• Title, Summary, Keyword: carbon electrode

Search Result 1,228, Processing Time 0.051 seconds

Improving Conductivity of Metal Grids by Controlling Sintering Process (배선 함몰 전극의 배선 소결공정 최적화에 따른 전기적 특성 향상)

  • Ahn, Wonmin;Jung, Sunghoon;Kim, Do-Geun
    • Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering
    • /
    • v.48 no.4
    • /
    • pp.158-162
    • /
    • 2015
  • To substitute indium tin oxide (ITO), many substituents have been studied such as metal nanowires, carbon based materials, 2D materials, and conducting polymers. These materials are not good enough to apply to an electrode because theses exhibit relatively high resistance. So metal grids are required as an additionalelectrode to improve the conductivities of substituents. The metal grids were printed by electrohydrodynamic printing system using Ag nanoparticle based ink. The Ag grids showed high uniformity and the line width was about $10{\mu}m$. The Ag nanoparticles are surrounded by dispersants such as unimolecular and polymer to prevent aggregation between Ag nanoparticles. The dispersants lead to low conductivity of Ag grids. Thus, the sintering process of Ag nanoparticles is strongly recommended to remove dispersants and connect each nanoparticles. For sintering process, the interface and microstructure of the Ag grid were controlled in 1.0 torr Ar atmosphere at aound $400^{\circ}C$ of temperature. From the sintering process, the uniformity of the Ag grid was improved and the defects on the Ag grids were reduced. As a result, the resistivity of Ag grid was greatly reduced up to $5.03({\pm}0.10){\times}10^{-6}{\Omega}{\cdot}cm$. The metal grids embedded substrates containing low pressure Ar sintered Ag grids showed 90.4% of transmittance in visible range with $0.43{\Omega}/{\square}$ of sheet resistance.

Bio-Composite Materials Precursor to Chitosan in the Development of Electrochemical Sensors: A Critical Overview of Its use with Micro-Pollutants and Heavy Metals Detection

  • Sarikokba, Sarikokba;Tiwari, Diwakar;Prasad, Shailesh Kumar;Kim, Dong Jin;Choi, Suk Soon;Lee, Seung-Mok
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
    • /
    • v.31 no.3
    • /
    • pp.237-257
    • /
    • 2020
  • The role of nano bio-composites precursor to chitosan are innumerable and are known for having different applications in various branches of physical sciences. The application to the sensor development is relatively new, where only few literature works are available to address the specific and critical analysis of nanocomposites in the subject area. The bio-composites are potential and having greater affinity towards the heavy metals and several micro-pollutants hence, perhaps are having wider implications in the low or even trace level detection of the pollutants. The nano-composites could show good selectivity and suitability for the detection of the pollutants as they are found in the complex matrix. However, the greater challenges are associated using the bio-composites, since the biomaterials are prone to be oxidized or reduced at an applied potential and found to be a hinderance for the detection of target pollutants. In addition, the materials could proceed with a series of electrochemical reactions, which could produce different by-products in analytical applications, resulting in several complex phenomena in electrochemical processes. Therefore, this review addresses critically various aspects of an evaluation of nano bio-composite materials in the electrochemical detection of heavy metals and micro-pollutants from aqueous solutions.

Preparation of Polymer Gel Electrolyte for EDLCs using P(VdF-co-HFP)/PVP (P(VdF-co-HFP)/PVP를 이용한 EDLC용 고분자 겔 전해질의 제조)

