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Human Papillomavirus Burden in Different Cancers in Iran: a Systematic Assessment

  • Jalilvand, Somayeh;Shoja, Zabihollah;Hamkar, Rasool
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.17
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    • pp.7029-7035
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    • 2014
  • Certain types of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are undoubtedly involved in genesis of human malignancies. HPV plays an etiological role in cervical cancer, but also in many vaginal, vulvar, anal and penile cancers, as well as head and neck cancers. In addition, a number of non-malignant diseases such as genital warts and recurrent respiratory papillomatosis are attributable to HPV. Moreover, HPV forms have detected in several other cancers including esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, lung, prostate, ovarian, breast, skin, colorectal and urinary tract cancers, but associations with etiology in these cases is controversial. The aim of this systematic assessment was to estimate the prevalence of HPV infection and HPV types in HPV-associated cancers, HPV-related non-malignant diseases and in cancers that may be associated with HPV in Iran. The present investiagtion covered 61 studies on a variety of cancers in Iranian populations. HPV prevalence was 77.5 % and 32.4% in cervical cancer and head and neck cancers, respectively. HPV was detected in 23.1%, 22.2%, 10.4%, 30.9%, 14% and 25.2% of esophageal squamous cell, lung, prostate, urinary tract cancers, breast and skin cancers, respectively. HPV16 and 18 were the most frequent HPV types in all cancers. The findings of present study imply that current HPV vaccines for cervical cancer may decrease the burden of other cancers if they are really related to HPV.

Epidemiological Trends of GI Cancers in Patients Visiting a Tertiary Care Hospital in Chandigarh, North India

  • Sharma, Munesh K;Singh, Tarundeep;Pandey, Avdesh K;Kankaria, Ankita
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.8
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    • pp.3499-3503
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    • 2015
  • Background: Cancer has become an epidemic disease. Nearly ten million new cancer cases are diagnosed annually in the world and out of these about half are from the developing world. To appropriately plan for treatment, management and prevention of the disease, it becomes necessary to study the trends about morbidity caused by cancers. Materials and Methods: Data for patients diagnosed with any form of gastrointestinal (GI) cancers was extracted from records maintained in the outpatient department registers of the Oncology Department of Government Medical College and Hospital in Chandigarh from 1999 to 2012. Trends were analysed for different categories of GI cancers for the period of 12 years. Results: In present study GI cancers accounted for 23 % of all registered cases (n-9603) of carcinomas. Males predominated for all GI cancers except in the gall bladder. Gastrointestinal cancers as a proportion of total cancers increased from 21% in 1999 to 25.9% in 2012 with a significant increasing trend in our series (${\chi}^2$ for linear trend=9.36, p<0.003). Cancers of the tonsil, oral cavity and pharynx taken together showed an increasing trend over the years (${\chi}^2$ for trend=55.2, p<0.001) whereas cancers of the lower GI (${\chi}^2=19.6$, p<0.0001) and gall bladder (${\chi}^2=19.5$, p<0.0001) showed a declining trend in our series. Conclusions: GI cancers form a significant proportion of all cancers reporting to our data. In depth studies to ascertain the reasons for the changing trends are required to design intervention programs. Further information is necessary from cancer registries and from the hospital records of oncology departments.

Current Trends in the Incidence and Survival Rate of Urological Cancers in Korea

  • Joung, Jae Young;Lim, Jiwon;Oh, Chang-Mo;Jung, Kyu-Won;Cho, Hyunsoon;Kim, Sung Han;Seo, Ho Kyung;Park, Weon Seo;Chung, Jinsoo;Lee, Kang Hyun;Won, Young-Joo
    • Cancer Research and Treatment
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    • v.49 no.3
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    • pp.607-615
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    • 2017
  • Purpose This descriptive study assessed the current trends in the incidence of urological cancers and patient survival in Korea. Materials and Methods In this nationwide retrospective observational study based on the data from the Korea National Cancer Incidence Database (KNCIDB), this study analyzed the age-standardized incidence rates (ASRs) and annual percentage changes (APCs) of kidney, bladder, prostate, testicular, and penile cancers as well as cancer of the renal pelvis and ureter between 1999 and 2012. The relative survival rates (RSRs) were calculated for urological cancer patients diagnosed between 1993 and 2012 from the KNCIDB data. Results Prostate cancer was diagnosed in 66,812 individuals followed by bladder (41,549) and kidney (36,836) cancers. The overall ASR (18.26 per 100,000) increased with age because of the higher ASRs of bladder and prostate cancers in the elderly. The ASR for kidney cancer was highest in the 40-59-year-old group, whereas testicular cancer occurred most frequently before the age of 40. The incidence of most urological cancers increased (overall APC, 6.39%; p < 0.001), except for penile (APC, -2.01%; p=0.05) and bladder (APC, -0.40%; p=0.25) cancers. The overall survival increased steadily (5-year RSR, 66.4% in 1993-1995 vs. 84.2% in 2008-2012; p < 0.001), particularly for prostate (by 34.10%) and kidney (by 16.30%) cancers, but not for renal pelvis and ureter cancers (-7.20%). Conclusion The most common urological cancer in Korea was prostate cancer followed by bladder and kidney cancers. The incidence of most urological cancers, except for penile and bladder cancers, increased. Survival also increased, particularly for prostate and kidney cancers.

