• Title, Summary, Keyword: cancer risk

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No Increase in Breast Cancer Risk in Japanese Women Taking Oral Contraceptives: a Case-Control Study Investigating Reproductive, Menstrual and Familial Risk Factors for Breast Cancer

  • Ichida, Miho;Kataoka, Akemi;Tsushima, Ruriko;Taguchi, Tetsuya
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.9
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    • pp.3685-3690
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    • 2015
  • Background: Low-dose oral contraceptives (OC) were approved by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare in 1999, yet despite their contraceptive and non-contraceptive health benefits, only 5% of the target population use them. Fear of increased cancer risk, particularly breast cancer, is one reason for this. Due to low OC uptake and low screening participation, a paucity of data is available on the risk of OC use and breast cancer in Japanese women. The present study investigated OC use and breast cancer risk, as well as menstrual, reproductive and family factors. Materials and Methods: This was a clinic-based case-control study of women aged 20-69yrs who had undergone breast screening between January 2007 and December 2013 in central Tokyo. In all, 28.8% of the participants had experience with OC use. Cases were 155 women with a pathologically confirmed diagnosis of breast cancer. Controls were the remaining 12,333 women. Results: Increased age was a significant risk factor for breast cancer (p<0.001). A lower risk was found in premenopausal women presently taking OC compared to never users (OR 0.45; 95% CI 0.22-0.90) after adjusting for age, parity and breast feeding, and a family history of breast cancer. Conclusions: Increased age rather than OC use had a greater effect on breast cancer risk. This risk may be decreased in premenopausal women with OC use, but further long-term prospective studies are necessary.

Association between nutrient intake and thyroid cancer risk in Korean women

  • Cho, Young Ae;Lee, Jeonghee;Kim, Jeongseon
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.336-341
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    • 2016
  • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The incidence of thyroid cancer has increased in many countries, including Korea. International differences in the incidence of thyroid cancer may indicate a role of diet, but findings from previous studies are inconclusive. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the roles of nutrients in thyroid cancer risk in Korean women. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We conducted a case-control study comprising 113 cases and 226 age-matched controls. Nutrient intake was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire, and the association between nutrient intake and thyroid cancer risk was estimated using a logistic regression model. RESULTS: We found that high calcium intake was associated with a reduced risk of thyroid cancer (OR [95% CI] = 0.55 [0.35-0.89]). Significant associations were observed among subjects who were older than 50 years, had low BMI, and had low calorie intake. However, other nutrients included in this study did not show any significant associations with thyroid cancer risk. CONCLUSION: This study suggested a possible protective effect of calcium on thyroid cancer risk. Well-designed prospective studies are required to confirm these findings.

Intake of Freshwater Fish and Associated Fatty Acids and Risk of Breast Cancer

  • Gao, Chang-Ming;Ding, Jian-Hua;Li, Su-Ping;Liu, Yan-Ting;Tang, Jin-Hai;Tajima, Kazuo
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.18
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    • pp.7879-7884
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    • 2014
  • To investigate the association between intake of freshwater fish and their fatty acids and the risk of breast cancer in Chinese women, we conducted a case-control study with 669 cases and 682 population-based controls in Jiangsu Province of China. A structured questionnaire was used to elicit detailed information. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was performed to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Total freshwater fish intake was linked to decrease in the adjusted OR for breast cancer, but without dose-dependence. Analyses by freshwater fish species showed that consumption of black carp and silver carp was inversely related to breast cancer risk, with adjusted-ORs for the highest intake category of black carp (${\geq}500g/month$) of 0.54 (95%CI=0.33-0.92; $P_{trend}$ <0.002) and for silver carp (${\geq}1000g/month$) of 0.19 (95%CI=0.11-0.33; $P_{trend}$ <0.001). In contrast, consumption of crucian carp was positively related to breast cancer risk, with an adjusted OR for the highest intake category (${\geq}1000g/month$) of 6.09 (95%CI=3.04-12.2; $P_{trend}$ <0.001). Moderate intakes of SFA, PUFA, n3-PUFA and n6-PUFA from freshwater fish may decrease the risk of breast cancer among premenopausal women. The findings of this study suggest that intake of freshwater fish and their fatty acids may modify risk of breast cancer, and that different species of freshwater fish could have a different actions on breast cancer risk. Future epidemiologic studies are needed to know the effects of freshwater fish intake on breast cancer risk and the cause of these effects.

