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Capecitabine Pattern of Usage, Rate of Febrile Neutropaenia and Treatment Related Death in Asian Cancer Patients in Clinical Practice

  • Phua, Vincent Chee Ee;Wong, Wei Quan;Tan, Pei Lin;Bustam, Anita Zarina;Saad, Marniza;Alip, Adlinda;Ishak, Wan Zamaniah Wan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.1449-1453
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    • 2015
  • Background: Oral capecitabine is increasingly replacing intravenous 5-fluorouracil in many chemotherapy regimens. However, data on the risk of febrile neutropaenia (FN) and treatment related death (TRD) with the drug remain sparse outside of clinical trial settings despite its widespread usage. This study aimed to determine these rates in a large cohort of patients treated in the University of Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC). Materials and Methods: We reviewed the clinical notes of all patients prescribed with oral capecitabine chemotherapy for any tumour sites in University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC) from $1^{st}$ January 2009 till $31^{st}$ June 2010. Information collected included patient demographics, histopathological features, treatment received including the different chemotherapy regimens and intent of treatment whether the chemotherapy was given for neoadjuvant, concurrent with radiation, adjuvant or palliative intent. The aim of this study is to establish the pattern of usage, FN and TRD rates with capecitabine in clinical practice outside of clinical trial setting. FN is defined as an oral temperature > $38.5^{\circ}C$ or two consecutive readings of > $38.0^{\circ}C$ for 2 hours and an absolute neutrophil count < $0.5{\times}10^9/L$, or expected to fall below $0.5{\times}10^9/L$ (de Naurois et al., 2010). Treatment related death was defined as death occurring during or within 30 days of last chemotherapy treatment. Results: Between $1^{st}$ January 2009 and $30^{th}$ June 2010, 274 patients were treated with capecitabine chemotherapy in UMMC. The mean age was 58 years (range 22 to 82 years). Capecitabine was used in 14 different tumour sites with the colorectal site predominating with a total of 128 cases (46.7%), followed by breast cancer (35.8%). Capecitabine was most commonly used in the palliative setting accounting for 63.9% of the cases, followed by the adjuvant setting (19.7%). The most common regimen was single agent capecitabine with 129 cases (47.1%). The other common regimens were XELOX (21.5%) and ECX (10.2%). The main result of this study showed an overall FN rate of 2.2% (6/274). The overall TRD rate was 5.1% (14/274). The FN rate for the single agent capecitabine regimen was 1.6% (2/129) and the TRD rate was 5.4% (7/129). All the TRDs were with single agent capecitabine regimen were used for palliative intent. Conclusions: Oral capecitabine is used widely in clinical practice in a myriad of tumour sites and bears a low risk of febrile neutropaenia. However, capecitabine like any other intravenous chemotherapeutic agent carries a significant risk of treatment related death.

Effect of time interval between capecitabine intake and radiotherapy on local recurrence-free survival in preoperative chemoradiation for locally advanced rectal cancer

  • Kim, Yeon Joo;Kim, Jong Hoon;Yu, Chang Sik;Kim, Tae Won;Jang, Se Jin;Choi, Eun Kyung;Kim, Jin Cheon;Choi, Wonsik
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.129-136
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    • 2017
  • Purpose: The concentration of capecitabine peaks at 1-2 hours after administration. We therefore assumed that proper timing of capecitabine administration and radiotherapy would maximize radiosensitization and influence survival among patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 223 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who underwent preoperative chemoradiation, followed by surgery from January 2002 to May 2006. All patients underwent pelvic radiotherapy (50 Gy/25 fractions) and received capecitabine twice daily at 12-hour intervals ($1,650mg/m^2/day$). Patients were divided into two groups according to the time interval between capecitabine intake and radiotherapy. Patients who took capecitabine 1 hour before radiotherapy were classified as Group A (n = 109); all others were classified as Group B (n = 114). Results: The median follow-up period was 72 months (range, 7 to 149 months). Although Group A had a significantly higher rate of good responses (44% vs. 25%; p = 0.005), the 5-year local recurrence-free survival rates of 93% in Group A and 97% in Group B did not differ significantly (p = 0.519). The 5-year disease-free survival and overall survival rates were also comparable between the groups. Conclusions: Despite the better pathological response in Group A, the time interval between capecitabine and radiotherapy administration did not have a significant effect on survivals. Further evaluations are needed to clarify the interaction of these treatment modalities.