Estimating the Genetic Epidemiology Parameters of Selected Cancers in Korea Population - The Korean Twin Study -

  • Sung, Jooh-On
    • Genomics & Informatics
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    • v.3 no.4
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    • pp.159-165
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    • 2005
  • The Korean Twin Register (n=154,783 pairs) was reported in 2002 as the first nationwide twin study in Korea and the largest study in Asia. The Twin Register has the information of disease outcomes since 1990, and basic clinical and questionnaire data from biennial health examination provided by Korea National Health Service. The author attempted to calculate some of the genetic parameters of cancers in this population. Common cancers in Korea known to have familial aggregation (colon and breast) and cancers of which familial aggregation is unclear (stomach cancer) were examined for their familial recurrence risks. There were 699 stomach cancers, 438 breast and 491 colorectal cancers cases in the twin register between 1991 and 2003. Like-sex twins showed recurrence risks (${\lambda}_{LS}$) of 5.1 (95% CI 3.7-6.9) for stomach cancers, 15.5 (95% CI1 0.9-20.2) for female breast cancers, and 28.1 (95% CI 23.5-34.4) for colon cancers. Colorectal cancers of female like-sex twins show significantly higher familial recurrence risk 40.7 (95% CI 34.6-47.4), suggesting higher genetic contribution in women than in men. The results show increased familial risks compared with previous studies from the same register and are largely compatible with other studies. The data of the Twin Register could be used for estimating population level genetic parameters, as well as base of the various studies.

Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 Expression in Unresectable Gastric Cancers: Relationship with CT Characteristics

  • Lee, Jeong Sub;Kim, Se Hyung;Im, Seock-Ah;Kim, Min A;Han, Joon Koo
    • Korean Journal of Radiology
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    • v.18 no.5
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    • pp.809-820
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    • 2017
  • Objective: To retrospectively analyze the qualitative CT features that correlate with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-expression in pathologically-proven gastric cancers. Materials and Methods: A total of 181 patients with pathologically-proven unresectable gastric cancers with HER2-expression (HER2-positive [n = 32] and negative [n = 149]) were included. CT features of primary gastric and metastatic tumors were reviewed. The prevalence of each CT finding was compared in both groups. Thereafter, binary logistic regression determined the most significant differential CT features. Clinical outcomes were compared using Kaplan-Meier method. Results: HER2-postive cancers showed lower clinical T stage (21.9% vs. 8.1%; p = 0.015), hyperattenuation on portal phase (62.5% vs. 30.9%; p = 0.003), and was more frequently metastasized to the liver (62.5% vs. 32.2%; p = 0.001), than HER2-negative cancers. On binary regression analysis, hyperattenuation of the tumor (odds ratio [OR], 4.68; p < 0.001) and hepatic metastasis (OR, 4.43; p = 0.001) were significant independent factors that predict HER2-positive cancers. Median survival of HER2-positive cancers (13.7 months) was significantly longer than HER2-negative cancers (9.6 months) (p = 0.035). Conclusion: HER2-positive gastric cancers show less-advanced T stage, hyperattenuation on the portal phase, and frequently metastasize to the liver, as compared to HER2-negative cancers.

