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Results of Radiation Therapy for Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Esophagus (식도 편평세포암의 방사선치료 결과)

  • Chun, Ha-Chung;Lee, Myung-Za
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.10-14
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    • 2009
  • Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness and prognostic factors for patients treated with postoperative radiation therapy following surgery or with radiation therapy alone for squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 132 esophageal cancer patients treated with postoperative radiation therapy following surgery or patients who were treated with radiation therapy alone at our institution from 1989 to 2006. Thirty-five patients had stage II disease, 88 patients had stage III disease and nine patients had stage IV disease. Tumors were located at the upper esophagus in 18 patients, the mid esophagus in 81 patients and the distal esophagus in 33 patients. Sixty patients were treated with radiation therapy alone and 72 patients were treated with postoperative radiation therapy following surgery. Eight patients received a dose less than 40 Gy and 78 patients received a dose of 40 to 50 Gy. The remaining 46 patients received a dose of 50 to 60 Gy. The majority of patients who underwent postoperative radiation therapy received a dose of 45 Gy. Results: Actuarial survival rates for all of the patients at two years and five years were 24% and 5%, respectively. The median survival time was 11 months. Survival rates for patients who underwent postoperative RT at two years and five years were 29% and 8%, respectively. The corresponding survival rates for patients who received radiation alone were 18% and 2%, respectively. Survival rates at two years and five years were 43% and 15% for stage II disease, 22% and 2% for stage III disease and 0% and 0% for stage IV disease, respectively; these findings were statistically significant. Two-year survival rates for patients with upper, middle and distal esophageal cancer were 19, 29% and 22%, respectively. Although there was a trend of slightly better survival for middle esophageal tumors, this finding was not statistically significant. Complete response to radiation was achieved in 13 patients (22%) and partial response to radiation was achieved in 40 patients (67%) who received radiation alone. No response to radiation was noted in seven patients (12%). A statistically significant difference in survival rates was seen between patients that had a complete response and patients that had a partial response. Two-year survival rates for patients that had a complete response versus patients that had a partial response were 31% and 17%, respectively. There were no survivors for patients with no response as determined at two-year follow-up. Conclusion: We conclude that radiation therapy is an effective treatment for esophageal cancer. Stage and response to radiation therapy were noted to be prognostic factors. A more effective treatment modality is needed to improve long term survival because of the relatively dismal prognosis for this tumor.

The Effects of Health Fitness and Body Composition in Elderly Men for 16 Weeks of Tai Chi Exercise (16주간의 태극권 운동이 남자 고령자들의 건강체력 및 신체조성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Cheol-Woo
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.21 no.8
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    • pp.1127-1133
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    • 2011
  • Exercise has been shown to positively influence quality of life for elderly men with a wide variety of medical illnesses. Tai chi exercise, a slow and graceful form of exercise and meditation, has especially been offered as the ideal exercise for elderly men with diverse conditions, such as people suffering from chronic heart failure or breast cancer survivors. In one recent study, Tai Chi was found to improve exercise capacity, sleep stability, and quality of life in heart failure patients including elderly men. The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of 16 weeks of Tai Chi exercise (3 times/week, 60 min/trial, 40-50% HRR) on physical and physiological changes. Sixty four healthy volunteers without any particular disease between the ages of 65 and 79 years participated in the study. The results were as follows; Significant changes of cardiac endurance, strength, muscle endurance, flexibility and balance were observed following 16 weeks of Tai Chi exercise (p<0.05). In addition, significant changes of diastolic blood pressure, body fat and fat-free mass were observed following 16 weeks of Tai Chi exercise (p<0.05). These findings suggest that a brief period of Tai Chi exercise is beneficial, particularly to elderly men. It is especially beneficial for body composition, and physical fitness factors such as cardiopulmonary endurance, muscle endurance, flexibility, and balance. Further study is needed in this area for specific disease patients.

Radiotherapy in Medically Inoperable Early Stage Non-small Cell Lung Cancer (내과적 문제로 수술이 불가능한 조기 비소세포성 폐암에서의 방사선치료)