Different Association of Manganese Superoxide Dismutase Gene Polymorphisms with Risk of Prostate, Esophageal, and Lung Cancers: Evidence from a Meta-analysis of 20,025 Subjects

  • Sun, Guo-Gui;Wang, Ya-Di;Lu, Yi-Fang;Hu, Wan-Ning
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.1937-1943
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    • 2013
  • Altered expression or function of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) has been shown to be associated with cancer risk but assessment of gene polymorphisms has resulted in inconclusive data. Here a search of published data was made and 22 studies were recruited, covering 20,025 case and control subjects, for meta-analyses of the association of MnSOD polymorphisms with the risk of prostate, esophageal, and lung cancers. The data on 12 studies of prostate cancer (including 4,182 cases and 6,885 controls) showed a statistically significant association with the risk of development in co-dominant models and dominant models, but not in the recessive model. Subgroup analysis showed there was no statistically significant association of MnSOD polymorphisms with aggressive or nonaggressive prostate cancer in different genetic models. In addition, the data on four studies of esophageal cancer containing 620 cases and 909 controls showed a statistically significant association between MnSOD polymorphisms and risk in all comparison models. In contrast, the data on six studies of lung cancer with 3,375 cases and 4,050 controls showed that MnSOD polymorphisms were significantly associated with the decreased risk of lung cancer in the homozygote and dominant models, but not the heterozygote model. A subgroup analysis of the combination of MnSOD polymorphisms with tobacco smokers did not show any significant association with lung cancer risk, histological type, or clinical stage of lung cancer. The data from the current study indicated that the Ala allele MnSOD polymorphism is associated with increased risk of prostate and esophageal cancers, but with decreased risk of lung cancer. The underlying molecular mechanisms warrant further investigation.

Risk Assessment of Breast Cancer in Guangdong, China: A Community-based Survey

  • Lin, Ying;Shao, Nan;Zhang, Yun-Jian;Wu, Zhuang-Hong;Li, Zhi-Bin;Ren, Ze-Fang;Wang, Shen-Ming
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.6
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    • pp.2759-2763
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    • 2012
  • Objectives: Compared with Western countries, the incidence rates for breast cancer in China are still low. However, breast cancer appears to be hitting Chinese women at a much younger age, with a peak between 40 and 50 years. Furthermore, breast tumors of Asian women have molecular and genetic characteristics that are different from those of Caucasian women. Methods: A community-based study was designed to evaluate the relationship between lifestyles and breast cancer risk in Chinese women residing in Guangzhou. 16,314 subjects completed the questionnaire. Potential confounding factors included sociodemographic characteristics. Results: 33 individuals reported a history of breast cancer, yielding a prevalence rate of 202.3/100000. Associations between subjects' demographic and breast cancer risk factors were assessed. Breast cancer is associated with family history of breast cancer, X-rays received, benign breast disease and hyperlipoidemia or hypercholesteremia with elevated odds ratios. Conclusions: Family history of breast cancer, X-ray received benign breast disease and hyperlipoidemia or hypercholesteremia were significantly associated with risk of breast cancer and may havepotential for breast cancer risk assessment.

