• Title, Summary, Keyword: cancer risk

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Risk Factors for Thyroid Cancer in Females Using a Logit Model in Lahore, Pakistan

  • Asif, Faiza;Ahmad, Muhammad Riaz;Majid, Arshia
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.15
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    • pp.6243-6247
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    • 2015
  • Background: Thyroid cancer (TC) is a more common endocrine malignancy in females and is a major cause of death in developing countries. Therefore the aim of this study was to explore possible risk factors of thyroid cancer in females of Pakistan. Materials and Methods: This study covered 232 females, including 127 (54.7%) cases and 105 (45.2%) controls, from the INMOL Hospital and Sheikh Zayed Hospital, Lahore. Different risk factors were explored by the descriptive and inferentially statistics. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for different risk factors were computed using logistic regression. Results: The results showed six risk factors, marital status, family history of thyroid cancer, iodine in the diet, oxidative stress, fast food and fried food, to demonstrate positive significant links to thyroid cancer (odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of :2.152, 1.104-4.198; 2.630, 1.416-4.887; 2.391, 1.282-4.458; 4.115, 2.185-7.750; 3.656, 1.851-7.223; 2.357, 1.268-4.382; and 2.360, 1.199-4.643, respectively). Conclusions: The Oxidative stress, marital status, family history of cancer, fast food, use of iodine diet and fried food are the risk factors of thyroid cancer in females.

Epidemiology of Prostate Cancer

  • Bashir, Muhammad Naeem
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.13
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    • pp.5137-5141
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    • 2015
  • Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy among males worldwide, and is the second leading cause of cancer death among men in United States. According to GLOBOCAN (2012), an estimated 1.1 million new cases and 307,000 deaths were reported in 2012. The reasons for the increase of this disease are not known, but increasing life expectancy and modified diagnostic techniques have been suggested as causes. The established risk factors for this disease are advancing age, race, positive family history of prostate cancer and western diet (use of fat items). Several other risk factors, such as obesity, physical activity, sexual activity, smoking and occupation have been also associated with prostate cancer risk, but their roles in prostate cancer etiology remain uncertain. This mini-review aims to provide risk factors, disease knowledge, prevalence and awareness about prostate cancer.

A Study on the Risk Factors for Breast Cancer in Korean Women (한국 여성 유방암의 위험요인 분석)

  • Yoon Gwi-Ok;Park Hyoung-Sook
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Fundamentals of Nursing
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.7-23
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    • 2001
  • This study was done to provide basic data on prevention of breast cancer by identifying and analyzing risk factors for breast cancer in Korean women. The data were collected from three hospitals. The data from Jan. 1995 to Dec. 1997 was based on the patient recordings and personal contacts if possible. Data from 1998 to 1999 was collected from 280 inpatients and outpatients diagnosed as breast cancer. From this data, information about the risk factors of breast cancer could be acquired. The factors are scaled according to the degree of risk. Menstrual history, obstetrical history, family history. lactation period, life style were given 5 point, and body mass index was given 4 point. Using one-way ANOVA. the most important risk factors were identified and analyzed by multiple regression. The conclusion of this study are as follows : General factors which would show an effect on the results of the multiple regression included risk factors such as menstrual history, obstetrical history, lactation period, family history, and life style factors including mortal state, monthly income, educational level, job and age. Family history(R=0.481) was found to be the highest risk factor(23.1%) affecting breast cancer risk. The next factors were dying hair(R=0.603), drinking(R=0.846), body mass index(R=0.885), smoking(R=0.916), age of menopause(R=0.937), pregnancy age of first full-term(R=0.957), eating vegetable(R=0.980) and the number of full term pregnancies in that order. The sum total(R=0.986) of all the above factors accounted for 97.3% of the risk of breast cancer for Korean women. In conclusion, it was found that family history and dyeing hair were the highest risk factors for breast cancer. It is recommended that those with a family history of breast cancer should have regular breast examinations, and those who often dye their hair should reconsider this practice.

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Metabolic Risk Profile and Cancer in Korean Men and Women

  • Ko, Seulki;Yoon, Seok-Jun;Kim, Dongwoo;Kim, A-Rim;Kim, Eun-Jung;Seo, Hye-Young
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.49 no.3
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    • pp.143-152
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    • 2016
  • Objectives: Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Associations between metabolic syndrome and several types of cancer have recently been documented. Methods: We analyzed the sample cohort data from the Korean National Health Insurance Service from 2002, with a follow-up period extending to 2013. The cohort data included 99 565 individuals who participated in the health examination program and whose data were therefore present in the cohort database. The metabolic risk profile of each participant was assessed based on obesity, high serum glucose and total cholesterol levels, and high blood pressure. The occurrence of cancer was identified using Korean National Health Insurance claims data. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for age group, smoking status, alcohol intake, and regular exercise. Results: A total of 5937 cases of cancer occurred during a mean follow-up period of 10.4 years. In men with a high-risk metabolic profile, the risk of colon cancer was elevated (HR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.14 to 1.71). In women, a high-risk metabolic profile was associated with a significantly increased risk of gallbladder and biliary tract cancer (HR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.24 to 3.42). Non-significantly increased risks were observed in men for pharynx, larynx, rectum, and kidney cancer, and in women for colon, liver, breast, and ovarian cancer. Conclusions: The findings of this study support the previously suggested association between metabolic syndrome and the risk of several cancers. A high-risk metabolic profile may be an important risk factor for colon cancer in Korean men and gallbladder and biliary tract cancer in Korean women.