  • Kim, Bo-Kyoung;Park, Charn-Il
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.257-264
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    • 2000
  • Purpose: For early stage non-small-cell lung cancer, surgical resection is the treatment of choice. But when the patients are not able to tolerate it because of medical problem and when refuse surgery, radiation therapy is considered an acceptable alternative. We report on the treatment results and the effect of achieving local control of primary tumors on survival end points, and analyze factors that may influence survival and local control. Materials and Method : We reviewed the medical records of 32 patients with medically inoperable non-small cell lung cancer treated at our institution from June, 1987 through June, 1997. All patients had a pathologic diagnosis of non-small cell lung cancer and were not candidate for surgical resection because of either patients refusal (4), old age (2), lung problem (21), chest wail invasion (3) and heart problems (3). In 8 patients, there were more than 2 problems. The median age of the patients was 68 years (ranging from 60 to 86 years). Histologic cell type included souamous (24), adenocarcinoma (6) and unclassiried squamous cell (2). The clinical stages of the patients were 71 in 5, 72 in 25, 73 in 2 patients. Initial tumor size was 3.0 cm in 11, between 3.0 cm and 5.0 cm in 13 and more than 5.0 cm in 8 patients. Ail patients had taken chest x-rays, chest CT, abdomen USG and bone scan. Radiotherapy was delivered using 6 MV or 10 MV linear accelerators. The doses of primary tumor were the ranging from 54.0 Gy to 68.8 Gy (median; 61.2 Gy). The duration of treatment was from 37 days through 64 days (median; 0.5 days) and there was no treatment interruption except 1 patient due to poor general status. In 12 patients, concomitant boost technique was used. There were no neoadjuvant or adjuvant treatments such as surgery or chemotherapy. The period of follow-up was ranging from 2 months through 93 months (median; 23 months). Survival was measured from the date radiation therapy was initiated. Results : The overall survival rate was 44.6$\%$ at 2 years and 24.5$\%$ at 5 years, with the median survival time of 23 months. of the 25 deaths, 7 patients died of intercurrent illness, and cause-specific survival rate was 61.0$\%$ at 2 years and 33.5$\%$ at 5 years. The disease-free survival rate was 38.9$\%$ at 2 years and 28.3$\%$ at 5 years. The local-relapse-free survival rate was 35.1$\%$, 28.1$\%$, respectively. On univariate analysis, tumor size was significant variable of overall survival (p=0.0015, 95$\%$ C.1.; 1.4814-5.2815), disease-free survival (P=0.0022, 95$\%$ C.1., 1.4707-5.7780) and local-relapse-free survival (p=0.0015, 95$\%$ C.1., 1.2910- 4.1197). 7 stage was significant variable of overall survival (p=0.0395, 95$\%$ C.1.; 1.1084-55.9112) and had borderline significance on disease-free survival (p=0.0649, 95$\%$ C.1.; 0.8888-50.7123) and local-relapse-free survival (p=0.0582, 95$\%$ C,1.; 0.9342-52.7755). On multivariate analysis, tumor size had borderline significance on overall survival (p=0.6919, 955 C.1., 0.9610-5.1277) and local-relapse-free survival ( p=0.0585, 95$\%$ C.1.; 0.9720-4.9657). Tumor size was also significant variable of disease-free survival (p=0.0317, 95% C.1.; 1.1028-8.4968). Conclusion : Radical radiotherapy is an effective treatment for small (71 or f3 cm) tumors and can be offered as alternative to surgery in elderly or infirmed patients. But when the size of tumor is larger than 5 cm, there were few long-term survivors treated with radiotherapy alone. The use of hypefractionated radiotherapy, endobronchial boost, radisensitizer and conformal or IMRT should be consider to improve the local control rate and disease-specific survival rate.

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Short-term Results of Endobronchial Brachytherapy for Malignant Airway Obstructions (악성 기도 폐쇄에 대한 기관내 근접 조사 방사선치료의 단기 임상 경험)

  • Ahn Yong Chan;Lim Do Hoon;Choi Dong Rak;Kim Moon Kyung;Kim Dae Yong;Huh Seung Jae;Kim Ho Joong;Chung Man Pyo;Kwon O Jung;Rhee Chong Heon
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.299-306
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    • 1996
  • Purpose : Respiratory symptoms related with malignant airway disease have been the main causes of lowered qualify of life and also sometimes may be life-threatening if not properly managed. The authors report the short-term experiences of endobronchial brachytherapy for symptomatic malignant airway obstruction using high dose rate after-loading brachytherapy unit. Materials and Methdos : Twenty-five Patients with symptomatic malignant airway obstruction were treated with endobronchial brachytherapy between the period of December 1994 and March 1996 at Department of Radiation Oncology of Samsung Medical Center Twenty-one ($84\%$) were patients with non-small cell lung cancer, three with tracheal malignancies, and one with recurrence of esophageal cancer. Twenty Patients were given elective external beam radiation therapy, while six were given endobronchial laser evaporation therapy on emergency bases in addition to endobronchial brachytherapy. Three procedures for each patient were planned and total of 70 procedures were completed. Results : Improvement rates of major respiratory symptoms after endobronchial brachytherapy procedures were $88\%$(22/25). $96\%$(22/23), $100\%$ (15/15), and $100\%$(9/9) for cough, dyspnea, hemoptysis and obstructive pneumonia, respectively. ECOG performance scores were improved in $56\%$ of total patients group, while there was no case with worsened ECOG score. Fifteen patients died and the median interval from the start of treatment to death was 4 months (range: $1\~17$ months), while that of ten survivors was 9 months (range $5\~19$ months). There were five patients with controlled intrathoracic disease, who have survived over one rear. All deaths were associated with uncontrolled local and/or distant disease. Four Patients died of massive fatal hemoptysis, three of who received emergency endobronchial laser evaporation therapy before the start of endobronchial brachytherapy. Conclusion : Endobronchial brachytherapy has been confirmed as an excellent palliative treatment modality improving respiratory symptoms as well as patients' general performance status. Based on the current observations, use of endobronchial brachytherapy in curative setting as a boost technique may be warranted.