Aromatase Inhibition and Capecitabine Combination as 1st or 2nd Line Treatment for Metastatic Breast Cancer - a Retrospective Analysis

  • Shankar, Abhishek;Roy, Shubham;Rath, Goura Kishor;Julka, Pramod Kumar;Kamal, Vineet Kumar;Malik, Abhidha;Patil, Jaineet;Jeyaraj, Pamela Alice;Mahajan, Manmohan K
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.15
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    • pp.6359-6364
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    • 2015
  • Background: Preclinical studies have shown that the combination of an aromatase inhibitor (AI) and capecitabine in estrogen receptor (ER)- positive cell lines enhance antitumor efficacy. This retrospective analysis of a group of patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC) evaluated the efficacy and safety of combined AI with capecitabine. Materials and Methods: Patients with hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer treated between 1st January 2005 and 31st December 2010 with a combination of capecitabine and AI were evaluated and outcomes were compared with those of women treated with capecitabine in conventional dose or AI as a monotherapy. Results: Of 72 patients evaluated, 31 received the combination treatment, 22 AI and 19 capecitabine. The combination was used in 20 patients as first-line and 11 as second-line treatment. Mean age was 46.2 years with a range of 28-72 years. At the time of progression, 97% had a performance status of <2 and 55% had visceral disease. No significant difference was observed between the three groups according to clinical and pathological features. Mean follow up was 38 months with a range of 16-66 months. The median PFS of first-line treatment was significantly better for the combination (PFS 21 months vs 8.0 months for capecitabine and 15.0 months for AI). For second-line treatment, the PFS was longer in the combination compared with capecitabine and Al groups (18 months vs. 5.0 months vs. 11.0 months, respectively). Median 2 year and 5 year survival did not show any significant differences among combination and monotherapy groups. The most common adverse events for the combination group were grade 1 and 2 hand-for syndrome (69%), grade 1 fatigue (64%) and grade 1 diarrhoea (29%). Three grade 3 hand-foot syndrome events were reported. Conclusions: Combination treatment with capecitabine and AI used as a first line or second line treatment was safe with much lowered toxicity. Prospective randomized clinical trials should evaluate the use of combination therapy in advanced breast cancer to confirm these findings.

Adherence to Capecitabine Treatment and Contributing Factors among Cancer Patients in Malaysia

  • Zahrina, Abdul Kadir;Norsa'adah, Bachok;Hassan, Norul Badriah;Norazwany, Yaacob;Norhayati, Md Isa;Roslan, Mohd Haron;Wan Nazuha, Wan Rusik
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.21
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    • pp.9225-9232
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    • 2014
  • Ensuring adherence to chemotherapy is important to prevent disease progression, prolong survival and sustain good quality of life. Capecitabine is a complex chemotherapeutic agent with many side effects that might affect patient adherence to treatment. This cross sectional study aimed to determine adherence to capecitabine and its contributing factors among cancer outpatients in Malaysia. One hundred and thirteen patients on single regime capecitabine were recruited from Hospital Sultan Ismail and Hospital Kuala Lumpur from October 2013 to March 2014. Adherence was determined based on adherence score using validated Medication Compliance Questionnaire. Patient socio-demographics, disease, and treatment characteristics were obtained from medical records. Satisfaction score was measured using the validated Patient Satisfaction with Healthcare questionnaire. The mean adherence score was 96.1% (standard deviation: 3.29%). The significant contributing factors of adherence to capecitabine were Malay ethnicity [${\beta}=1.3$; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.21, 2.43; p value=0.020], being female [${\beta}=1.8$; 95%CI: 0.61, 2.99; p value=0.003]), satisfaction score [${\beta}=0.08$; 95%CI: 0.06, 1.46; p value=0.035], presence of nausea or vomiting [${\beta}=2.3$; 95%CI: 1.12, 3.48; p value <0.001] and other side effects [${\beta}=1.45$; 95%CI: 0.24, 2.65; p value=0.019]. Adherence to capecitabine was generally high in our local population. Attention should be given to non-Malay males and patients having nausea, vomiting or other side effects. Sufficient information, proactive assessment and appropriate management of side effects would improve patient satisfaction and thus create motivation to adhere to treatment plans.