ABO Blood Groups and Risk of Cancer: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

  • Zhang, Bai-Lin;He, Na;Huang, Yu-Bei;Song, Feng-Ju;Chen, Ke-Xin
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.11
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    • pp.4643-4650
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    • 2014
  • Background: For decades, studies have been performed to evaluate the association between ABO blood groups and risk of cancer. However, whether ABO blood groups are associated with overall cancer risk remains unclear. We therefore conducted a meta-analysis of observational studies to assess this association. Materials and Methods: A search of Pubmed, Embase, ScienceDirect, Wiley, and Web of Knowledge databases (to May 2013) was supplemented by manual searches of bibliographies of key retrieved articles and relevant reviews. We included case-control studies and cohort studies with more than 100 cancer cases. Results: The search yielded 89 eligible studies that reported 100,554 cases at 30 cancer sites. For overall cancer risk, the pooled OR was 1.12 (95%CI: 1.09-1.16) for A vs. non- A groups, and 0.84 (95%CI: 0.80-0.88) for O vs. non-O groups. For individual cancer sites, blood group A was found to confer increased risk of gastric cancer (OR=1.18; 95%CI: 1.13-1.24), pancreatic cancer (OR=1.23; 95%CI: 1.15-1.32), breast cancer (OR=1.12; 95%CI: 1.01-1.24), ovarian cancer (OR=1.16; 95%CI: 1.04-1.27), and nasopharyngeal cancer (OR=1.17; 95%CI: 1.00-1.33). Blood group O was found to be linked to decreased risk of gastric cancer (OR=0.84; 95%CI: 0.80-0.88), pancreatic cancer (OR=0.75; 95%CI: 0.70-0.80), breast cancer (OR=0.90; 95%CI: 0.85-0.95), colorectal cancer (OR=0.89; 95%CI: 0.81-0.96), ovarian cancer (OR=0.76; 95%CI: 0.53-1.00), esophagus cancer (OR=0.94; 95%CI: 0.89-1.00), and nasopharyngeal cancer (OR=0.81; 95%CI: 0.70-0.91). Conclusions: Blood group A is associated with increased risk of cancer, and blood group O is associated with decreased risk of cancer.

Association of the XRCC1 c.1178G>A Genetic Polymorphism with Lung Cancer Risk in Chinese

  • Wang, Lei;Lin, Yong;Qi, Cong-Cong;Sheng, Bao-Wei;Fu, Tian
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.9
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    • pp.4095-4099
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    • 2014
  • The X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 protein (XRCC1) plays important roles in the DNA base excision repair pathway which may influence the development of lung cancer. This study aimed to evaluate the potential association of the XRCC1 c.1178G>A genetic polymorphism with lung cancer risk. The created restriction site-polymerase chain reaction (CRS-PCR) and DNA sequencing methods were utilized to evaluate the XRCC1 c.1178G>A genetic polymorphism among 376 lung cancer patients and 379 controls. Associations between the genetic polymorphism and lung cancer risk were determined with an unconditional logistic regression model. Our data suggested that the distribution of allele and genotype in lung cancer patients was significantly different from that of controls. The XRCC1 c.1178G>A genetic polymorphism was associated with an increased risk of lung cancer (AA vs GG: OR=2.91, 95%CI 1.70-4.98, p<0.001; A vs G: OR=1.52, 95%CI 1.22-1.90, p<0.001). The allele A and genotype AA may contribute to risk of lung cancer. These preliminary results suggested that the XRCC1 c.1178G>A genetic polymorphism is statistically associated with lung cancer risk in the Chinese population.

Variants on ESR1 and their Association with Prostate Cancer Risk: A Meta-analysis

  • Ding, Xiang;Cui, Feng-Mei;Xu, Song-Tao;Pu, Jin-Xian;Huang, Yu-Hua;Zhang, Jiang-Lei;Wei, Xue-Dong;Hou, Jian-Quan;Yan, Chun-Yin
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.8
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    • pp.3931-3936
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    • 2012
  • Background: Epidemiological studies evaluating the association of two variants rs9340799 and rs2234693 on estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) with prostate risk have generated inconsistent results. Methods: A meta-analysis was here conducted to systematically evaluate the relationship of these two variants with prostate cancer susceptibility. Results: For rs9340799, heterozygosity of T/C carriers showed a significant increased prostate cancer risk with a pooled odds ratio (OR) of 1.34 (95% CI = 1.06-1.69) while homozygote C/C carriers showed an increased but not statistically significant association with prostate cancer risk (pooled OR = 1.29, 95% CI = 0.94-1.79). Compared to the homozygous TT carriers, the allele C carriers showed a 31% increased risk for prostate cancer (pooled OR = 1.31, 95% CI = 1.06-1.63). No significant association between the rs2234693 and prostate cancer risk was found with the pooled OR of 1.15 (95% CI = 0.97-1.39, T/C and C/C vs. T/T) under the dominant genetic model. Compared to the homozygote T/T carriers, the heterozygous T/C carriers did not show any significantly different risk of prostate cancer (pooled OR = 1.13, 95% CI = 0.94-1.36) and the homozygous C/C carriers also did not show a significant change for prostate cancer risk compared to the wide-type T/T carriers (pooled OR = 1.26, 95% CI = 0.98-1.62). Conclusion: These data suggested that variant rs9340799, but not rs2234693, on ESR1 confers an elevated risk of prostate cancer.