Risk Factors of Breast Cancer in Kyzylorda Oblast of Kazakhstan: a Case-Control Study

  • Toleutay, Ulpan;Reznik, Vitaly;Kalmatayeva, Zhanna;Smigelskas, Kastytis
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.10
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    • pp.5961-5964
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    • 2013
  • Background: Breast cancer in Kazakhstan and its Kyzylorda oblast is the most prevalent cancer in women and features increasing trends of incidence. The aim of study was to reveal risk factors for breast cancer among women of Kyzylorda oblast of Kazakhstan. Materials and Methods: A hospital-based case-control study was conducted at Kyzylorda oblast Oncology Center, including 114 cases of breast cancer and 196 controls. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed. Results: Social and behavioral risk factors for breast cancer were evaluated, among which unfavorable living conditions, chronic stress, unilateral breastfeeding, breastfeeding less than 3 months and over 2 years, abortions, and hereditary predisposition were found to be related with increased breast cancer risk. Breastfeeding for 6-24 months was found to be protective. Conclusions: The findings may have significant impact on activity planning aimed towards breast cancer reduction among women in Kazakhstan.

A Comparative Review of Radiation-induced Cancer Risk Models

  • Lee, Seunghee;Kim, Juyoul;Han, Seokjung
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.42 no.2
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    • pp.130-140
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    • 2017
  • Background: With the need for a domestic level 3 probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), it is essential to develop a Korea-specific code. Health effect assessments study radiation-induced impacts; in particular, long-term health effects are evaluated in terms of cancer risk. The objective of this study was to analyze the latest cancer risk models developed by foreign organizations and to compare the methodology of how they were developed. This paper also provides suggestions regarding the development of Korean cancer risk models. Materials and Methods: A review of cancer risk models was carried out targeting the latest models: the NUREG model (1993), the BEIR VII model (2006), the UNSCEAR model (2006), the ICRP 103 model (2007), and the U.S. EPA model (2011). The methodology of how each model was developed is explained, and the cancer sites, dose and dose rate effectiveness factor (DDREF) and mathematical models are also described in the sections presenting differences among the models. Results and Discussion: The NUREG model was developed by assuming that the risk was proportional to the risk coefficient and dose, while the BEIR VII, UNSCEAR, ICRP, and U.S. EPA models were derived from epidemiological data, principally from Japanese atomic bomb survivors. The risk coefficient does not consider individual characteristics, as the values were calculated in terms of population-averaged cancer risk per unit dose. However, the models derived by epidemiological data are a function of sex, exposure age, and attained age of the exposed individual. Moreover, the methodologies can be used to apply the latest epidemiological data. Therefore, methodologies using epidemiological data should be considered first for developing a Korean cancer risk model, and the cancer sites and DDREF should also be determined based on Korea-specific studies.

Beliefs and Intentions to Undergo Lung Cancer Screening among Korean Males

  • Bui, Nhung Cam;Lee, Yoon Young;Suh, Mina;Park, Boyoung;Cho, Hyunsoon;Kim, Yeol;Choi, Kui Son
    • Cancer Research and Treatment
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    • v.50 no.4
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    • pp.1096-1105
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    • 2018
  • Purpose Low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) has been reported as an effective screening method for lung cancer in high-risk populations. We aimed to examine willingness to be screened among Korean males using LDCT and to determine factors associated with lung cancer screening intentions (LCS) based on the Health Belief Model (HBM). Materials and Methods Data were obtained from the 2015 Korean National Cancer Screening Survey, a cross-sectional survey that utilized nationally representative random sampling. The survey included 1,730 male participants 40-74-year-old. Respondents were questioned regarding their willingness to undergo LCS and components of HBM. Factors associated with intentions to undergo screening were explored using logistic regression. Results Among participants, 65.2% were current smokers. Among high-risk subjects, 60.6% of men reported intentions to undergo LCS, compared to 49.9% of average-risk males. Men with higher perceived susceptibility in the average- and high-risk groups were, respectively, 1.63 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.39 to 1.91) and 2.30 (95% CI, 1.14 to 4.63) times more likely to intend to undergo LCS compared to those with lower perceived barriers. Also, men in the average- and high-risk groups with higher perceived barriers to screening were, respectively, 0.79 (95% CI, 0.68 to 0.91) and 0.52 (95% CI, 0.29 to 0.92) times less likely to intend to undergo LCS compared to those with lower perceived barriers. Conclusion Tailored interventions designed to promote accurate perceptions of susceptibility and risk, as well as to reduce perceived barriers to screening, may effectively increase adherence to recommendations for LCS among high-risk Korean men.

Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Women in Maldives Related to the Risk Factors, Prevention and Early Detection of Cervical Cancer

  • Basu, Partha;Hassan, Salma;Fileeshia, Fathmath;Mohamed, Sizna;Nahoodha, Aminath;Shiuna, Aminath;Sulaiman, Asma Ibrahim;Najeeb, Nazeera;Saleem, Fathmath Jeehan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.16
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    • pp.6691-6695
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    • 2014
  • Background: A population-based cervical cancer screening program using visual inspection with acetic acid was launched in Maldives in 2014. Our study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of women in relation to risk factors of cervical cancer, early detection of the disease and its prevention. Materials and Methods: The questionnaire based survey was conducted among 20 to 50 year old women, systematically sampled to represent three regions of Maldives. Trained investigators interviewed a total of 2,845 women at home. Results: The prevalence of the risk factors of cervical cancer like early age at marriage and childbirth, multiple marriages, multiple marriages of the husbands, and multiple pregnancies was high. More women knew about breast cancer than cervical cancer. Even among the small number of women who knew of cervical cancer, only 34.6% had the knowledge of at least one early symptom. Very few women knew that the cancer could be prevented by any test. Only 6.2% of the women reported having ever undergone a Pap smear. Many women had the misconception that cervical cancer was infectious. In Maldives the younger women have high literacy rate due to the policy of universal free education and those with higher levels of education had improved knowledge of cervical cancer and its risk factors. The prevalence of risk factors also reduced with improved literacy. Conclusions: Awareness about risk factors and prevention of cervical cancer is limited among Maldivian women in spite of having high exposure to some of the risk factors. A universal literacy program in the country has helped to improve the knowledge of cervical cancer prevention and to reduce the exposure to various risk factors in the younger population.

Associations of ERCC4 rs1800067 Polymorphism with Cancer Risk: an Updated Meta-analysis

  • Yuan, Quan;Liu, Jing-Wei;Xing, Cheng-Zhong;Yuan, Yuan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.18
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    • pp.7639-7644
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    • 2014
  • Background: Results from previous studies concerning the association of ERCC4 rs1800067 polymorphism with risk of cancer were inconsistent. To explore the exact relation with susceptibility, we conducted the present meta-analysis. Materials and Methods: Literature of electronic databases including PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, Wanfang and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) were systematically searched. ORs and their 95%CIs were used to assess the strength of associations between ERCC4 polymorphism and cancer risk. Results: There was no significant association between ERCC4 rs1800067 AA or AG genotypes and overall risk of cancer (AA vs. GG: OR=0.998, 95%CI=0.670-1.486, P=0.992; AG vs. GG: OR=0.970, 95%CI=0.888-1.061, P=0.508). A dominant genetic model also did not demonstrate significant association of (AA+AG) genotype carriers with altered risk of overall cancer (OR=0.985, 95%CI=0.909-1.068, P=0.719). In addition, no significant association was observed between A allele of ERCC4 rs1800067 A/G polymorphism and altered cancer risk compared with G allele (OR=0.952, 95%CI=0.851-1.063, P=0.381). Subgroup analysis suggested that AA genotype carriers were significantly associated with decreased risk of glioma compared with wild-type GG genotype individuals (OR=0.523, 95%CI=0.275-0.993, P=0.048). For subgroup of lung cancer, A allele of ERCC4 rs1800067 A/G polymorphism was significantly associated with decreased risk of lung cancer compared with G allele (OR=0.806, 95%CI=0.697-0.931, P=0.003). Conclusions: This meta-analysis indicated that ERCC4 rs1800067 A/G polymorphism might not be associated with risk of overall cancer. However, individuals with the AA genotype were associated with significantly reduced risk of glioma compared with wild-type GG genotype; The A allele was associated with significantly reduced risk of lung cancer compared with G allele. Future large-scale studies performed in multiple populations are warranted to confirm our results.