  • Jung, Hyun-Chul;Jang, In-Young;Kang, An-Soo
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
    • /
    • v.17 no.3
    • /
    • pp.243-249
    • /
    • 2006
  • Porous polymer gel electrolytes (PGEs) based on poly(vinylidenefluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (P(VdF-co-HFP)) as a polymer matrix and polyvinylpyrolidone (PVP) as a pore-forming agent were prepared and electrochemical properties were investigated for an electric double layer capacitor (EDLC) in order to increase a permeability of an electrolyte into the PGE. Propylene carbonate (PC) and ethylene carbonate (EC) as plasticizers, and tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate ($TEABF_4$) as a supporting salt for the PGE were used. EDLC unit cells were assembled with the PGE and electrode comprising BP-20 and MSP-20 as activated carbon powders, Super P as a conducting agent, and P(VdF-co-HFP)/PVP as a mixed binder. Ion conductivity of PGEs increased with an increased PVP content and was the best at 7 wt% PVP, whereas electrochemical characteristics such as AC-ESR of unit cell were better in 3 wt%. And electrochemical characteristics of the unit cell with PGE were the best at a 33 : 33 weight ratio of PC to EC. Specific capacitance of a mixed plasticizer system of PE and EC was higher than that of pure PC. Ion conductivity of PGEs with a film thickness of $20{\mu}m$ was higher, but electrochemical characteristics of unit cells were higher for a $50{\mu}m$ membrane thickness. Also, the unit cell has shown the highest capacitance of 31.41 F/g and more stable electrochemical performance when PGE and electrode were hot pressed. Consequently, the optimum composition ratio of PGE for EDLCs was 23 : 66 : 11 wt% such as P(VdF-co-HFP) : PVP = 20 : 3 wt% and PC : EC = 44 : 22 wt%. In this case, $3.17{\times}10^{-3}S/cm$ of ion conductivity was achieved at the $50{\mu}m$ thickness of PGE for EDLCs. And the electrochemical characteristics of unit cells were $2.69{\Omega}$ of DC-ESR, 28 F/g of specific capacitance, and 100% of coulombic efficiency.

Effect of Knee Joint Stimulation on the Activity of Phrenic Nerve and Inspiratory Nuron in the Cat (슬관절 자극이 횡격신경 및 흡식중추신경에 미치는 영향)

  • Cho, Dong-Ill;Han, Hee-Chul;Nahm, Sook-Hyun
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
    • /
    • v.40 no.6
    • /
    • pp.683-693
    • /
    • 1993
  • Background: During movement the major inputs to nervous system come from firstly the muscle and joint to maintain posture and motion and secondly the chemoreceptors and baroreceptors to adjust the cardiovascular and respiratory function. Their complex relationships are generally studied for many years but the direct relation between the joint and respiratory system is not studied thoroughly until now. So this experiment was performed to determine whether the natural movement of knee joint can cause the enhancement of respiratory function by observation of the changes of respiratory rate, phrenic nerve activity and inspiratory neuron activity during the stimulation of knee joint in cat anesthetized with $\alpha$-chloralose. Method: Twenty six male adult cats were used and the extracelluar recording using bipolar platinum electrode and carbon filament electrode was done to record the changes in the activities of phrenic nerve and inspiratory neuron movement of knee joint, injection of chemicals into the joint cavity and electrical stimulation of articular nerve were done. Results: The 60 Hz. could not but 120 Hz. flexion-extension movement of knee joint increased respiratory rate(R.R.), tidal neural activity(TNA) and minute neural activity(MNA). Intra-articular injection of lactate could not increase R.R. but significantly increase TNA and MNA which represented the enhanced respiratory function. Injection of potassium chloride showed similar effects with the case of lactate but the duration of effect was shorter. The electrical stimulation of medial articular nerve with IV strength which could activate only group I and II afferents showed increased TNA and MNA during stimulation but 20 V stimulation which could activate all the afferents increased all the respiratory parameters. The changes of inspiratory neuron activity by knee joint stimulation was similar to that of phrenic nerve. Conclusion: The respiratory center could be directly stimulated by the activation of group I and II articular afferents and it seemed that the magnitude of the respiratory center enhancement is proportional to the amount of sensory information from the knee joint. These facts might suggest that the respiratory function could be enhanced even by the normal movement of knee joint.

