3) areas of increased cellularity with disorganization of the architecture, and 4) tumor necrosis. In contrast, typical carcinoid tumor may have focal cytologic pleomorphism, but necrosis is absent and mitotic figures are rare. Recently we experienced a case of atypical bronchial carcinoid with multiple distant metastasis, so we report this case with a review of the literature.

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Somatostatin Analogues Do Not Prevent Carcinoid Crisis

  • Guo, Lin-Jie;Tang, Cheng-Wei
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.16
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    • pp.6679-6683
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    • 2014
  • Background: Carcinoid crisis is a life-threating syndrome of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) characterized by dramatic blood pressure fluctuation, arrhythmias, and bronchospasm. In the era of booming anti-tumor therapeutics, this has become more important since associated stresses can trigger carcinoid crisis. Somatostatin analogues (SSTA) have been recommended for prophylactic administration before intervention procedures for functioning NETs. However, the efficacy is still controversial. The aim of this article is to review efficacy of SSTA for preventing carcinoid crisis. Materials and Methods: PubMed, Cochrane Controlled trials Register, and EMBASE were searched using 'carcinoid crisis' as a search term combining terms with 'somatostatin'; 'octreotide'; 'lanreotide' and 'pasireotide' until December 2013. Results: Twenty-eight articles were retrieved with a total of fifty-three unique patients identified for carcinoid crisis. The most common primary sites of NETs were the small intestine and respiratory tract. The triggering factors for carcinoid crisis included anesthesia/surgery (63.5%), interventional therapy (11.5%), radionuclide therapy (9.6%), examination (7.7%), medication (3.8%), biopsy (2%) and spontaneous (2%). No randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were identified and two case-control studies were included to assess the efficacy of SSTA for preventing carcinoid crisis by meta-analysis. The overall pooled risk of perioperative carcinoid crisis was similar despite the prophylactic administration of SSTA (OR 0.44, 95% CI: 0.14 to 1.35, p=0.15). Conclusions: SSTA wasnot helpful for preventing carcinoid crisis based on a meta-analysis of retrospective studies. Attentive monitoring and careful intervention are essential. Future studies with better quality are needed to clarify any effect of SSTA for preventing carcinoid crisis.

Bronchial Carcinoid with Familial Adenomatous Polyposis Coli - 1 Case (가족성 산종성 대장용종증이 동반된 bronchial carcinoid: 1례)

  • 김용환
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.25 no.5
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    • pp.544-549
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    • 1992
  • Carcinoid tumors can be ubiquitous, but most will originate in four sites: appendix [38%], small intestine[24%], rectum[13%] or bronchus[11.6%]. And bronchial carcinoids are rare, accounting for only 1% to 6% of all primary lung tumors. Familial adenomatous polyposis cali, the most common form of the polyposis syndromes attributable to a genetic defect, is defined by demonstration of at least 100 adenomatous polyps in the large intestine. We experienced a case of typical bronchial carcinoid with familial adenomatous polyposis cali in 23 year old female patient, which was surgically treated by left lower lobectomy.

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A Case of Bronchopulmonary Atypical Carcinoid Tumor with Liver Metastasis (간전이를 동반한 폐기관지 비정형 카르시노이드 종양 1예)

  • Lee, Dong Soo;Lee, Tae Won;Kim, Gye Yean;Kim, Hwi Jung;Song, So Hyang;Kim, Seok Chan;Kim, Young Kyoon;Song, Jung Sup;Park, Sung Hak
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.43 no.4
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    • pp.623-629
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    • 1996
  • Bronchial carcinoid tumors are uncommon, constituting approximately 5% of all primary lung cancers. Carcinoid tumors belong to the calss of neuroendocrine tumors that consist of cells that can store and secrete neuramines and neuropeptides. Neuroendocrine tumors of the lung include three pathologic types : a low-grade malignancy, the so-called 'typical carcinoid', a more aggressive tumor, the "atypical carcinoid", and the most aggressive malignant neoplasm, the small-cell carcinoma. Atypical carcinoid tumor have a higher malignant potential, is more commonly peripheral than is the typical carcinoid tumor. Histologic features would characterize a carcinoid as hitologically atypical : increased mitotic activity, pleomorphism and irregularity of neuclei with promonent nucleoli, hyperchromatin, and abnormal nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio, areas of increased cellularity with disorganization of architecture, and areas of tumor necrosis. Metastatic involvement of regional lymph nodes and distant organ is common. The prognosis is related to size of the tumor, typical of atypical appearance, endoluminal of extraluminal growth, vascular invasion, node metastasis, Pulmonary resection is the treatement of choice for bronchial carcinoid. We experienced one case of bronchopulmonary atypical carcinoid tumor. In the case, radiologic study showed solitary lung mass with liver metastasis and the level of 5-HIAA was elevated. There was no history of cutaneous flushing, diarrhea, valvular heart disease. The authors reported a case of bronchopulmonary atypical carcinoid tumor with review of literatures.