A Case of Capecitabine-Induced Sarcoidosis

  • Kang, Shin-Myung;Baek, Ji-Yeon;HwangBo, Bin;Kim, Hyae-Young;Lee, Geon-Kook;Lee, Hee-Seok
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.72 no.3
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    • pp.318-322
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    • 2012
  • Sarcoidosis is an inflammatory disease involving multiple-organs with an unknown cause. The new onset of sarcoidosis associated with therapeutic agents has been observed in 3 clinical settings; tumor necrosis factor antagonists in autoimmune rheumatologic diseases, interferon alpha with or without ribavirin in patients with chronic hepatitis C or melanoma, and antineoplastic agent-associated sarcoidosis in patients with hematologic malignancies. Here, we report a female patient who developed sarcoidosis after capecitabine treatment as an adjuvant chemotherapy for sigmoid colon cancer. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a capecitabine-induced sarcoidosis.

Lack of Prognostic Value of Mean Corpuscular Volume with Capecitabine Therapy in Metastatic Breast Cancer

  • Bozkurt, Oktay;Berk, Veli;Kaplan, Muhammed Ali;Cetin, Bulent;Ozaslan, Ersin;Karaca, Halit;Inanc, Mevlude;Duran, Ayse Ocak;Ozkan, Metin
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.6
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    • pp.2501-2504
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    • 2014
  • Background: Capecitabine is an oral fluoropyrimidine derivative which is frequently used alone or in combination regimens for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer. Although overall and progression free survivals have increased in recent years with the use of new generation drugs, predictive factors that would further improve the outcomes are needed. Previous studies have demonstrated the relation between post-treatment increase in mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and predicting therapy response as well as survival. The present study investigated the clinical impact of MCV elevation in metastatic breast cancer patients treated with capecitabine. Materials and Methods: The data of a total of 82 patients from three centers followed between June 2005 and June 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. The demographic data and hormone receptor status of the patients, as well as initial examination before and after treatment and data concerning progression were recorded. MCV ${\geq}100$ fl was considered as macrocytosis. Capecitabine was given at a dose of $2500mg/m^2$ daily for 14 days every three weeks. Pre-treatment and post-treatment MCV and other parameters of complete blood count were recorded. Post-treatment initial evaluation was performed after 2 cycles of therapy. Results: The median age of the patients was 46.5 years (range 26-72 years) and 54% were premenopausal. Performance status was ECOG 0 and 1 in 81 (99%) patients. The median number of cycles for capecitabine therapy was 5 (min-max: 2-18). The median ${\Delta}MCV$ level (post-treatment values at sixth week - baseline) was 6.4. Whilst ${\Delta}MCV$ was ${\geq}6.4$ in 42 patients, it was <6.4 in 40 patients. Clinical benefit (complete response+partial response+stable disease) was observed in 37 (88%) of 42 patients with a median ${\Delta}MCV$ ${\geq}6.4$ and in 30 (75%) of 40 patients with ${\Delta}MCV$ <6.4 with no statistically significant difference (p=0.158). No significant difference was determined between the group with ${\Delta}MCV$ ${\geq}6.4$ and the group with ${\Delta}MCV$ <6.4 in terms of progression-free survival (11 vs 12 months) (p=0.55) and overall survival (20 months vs. 24 months) (p=0.11). Conclusions: The identification of new predictive markers in metastatic breast cancer is very important. In some recent studies, increase in MCV has been suggested as a marker in tumor response. In the present study, however, no significant difference was determined between tumor response and increase in MCV. Further studies including higher numbers of patients are needed to determine whether increase in MCV is a predictive marker or not.