Cancers of the Young Population in Brunei Darussalam

  • Mohammad, Ibnu Ayyub;Bujang, Mas Rina Wati;Telisinghe, Pemasari Upali;Abdullah, Muhd Syafiq;Chong, Chee Fui;Chong, Vui Heng
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.15
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    • pp.6357-6362
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    • 2014
  • Background: Globally, the overall incidence of cancer is increasing as a result of ageing populations and changing lifestyles. Cancer is one of the leading causes of death, especially in the developed nations. Cancers affecting the young population are generally considered uncommon. This study assessed the demography and trends of cancers of the young in Brunei Darussalam, a small and developing Southeast Asia nation. Materials and Methods: All patients diagnosed with cancers between 2000 and 2012 were identified from the cancer registry maintained by the State Histopathology Laboratory. Cancers of the young was defined as any cancers diagnosed under the age of 40 years. Demographic data and the type of cancers were collected and analysed using SPSS Statistics 17.0. Results: Among the 6,460 patients diagnosed with cancer over the study period, 18.7% (n=1,205) were categorized as young with an overall decline in the proportion from 26.6% in 2000 to 18.8% in 2012 (p<0.001 for trend). Among all cancers of the young, the most common systems affected were gynecological (24.1%), hematological/lymphatic (15.8%), subcutaneous/dermatological/ musculoskeletal (10.5%), breast (10.5%) and gastrointestinal (9.9%). Overall, among the different systems, neurological (54.9%) had the highest proportion of cancers of the young followed by gynecological/reproductive (30.6%), hematological/lymphatic (39.9%), endocrine (38.7%), subcutaneous/dermatological/ musculoskeletal (22.3%) and the head and neck region (20.1%). There was a female predominance (66.9%) and the incidence was significantly higher among the Malays (20.1%) and expatriates (25.1%) groups compared to the Chinese (10.7%) and indigenous (16.8%) groups (p<0.001 for trend). Conclusions: Cancers of the young (<40 years) accounted for almost a fifth of all cancers in Brunei Darussalam with certain organ systems more strongly affected. There was a female preponderance in all racial groups. Over the years, there has been a decline in the overall proportion of cancers of the young. Selective screening programs should nevertheless be considered.

Pattern of Reproductive Cancers in India

  • Takiar, Ramnath;Kumar, Sathish
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.599-603
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    • 2014
  • Background: Reproductive cancers are those that affect the human organs that are involved in producing offspring. An attempt is made in the present communication to assess the magnitude and pattern of reproductive cancers, including their treatment modalities, in India. The cancer incidence data related to reproductive cancers collected by five population-based urban registries, namely Bangalore, Bhopal, Chennai, Delhi and Mumbai, for the years 2006-08 were utilized. The reproductive cancers among females constituted around 25% of the total and around 9% among males. Among females, the three major contributors were cervix (55.5%), ovary (26.1%) and corpus uteri (12.4%). Similarly among males, the three major contributors were prostate (77.6%), penis (11.6%) and testis (10.5%). For females, the AAR of reproductive cancers varied between 30.5 in the registry of Mumbai to 37.3 in the registry of Delhi. In males, it ranged between 6.5 in the registry of Bhopal to 14.7 in the registry of Delhi. For both males and females, the individual reproductive cancer sites showed increasing trends with age. The leading treatment provided was: radio-therapy in combination with chemo-therapy for cancers of cervix (48.3%) and vagina (43.9%); surgery in combination with chemo-therapy (54.9%) for ovarian cancer; and surgery in combination with radio-therapy for the cancers of the corpus uteri (39.8%). In males, the leading treatment provided was hormone-therapy for prostate cancer (39.6%), surgery for penile cancer (81.3%) and surgery in combination with chemo-therapy for cancer of the testis (57.6%).