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Use of Anti-Phosphohistone H3 (PHH3) as a Mitosis Marker for Classifying Pulmonary Carcinoid Tumors

  • Seo, Bo-Ram;Hong, Young-Seob;Choi, Phil-Jo;Um, Soo-Jung;Seo, Jeong-Wook;Roh, Mee-Sook
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.197-202
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    • 2011
  • Mitosis count is one of the most helpful morphologic features for distinguishing pulmonary typical carcinoid (TC) from atypical carcinoid (AC). However, identifying areas of highest mitotic activity is tedious and time-consuming, and mitosis count may vary substantially among pathologists. Anti-phosphohistone H3 (PHH3) is an antibody that specifically detects histone H3 only when phosphorylated at serine 10 or serine 28, an event that is concurrent with mitotic chromatin condensation and not observed during apoptosis. In this study, immunohistochemical staining for PHH3 was performed to determine whether PHH3 was a reliable and objective mitosis-specific marker for pulmonary carcinoid tumors. Seventeen cases of surgically resected pulmonary carcinoid tumors (12 TCs and 5 ACs) were obtained and classified according to the 2004 World Health Organization classification. Mitotic counts determined by PHH3 correlated to ones determined by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining; however, PHH3 mitotic counts (mean mitotic counts: 1 in TCs and 3.2 in ACs) were slightly higher than H&E mitotic counts (mean mitotic counts: 0.25 in TCs and 1.8 in ACs). The mitotic counts determined by experienced observer were more correlated to those determined by inexperienced observer with the PHH3-based method (R=0.968, P<0.001) rather than H&E staining (R=0.658, P<0.001). These results suggest that the PHH3 mitotic counting method was more sensitive and simple for detecting mitoses compared to traditional H&E staining. Therefore, PHH3 immunohistochemistry may contribute to more accurate and reproducible diagnosis of pulmonary carcinoid tumors and may be a valuable aid for administrating appropriate clinical treatment.

A Report of Two Cases of Bronchial Carcinoid, Including One Case of Atypical Carcinoid (기관지 유암종 2예 - 비정형 기관지 유암종 1예 포함 -)

  • Kim, Kyung-Chul;Ahn, Chul-Min;Kim, Tae-Sun;Roh, Hyung-Keun;Kim, Hyung-Jung;Kim, Sung-Kyu;Lee, Won-Young;Lee, Doo-Yon;Kim, Sang-Jin;Jung, Woo-Hee;Lee, Kyi-Beom
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.74-82
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    • 1991
  • Bronchial carcinoid is one of the unusual tumors of the lung, accounting for 1 percent of all lung tumors. Carcinoids, like small cell carcinomas, are generally considered to be derived from a neurosecretary type of cell of the respiratory epithelium, the Kulchtsky's cell. So, they are no longer classified as bronchial adenoma, and are recently grouped into the neuroendocrine group of tumors, the so-called APUD (Amine Precursor Uptake Decarboxylase) group of tumors. Although usually characterized by a slow growth pattern and a low incidence of metastatic disease, bronchial carcinoids should no longer be considered as beingn, and a much higher malignant behavior has been described with a special destignation of 'atypical carcinoid'. Bronchial carcinoids are histologically confirmed by the azurophil staining and the presence of the characteristic neurosecretary granule on electron microscopy. Recently we experienced two cases of bronchial carcinoid, the first case, being peripheral-located and histologically proven as atypical carcinoid, and the second, being central-located and hitologically typical. So we report these cases with a review of the literature.

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Fine Needle Aspiration Cytologic Findings of Pulmonary Neuroendocrine Tumors (폐의 신경내분비 종양의 세침흡인 세포검사 소견)

  • Koh, Jae-Soo
    • The Korean Journal of Cytopathology
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.9-15
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    • 2008
  • The major categories of neuroendocrine tumors of lung are typical carcinoid, atypical carcinoid, large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, and small cell carcinoma. The histologic classification criteria of neuroendocrine tumors are well documented in the "WHO Classification of Tumors" based on mitotic figures and necrosis. Cytologic characteristics of neuroendocrine tumors are trabecular, acinar, and solid arrangement of tumor cells and occasional rosette formation. Nuclear chromatin patterns are characteristically described as "salt and pepper chromatin pattern". Many of cytologic classifications documented in the literature are before the "WHO Classification". In this review, the cytologic features of pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors are documented according to the WHO classification, and recent concepts of neuroendocrine tumors of lung are discussed.