A Multicenter Randomized Phase II Study of Docetaxel vs. Docetaxel Plus Cisplatin vs. Docetaxel Plus S-1 as Second-Line Chemotherapy in Metastatic Gastric Cancer Patients Who Had Progressed after Cisplatin Plus Either S-1 or Capecitabine

  • Lee, Keun-Wook;Kim, Bum Jun;Kim, Mi-Jung;Han, Hye Sook;Kim, Jin Won;Park, Young Iee;Park, Sook Ryun
    • Cancer Research and Treatment
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    • v.49 no.3
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    • pp.706-716
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    • 2017
  • Purpose This study evaluated the re-challenge of S-1 or cisplatin in combination with docetaxel in metastatic gastric cancer (MGC) that had progressed on a cisplatin plus either S-1 or capecitabine regimen. Materials and Methods Patients with progressive disease after first-line cisplatin plus S-1 or capecitabine were randomized to receive 3-week cycles of docetaxel $75mg/m^2$ intravenously (IV) on D1 (D), docetaxel $60mg/m^2$ IV plus cisplatin $60mg/m^2$ IV on D1 (DC), or docetaxel $60mg/m^2$ IV D1 plus oral S-1 $30mg/m^2$ twice a day on D1-14 (DS). Results Seventy-two patients were randomized to the D (n=23), DC (n=24), or DS (n=25) group. The confirmed response rate was 4.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0% to 12.6%), 4.3% (95% CI, 0% to 12.6%), and 8.7% (95% CI, 0% to 20.2%) for the D, DC, and DS groups, respectively. Compared to the D arm, the DS arm had a better progression-free survival (2.7 months vs. 1.3 months, p=0.034) without any deterioration in safety or quality of life, whereas the DC arm had a similar progression-free survival (1.8 months vs. 1.3 months, p=0.804) and poorer overall survival (5.6 months vs. 10.0 months, p=0.035). Conclusion A re-challenge with S-1, but not cisplatin, in combination with docetaxel has potential anticancer benefits over docetaxel alone in MGC with progression after prior cisplatin plus S-1 or capecitabine.

First-Line Mono-Chemotherapy in Frail Elderly Patients with Metastatic Colorectal Cancer

  • Varol, Umut;Dirican, Ahmet;Yildiz, Ibrahim;Oktay, Esin;Degirmenci, Mustafa;Alacacioglu, Ahmet;Barutca, Sabri;Karabulut, Bulent;Uslu, Ruchan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.7
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    • pp.3157-3161
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    • 2014
  • Background: Unlike for fit elderly metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients, general approaches to initial treatment for the frail older mCRC patients are not clear. Our aim was to evaluate the efficiency and safety of first-line single-agent treatment in one such group. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated mCRC patients aged 70 or older with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance score of 2. They had no prior treatment and underwent first-line single-agent capecitabine or other monotherapies until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Results: Thirty-six patients were included. Most (n:28, 77.8%) were treated with capecitabine. One patient achieved a complete response and 5 patients had a partial response for an overall response rate of 16.6%. Twelve patients (33.3%) remained stable. Median progression free survival was 5 months (confidence interval (CI), %; 3.59-6.40) and median overall survival was 10 months (95 CI%; 8.1-11.8). Grade 3-4 toxicity was found in 6 patients (16.6%). Febrile neutropenia was not observed and there were no toxicity-associated deaths. Conclusions: Capecitabine is a safe chemotherapeutic agent with moderate activity for first-line treatment of older metastatic colorectal cancer patients with limited performance status.