  • PDF

Characteristics and Fabrication of Thermal Oxidized-SnO2 (SnO2 열산화감지막의 제작 및 특성)

  • Kang, Bong-Hwi;Lee, Duk-Dong
    • Journal of Sensor Science and Technology
    • /
    • v.11 no.6
    • /
    • pp.342-349
    • /
    • 2002
  • New formation technique of metal oxide sensing film was proposed m this paper. Silicon wafer with Pt electrodes was used as a substrate for depositing metal Sn film. Metal Sn was deposited in the state of not continuous film but only island state. The samples were prepared to obtain the optimal condition of metal Sn deposition. The resistances of deposited Sn onto Pt electrodes amounted to $1\;k{\Omega}$, $5\;k{\Omega}$, $10\;k{\Omega}$ and $50\;k{\Omega}$, respectively. Also The sample with $1,500\;{\AA}$ thickness of Sn was prepared m order to compare sensing properties between conventional type and proposing type. After deposition of metal Sn, $SnO_2$ was formed by thermal oxidation method for 3 hrs. in $O_2$ ambient at $700^{\circ}C$. Surface morphology, crystal structure and surface roughness of oxidized-sensing film were examined by SEM, XRD, and AFM, respectively. From the results of these analyses, the optimal deposition condition of Sn was that the Pt electrode resistance became $10\;k{\Omega}(300\;{\AA})$. Also, the sensing characteristics of fabricated sensing film for various concentrations of butane, propane and carbon monoxide gases were measured at he operating temperatures of $250^{\circ}C$, $300^{\circ}C$ and $350^{\circ}C$, respectively. Although catalyst as not added to the sensing film, it has exhibited the high sensitivity to all the test gases.

Synthesis of Cobalt(II), Nickel(II) and Copper(II) Complexes with Tetradentate Schiff Base Ligand of o-BSDT $H_2$ and Electrochemical properties in DMSO (네자리 Schiff Base 리간드의 Cobalt(II), Nickel(II) 및 Copper(II) 착물의 합성과 DMSO용액에서 전기화학적 성질)

  • Ki-Hyung Chjo;Jong-Soon Kim
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
    • /
    • v.31 no.6
    • /
    • pp.509-519
    • /
    • 1987
  • The tetradentate Schiff base ligand, 3,4-bis(salicylidene diimine) toluene, have been prepared by the reaction of salicylaldehyde with 3,4-diaminotoluene by Duff method. The Schiff base ligand reacts with Ni(II), Co(II), and Cu(II) ions to form new complexes, [Ni(o-BSDT)${\cdot}(H_2O)_2$], [Co(o-BSDT)${\cdot}(H_2O)$], and [Cu(o-BSDT)]. It seems that Ni(II) and Ni(II) complexes are hexacoordinated with the Schiff base ligand and two molecules of water, while the Cu(II) complexes are tetracoordinated with the Schiff base. The mole ratio of tetradentate Schiff base ligand to metals was found to be 1 : 1. The redox chemistry of these complexes was investigated by polarography and cyclic voltammetry with glassy carbon electrode in DMSO with 0.1M TEAP${\cdot}$[Ni(o-BSDT)${\cdot}(H_2O)_2$] hav EC reaction mechanisms which undergo a irreversible electron transfer followed by a fast chemical reaction. [Co(o-BSDT)${\cdot}(H_2O)_2$] undergoes a reduction of Co(II) to Co(I) and a oxidation of Co(II) to Co(III), and [Cu(o-BSDT)] undergoes a reduction of Cu(II) to Cu(I).