Awareness of Ovarian Cancer Risk Factors among Women in Malaysia: A Preliminary Study

  • Keng, Soon Lean;Wahab, Syakirah Bainun Abdul;Chiu, Lim Bee;Yusuf, Azlina
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.537-540
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    • 2015
  • Background: Ovarian cancer is recognized as the fourth leading cancer in Malaysia. However, women do not always seek help in a timely manner and gaps in awareness may influence screening uptake and presentation. The purpose of this study was to determine levels of awareness of ovarian cancer risk factors in female population in Penang, Malaysia. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Penang, Malaysia from January until February 2014. Eighty-seven women were selected by convenient sampling. Awareness of risk factors of ovarian cancer was assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. Data were analyzed using statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) version 20.0 for descriptive statistics and Pearson chi-square test for the association between socio-demographic data and awareness. A p value ${\leq}0.05$ was considered statistically significant. Results: In all, 74.7% of participants answered correctly for the risk factor of increasing age, although 94.3% were unaware of increased risk of tall women. A majority, 71.3%, had a low level of awareness of ovarian cancer risk factors. There was a significant association between age and knowledge (p=0.047). Additionally, there was a significant association between higher education level and level of awareness of ovarian cancer risk factors (p=0.039). Conclusions: This study revealed that awareness of ovarian cancer risk factors among Malaysian women is low. The results show a need for improved public understanding about ovarian cancer risks and provision of important information for health professionals about initiatives needed for future awareness, prevention and screening programs.

Oral Contraceptives, Abortion and Breast Cancer Risk: a Case Control Study in Saudi Arabia

  • Karim, Syed Mustafa;Baeshen, Wijdan;Neamatullah, Syed Nehal;Bin, Bakr
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.9
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    • pp.3957-3960
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    • 2015
  • Background: Several studies have examined the relationship between oral contraceptive pill (OCP) use, abortions and breast cancer, with mixed results. Hormonal changes associated with OCP use and abortion may increase risk of breast cancer over time, but there is a lack of studies studying this association in Saudi Arabian women. Materials and Methods: We thererfore conducted a case control study in 192 women (92 as cases and 100 as controls), aged 30 to 65, and collected information on variables including examples related to study objectives and those which may confound findings. The Chi square test was used to detect associations between various factors and risk of breast cancer. Results: We found no evidence of interaction between history of abortion or frequency of abortion and breast cancer risk (Chi square=0.422, p =0.420 and 1, p =0.169) respectively. Oral contraceptives did not confer risk for breast cancer overall (OR=0.276, 95%CI 0.092-0.829, p=0.524), while long term use of OCP was associated with increased risk of breast cancer (OR=0.297, 95%CI 0.158-0.557, p=0.001), with higher association for those who used 10 years or more of OCPs (OR=0.282, 95%CI 0.095-0.835, p=0.02). Age at first use of OCPs had no effect on breast cancer risk (p=0.452) or age at diagnosis (p=0.074). Conclusions: Prolonged use of OC (more than 10 years) may be associated with increased risk of breast cancer in Saudi women. Larger population based studies are needed to confirm this finding in this population.

Risk Factors of Breast Cancer (유방암의 위험요인)

  • Chung, Bok-Yae;Byun, Hye-Sun;Kim, Kyung-Duck;Kim, Kyung-Hye
    • Asian Oncology Nursing
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.120-127
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    • 2008
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was secondary analysis to explore about risk factors with breast cancer on a basis of primary literature. Methods: This study was searched articles by using CINAHL, MEDLINE, Riss4u, Internet website regarding breast cancer. This study searched for the journal published in Korea and foreign countries from 2000 to 2008, about risk factors of breast cancer. This study was reviewed 42 articles (5 experimental study, 35 survey, 1 qualitative study, 1 report) suitable for the research objectives. Results: Magnitude of risk breast cancer (++) was age, geographic region, family history, mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2 genes and in other penetrance genes, radiation, history of benign breast disease, late age of menopause, early age of menarch, nulliparity and older age at first birth, high mammographic breast density, high insulin-like growth factor 1 level. Magnitude of risk factor (+) was hormone replacement therapy, oral contraceptives use, obesity, tall stature, alcohol consumption, high prolactin level, high saturated fat and well-done meat intake, polymorphisms in low penetrance gene, high socioeconomic status. Conclusion: A breast cancer screening protocol according to magnitude of risk factors is needed for disease prevention. The nurses need to educate and counsel women with risk factors of breast cancer.

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