Haematologic Parameters in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Patients Treated with Capecitabine Combination Therapy

  • Inanc, Mevlude;Duran, Ayse Ocak;Karaca, Halit;Berk, Veli;Bozkurt, Oktay;Ozaslan, Ersin;Ozkan, Metin
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.253-256
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    • 2014
  • Background: The standard treatment in the metastatic colorectal cancer consists of 5-FU based infusional regimens. However, with oral fluoropyrimidines, equal tumor responses may be obtained. Capecitabine causes macrocytosis of the cells by inhibition of DNA synthesis. In this context, a relationship was found between mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and response to therapy in breast cancer patients treated with Capecitabine, but whether this relationship also pertains in colorectal cancer has not been established. Materials and Methods: A total of 102 metastatic colorectal cancer patients treated with a oxaliplatin (XELOX)${\pm}$Bevacizumab combination were retrospectively evaluated. Patients were randomized into three groups. Hematological parameters (MCV, MPV, PCT, PLT, NLR) were recorded retrospectively, before treatment and after 3 cycles of chemotherapy. Results: After three cycles of therapy, 20 (19.6%) patients had progressive disease (PD), 41 (40.1%) had stable disease (SD), and 41 (40.1%) demonstrated a partial response (PR). In 62 (60.7%) treatment was with capesitabin plus XELOX therapy, and in 40 (39.2%) it was XELOX-Bevacizumab combination therapy. There was no difference among three groups before the treatment in terms of MCV, MPV, PCT, PLT, and NLR. MCV showed significant increase in chemotherapy response groups (PR and SD). In addition, a significant decrease was observed for platelet count in chemotherapy response groups. While NLR decrease was seen in only a PR group, PCT decrease was observed in all three groups. PCT and PLT values were higher in patients receiving Bevacizumab. Conclusions: PLT, PCT, MPV, and NLR values were decreased due to Capecitabine-based chemotherapy, however MCV was increased. PCT and PLT values were higher in patients who received Bevacizumab than those who did not. MCV, PLT, and NLR can be considered as important factors in predicting response to colorectal carcinoma treatment.

5-FU or capecitabine based chronomodulated chemotherapy for advanced colorectal cancer: mata-analysis and systematic review (진행성 대장직장암 환자군에 있어서 5-FU 혹은 capecitabine의 최적 시간 치료법에 대한 체계적 고찰 : 메타분석)

  • Lee, Jee Young;Oh, Hye Kyung;Ryu, Han Sung;Yoon, Seong Woo
    • Journal of Korean Traditional Oncology
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.31-44
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    • 2015
  • Background : The purpose of this study is to investigate the efficacy and safety of the circadian delivery schedule of fluorouracil or capecitabine based chemotherapy for advanced colorectal cancer. Patients and methods : A meta-analysis was performed using individual data from eight international randomized clinical trials, especially phase II or III trials, comparing 5-fluorouracil, or capeticabine in chronomodulated or conventional schedule. The data from 8 studies was composed of 692 patients receiving chronomodulated chemotheray and 684 patients receiving conventional chemotherapy. The main end point was response rate. Results : Response rate was insignificantly different from each group (RR 1.14, 95%CI 0.74-1.74, p=0.55). Overall survival and progresseion-free survival were not significant either. Chemotherapy induced anemia, diarrhea, and nausea/vomiting were worse in the chronotherapy group, with statistic significance respectively. On the other hand, chemotherapy induced thrombocytopenia, stomatitis, peripheral neuropathy, and dermatotoxicity were better but they were not statistically significant results. Conclusions : Patients lived longer but not significantly on chronomodulated chemotherapy rather than on conventional chemotherapy. Patients on chronomodulated chemotherapy experienced adverse events more. The chronomodulated chemotherapy schedule needs adjustment of its delivery schedule and further research is required.