  • PDF

Studies on The Electrochemical Properties of Oxygen adducts Tetradentate Schiff Base Cobalt(II) Complexes in DMSO (I) (DMSO용액에서 네자리 Schiff Base Cobalt(II) 착물들의 산소 첨가 생성물에 대한 전기화학적 성질에 관한 연구 (제 1 보))

  • Chjo Ki-Hyung;Jin-Soon Chung;Heui-Suk Ham;Seoing-Seob Seo
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
    • /
    • v.31 no.6
    • /
    • pp.542-554
    • /
    • 1987
  • Tetradentate schiff base cobalt(II) complexes; Co(SED), Co(SND) and Co(SOPD) have been prepared, these complexes have react with dry oxygen in DMSO to form oxygen adducts cobalt(III) complexes; $[Co(SED)(DMSO)]_2O_2,\;[Co(SND)(DMSO)]_2O_2$ and $[Co(SOPD)(DMSO)]_2O_2$. It seems to be that the oxygen adducts cobalt(Ⅲ) complexes have heexa coordinated octahedral configration with tetradentate schiff base cobalt (III), DMSO and oxygen, and the mole ratio of oxygen to cobalt(II) complexes are 1 : 2, these complexes have been identified by IR-Spectra, T.G.A., magnetic susceptibilitis and elemental analysis of C.H.N. and Cobalt. The redox reaction process of Co(SED), Co(SND) and Co(SOPD) complexes was investigated by cyclic voltammetry with glassy carbon electrode in 0.1M TEAP-DMSO. The results of redox reaction process of Co(II) / Co(III) and Co(II) / Co(I) for cobalt(SED) and cobalt(SOPD) complexes and Co(II) / Co(III) process for cobalt(SND) complex are reversible process but Co(II) / Co(I) process of Cobalt(SND) complex is irreversible, and oxygen adduct complexes to quasi reversibly with oxygen should be very closed related to the redox potentials of range, $E_{pc}$ = -0.80~-0.89V and $E_{pa}$ = -0.70~-0.76V.

  • PDF

Studies on the Electrochemical Properties of Oxygen Adducts Tetradentate Schiff Base Cobalt (Ⅱ) Complexes in Aprotic Solvents (Ⅱ) (비수용매에서 네자리 Schiff Base Cobalt (II) 착물들의 산소첨가 생성물에 대한 전기화학적 성질에 관한 연구 (제 2 보))

  • Ki-Hyung Chjo;Jin-Soon Chung;Heui-Suk Ham;Seoing-Seob Seo
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
    • /
    • v.33 no.2
    • /
    • pp.192-202
    • /
    • 1989
  • Tetradentate schiff bases cabalt (II) complexes; Co(SED) and Co(ο-BSDT) were synthesized and these complexes allowed to reaction with dry oxygen to form oxygen adduct cobalt(III) complexes such as $[Co(o-BSDT)(DMSO)]_2O_2,\;[Co(SED)(Py)]_2O_2\;and\;[Co(o-BSDT)(Py)]_2O_2$ in DMSO and pyridine solutions. It has been found that the oxygen adduct cobalt(III) complexes have hexacoordinated octahedral configuration with tetradentate schiff base cobalt(II), DMSO or pyridine and oxygen, and the mole ratio of oxygen to cobalt(II) complexes are 1:2. The redox processes, were investigated for Co(SEDT) and Co(ο-BSD) complexes in 0.1M TEAP-DMSO and 0.1M TEAP-pyridine by cyclic voltammetry with glassy carbon electrode. As a result the redox processes of Co(II)/Co(III) and Co(II)/Co(I) found to be reversible or quasi-reversible for non uptake oxygen complexes but oxygen adduct complexes found to be irreversible processes and reaction processes of oxygen for oxygen adduct complexes are quasi-reversible process, the potential range was $E_{pc}=-0.85{\sim}-1.19V\;and\;E_{pa}=-0.74{\sim}-0.89V$.