Artificial Light at Night and Cancer: Global Study

  • Al-Naggar, Redhwan A.;Anil, Shirin
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.10
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    • pp.4661-4664
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    • 2016
  • Background: Artificial light at night (ALAN) has been linked to increased risk of cancers in body sites like the breast and colorectum. However exposure of ALAN as an environmental risk factor and its relation to cancers in humans has never been studied in detail. Objective: To explore the association of ALAN with all forms of cancers in 158 countries. Materials and Methods: An ecological study encompassing global data was conducted from January to June 2015, with age-standardized rates (ASR) of cancers as the outcome measure. ALAN, in the protected areas, as the exposure variable, was measured with reference to the Protected Area Light Pollution Indicator (PALI) and the Protected Area Human Influence Indicator (PAHI). Pearson's correlations were calculated for PALI and PAHI with ASR of cancers for 158 countries, adjusted for country populations, electricity consumption, air pollution, and total area covered by forest. Stratified analysis was conducted according to the country income levels. Linear regression was applied to measure the variation in cancers explained by PALI and PAHI. Results: PALI and PAHI were positively associated with ASR of all forms of cancer, and also the four most common cancers (p < 0.05). These positive correlations remained statistically significant for PAHI with all forms of cancer, lung, breast, and colorectal cancer after adjusting for confounders. Positive associations of PALI and PAHI with cancers varied with income level of the individual countries. Variation in all forms of cancers, and the four most common cancers explained by PALI and PAHI, ranged from 3.3 - 35.5%. Conclusion: Artificial light at night is significantly correlated for all forms of cancer as well as lung, breast, colorectal, and prostate cancers individually. Immediate measures should be taken to limit artificial light at night in the main cities around the world and also inside houses.

The Economic Burden of Cancers Attributable to Metabolic Syndrome in Korea

  • Kim, Dongwoo;Yoon, Seok-Jun;Gong, Young-Hoon;Kim, Young Ae;Seo, Hye-Young;Yoon, Jihyun;Kim, A-Rim
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.48 no.4
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    • pp.180-187
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    • 2015
  • Objectives: Metabolic syndrome is an important etiologic factor in the development of certain types of cancers. The economic cost of the treatment of cancer has been steadily increasing. We therefore estimated the economic burden of cancers attributable to metabolic syndrome in Korea. Methods: We reviewed metabolic syndrome-related cancers and relative risk and then calculated population attributable fractions. We analyzed insurance claims data for metabolic syndrome-related cancers in 2012 in order to estimate the direct costs associated with these cancers, including hospitalization, outpatient visits, transportation costs, and caregivers' costs as well as indirect costs such as loss of productivity due to cancer treatment and premature death. Results: In 2012, 18 070 patients in Korea had cancers attributable to metabolic syndrome. The economic burden was USD 199.8 million and the direct and indirect costs were USD 124.5 million and USD 75.3 million, respectively. Conclusions: We estimated the economic burden of cancers attributable to metabolic syndrome in Korea and the efforts are necessary to reduce this burden.

Microsatellite Instability Is Associated with the Clinicopathologic Features of Gastric Cancer in Sporadic Gastric Cancer Patients

  • Kim, Shin-Hyuk;Ahn, Byung-Kyu;Nam, Young-Su;Pyo, Joo-Youn;Oh, Young-Ha;Lee, Kang-Hong
    • Journal of Gastric Cancer
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.149-154
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    • 2010
  • Purpose: Replication error is an important mechanism in carcinogenesis. The microsatellite instability (MSI-H) of colorectal cancers is associated with the development of multiple cancers. The influence of MSI-H on the development of multiple gastric cancers in sporadic gastric cancer patients has not been defined. This study was performed to reveal the association between the clinicopathologic features and MSI in sporadic gastric cancers. Materials and Methods: Between July 2004 and March 2009, the clinicopathologic characteristics, including MSI status, were evaluated in 128 consecutive patients with sporadic gastric cancers. None of the patients had hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer of familial gastric cancer. The markers that were recommended by the NCI to determine the MSI status for colorectal cancers were used Results: MSI-H cancers were found in 10.9% of the patients (14/128). Synchronous gastric cancers were shown in 4 patients (3.1%). Synchronous cancers were found in 2 of 14 patients with MSI-H gastric cancer (14.3%) and 2 of 114 patients with MSS gastric cancer (1.8%; P=0.059, Fisher's exact test). Among the patients with synchronous cancer 50% (2/4) had MSI-H cancer, but 9.7% of the patients (12/124) without synchronous cancer had MSI-H cancer. MSI-H (RR, 24.7; 95% CI, 1.5~398.9; P=0.024) was related with to synchronous gastric cancer, but age, gender, family history, histologic type, location, gross morphology, size, and stage were not related to synchronous gastric cancer. Conclusions: MSI is associated with the intestinal-type gastric cancer and the presence of multiple gastric cancers in patients with sporadic gastric cancer. Special attention to the presence of synchronous and the development of metachronous multiple cancer in patients with MSI-H gastric cancer is needed.