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Decitabine in the Treatment of Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Myelodysplastic Syndromes, Which Combined with Complex Karyotype Respectively

  • Gao, Su;Li, Zheng;Fu, Jian-Hong;Hu, Xiao-Hui;Xu, Yang;Jin, Zheng-Ming;Tang, Xiao-Wen;Han, Yue;Chen, Su-Ning;Sun, Ai-Ning;Wu, De-Pei;Qiu, Hui-Ying
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.15
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    • pp.6627-6632
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    • 2015
  • Background: We conducted a study exploring the clinical safety and efficacy of decitabine in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), combined with a complex karyotype. Materials and Methods: From April 2009 to September 2013, a total of 35 patients with AML/MDS combined with a complex karyotype diagnosed in the First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University were included for retrospective analysis. All patients were treated with decitabine alone ($20mg/m^2$ daily for 5 days) or combination AAG chemotherapy (Acla 20mg qod*4d, Ara-C $10mg/m^2$ q12h*7d, G-CSF $300{\mu}g$ qd, the dose of G-CSF adjusted to the amount in blood routinely). Results: In 35 patients, 15 exhibited a complete response (CR), and 6 a partial response (PR), the overall response rate (CR+PR) being 60% (21 of 35). Median disease-free survival was 18 months and overall survival was 14 months. In the 15 MDS patients with a complex karyotype, the CR rate was 53.3% (8 of 15); in 20 AML patients with complex karyotype, the overall response rate was 65% (13 of 20). The response rate of decitabine alone (22 cases) was 56.5% (13 of 22), while in the combination chemotherapy group (13 cases), the effective rate was 61.5% (8 of 13)(P>0.05). There are 15 patients with chromosome 7 aberration, after treatment with decitabine, 7 CR, 3 PR, overall response rate was 66.7% (10 of 15). Of 18 patients with 3 to 5 kinds of chromosomal abnormalities, 66.7% demonstrated a response; of 17 with more than 5 chromosomal abnormalities, 52.9% had a response. In the total of 35 patients, with one course (23 patients) and ${\geq}$two courses (12 patients), the overall response rate was 40.9% and 92.3% (P<0.05). Grade III to IV hematological toxicity was observed in 27 cases (75%). Grade III to IV infections were clinically documented in 7 (20%). Grades I to II non-hematological toxicity were infections (18 patients), haematuria (2 patients), and bleeding (3 patients). With follow-up until September 2013, 7 patients were surviving, 18 had died and 10 were lost to follow-up. In the 6 cases who underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) all were still relapse-free survivors. Conclusions: Decitabine alone or combination with AAG can improve outcome of AML/MDS with a complex karyotype, there being no significant difference decitabine in inducing remission rates in patients with different karyotype. Increasing the number of courses can improve efficiency. This approach with fewer treatment side effects in patients with a better tolerance should be employed in order to create an improved subsequent chance for HSCT.

Radiotherapy in Locoregional Recurrent Breast Carcinoma (국소 재발된 유방암의 방사선치료)

  • Ha Sung Whan;Yang Mi Gyoung;Chung Woong Ki;Park Charn Il;Bang Yung Jue;Kim Noe Kyung;Choe Kuk Jin
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.203-209
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    • 1988
  • Thirty eight women with recurrent breast carcinoma involving chest wall and/or regional lymph nodes after surgery with or without systemic therapy were treated with radiation between 1979 and 1986. Among them, 5 patients were excluded from analysis because of incomplete treatment. The median follow up of survivors was 30 months (randged 1-79 months). Fifteen (45%)patients had their disease confined to the chest wall and eighteen patients had lymph node involvement as some of their locoregional recurrent disease. Within 36 months after the initial treatment, 87% of recurrences manifested themselves. All patients had radiotherapy to at least the site of involvement. In 8 patients, recurrent tumors were treated with complete excision followed by radiation. Of the remaining 25 patients,18 (72%) had complete response (CR) following radiotherapy. The actuarial 3-year survival of all patients following locoregional recurrence was 50% Three year survival was 24% in those 25 patients who had recurrences within 24 months of the initial treatment. For those 8 patients whose recurrences occurred after more than 24 month disease free interval, the 3-year survival was 100%. For those patients with recurrences confined to chest wall alone, 3-year survival was 57% The patients who had lymph node involvement as part of their locoregional recurrences had a 43% 3-year survival. The majority of them developed distant metastases. Those patients who had a CR showed 63% 3-year survival. On the other hand, 1 year survival was only 33% for those patients who had a less than CR. Three patients developed carcinoma of the contralateral breast following radiotherapy. Three year survival following locoregional recurrence was 40% for patients whose initial treatment for their primary breast carcinoma was surgery and adjuvant systemic therapy. For those patients whose primary breast carcinoma was treated by surgery alone, the 3-year survival following locoregional recurrence was 71%. In patients who had subsequent recurrence after radiotherapy, the actuarial survival was 25% at 2 years.

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