  • PDF

Electrochemical Properties of Oxygen Adducts Tetradentate Schiff Base Cobalt (II) Complexes in Pyridine (Ⅲ) (Pyridine 용액에서 네자리 Schiff Base Cobalt (II) 착물들의 산소첨가 생성물에 대한 전기화학적 성질 (제 3 보))

  • Ky Hyung Cho;Seong Seob Seo;Dong Chul Chon
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
    • /
    • v.33 no.3
    • /
    • pp.295-303
    • /
    • 1989
  • Tetradentate Schiff base cobalt(II) complex; Co(SND) and Co(SOPD) were synthesized, and these complexes were allowed to react with dry oxygen to form oxygen adducts cobalt(III) complexes such as $[Co(SND)(Py)]_2O_2$ and $[Co(SOPD)(Py)]_2O_2$ in pyridine. These complexes have been identified by IR specta, T.G.A., magnetic susceptibilities measurements and elemental analysis. It has been found that the oxygen adducts coblat(III) complexes have hexacoordinated octahedral configuration with tetradentate Schiff base cobalt(II), pyridine and oxygen, and the mole ratio of oxygen to cobalt(II) complexes are 1;2. The redox reaction processes of $Co(SND)(Py)_2$ and $Co(SOPD)(Py)_2$ complexes were investigated by cyclic voltammetry with glassy carbon electrode in 0.1M TEAP pyridine. The result of redox reaction processes of Co(III)/Co(II) and Co(II)/Co(I) for $Co(SND)(Py)_2$ and $Co(SOPD)(Py)_2$ complexes are reversible or quasi reversible process but oxygen adducts complexes are irreversible processes. Redox process for oxygen of oxygen adducts complexes was quasi reversible and redox range of potential was $E_{pc}\;=\;-0.96{\sim}-1.03V$ and $E_{pa}\;=\;-0.78{\sim}-0.80V.$

  • PDF

Effect of pH on the Synthesis of $LiCoO_2$ with Malonic Acid and Its Charge/Discharge Behavior for a Lithium Secondary Battery

  • Kim, Do Hun;Jeong, Yu Deok;Kim, Sang Pil;Sim, Un Bo
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
    • /
    • v.21 no.11
    • /
    • pp.1125-1132
    • /
    • 2000
  • The pH effect of the precursor solution on the preparation of $LiCoO_2$ by a solution phase reaction containing malonic acid was carried out. Layered $LiCoO_2$ powders were obtained with the precursors prepared at the different pHs (4, 7, and 9) and heat-treated at $700^{\circ}C(LiCoO_2-700)$ or $850^{\circ}C(LiCoO_2-850)$ in air. pHs of the media for precursor synthesis affects the charge/discharge and electrochemical properties of the $LiCoO_2electrodes.$ Upon irrespective of pH of the precursor media, X-ray diffraction spectra recorded for $LiCoO_2-850$ powder showed higher peak intensity ratio of I(003)/I(104) than that of $LiCoO_2-700$, since the better crystallization of the former crystallized better. However, $LiCoO_2$ synthesized at pH 4 displayed an abnormal higher intensity ratio of I(003)/I(104) than those synthesized at pH 7 and 9. The surface morphology of the $LiCoO_2-850$ powders was rougher and more irregular than that of $LiCoO_2-700$ made from the precursor synthesized at pH 7 and 9. The $LiCoO_2electrodes$ prepared with the precursors synthesized at pH 7 and 9 showed a better electrochemical and charge/discharge characteristics. From the AC impedance spectroscopic experiments for the electrode made from the precursor prepared in pH 7, the chemical diffusivity of Li ions (DLi+) in $Li0.58CoO_2determined$ was 2.7 ${\times}$10-8 $cm^2s-1$. A cell composed of the $LiCoO_2-700$ cathode prepared in pH 7 with Lithium metal anode reveals an initial discharge specific capacity of 119.8 mAhg-1 at a current density of 10.0 mAg-1 between 3.5 V and 4.3 V. The full-cell composed with $LiCoO_2-700$ cathode prepared in pH 7 and the Mesocarbon Pitch-based Carbon Fiber (MPCF) anode separated by a Cellgard 2400 membrane showed a good cycleability. In addition, it was operated over 100 charge/discharge cycles and displayed an average reversible capacity of nearly 130 mAhg-1.

  • PDF