• Title/Summary/Keyword: cancer risk

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Association between nutrient intake and thyroid cancer risk in Korean women

  • Cho, Young Ae;Lee, Jeonghee;Kim, Jeongseon
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.336-341
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    • 2016
  • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The incidence of thyroid cancer has increased in many countries, including Korea. International differences in the incidence of thyroid cancer may indicate a role of diet, but findings from previous studies are inconclusive. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the roles of nutrients in thyroid cancer risk in Korean women. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We conducted a case-control study comprising 113 cases and 226 age-matched controls. Nutrient intake was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire, and the association between nutrient intake and thyroid cancer risk was estimated using a logistic regression model. RESULTS: We found that high calcium intake was associated with a reduced risk of thyroid cancer (OR [95% CI] = 0.55 [0.35-0.89]). Significant associations were observed among subjects who were older than 50 years, had low BMI, and had low calorie intake. However, other nutrients included in this study did not show any significant associations with thyroid cancer risk. CONCLUSION: This study suggested a possible protective effect of calcium on thyroid cancer risk. Well-designed prospective studies are required to confirm these findings.

Preventive and Risk Reduction Strategies for Women at High Risk of Developing Breast Cancer: a Review

  • Krishnamurthy, Arvind;Soundara, Viveka;Ramshankar, Vijayalakshmi
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.895-904
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    • 2016
  • Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed invasive cancer among women. Many factors, both genetic and non-genetic, determine a woman's risk of developing breast cancer and several breast cancer risk prediction models have been proposed. It is vitally important to risk stratify patients as there are now effective preventive strategies available. All women need to be counseled regarding healthy lifestyle recommendations to decrease breast cancer risk. As such, management of these women requires healthcare professionals to be familiar with additional risk factors so that timely recommendations can be made on surveillance/risk-reducing strategies. Breast cancer risk reduction strategies can be better understood by encouraging the women at risk to participate in clinical trials to test new strategies for decreasing the risk. This article reviews the advances in the identification of women at high risk of developing breast cancer and also reviews the strategies available for breast cancer prevention.

Association of mir-499 and mir-149 Polymorphisms with Cancer Risk in the Chinese Population: Evidence from Published Studies

  • Zhang, You-Gai;Shi, Jian-Xiang;Song, Chun-Hua;Wang, Peng;Dai, Li-Ping;Zhang, Jian-Ying;Shi, Jia-Chen
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.2337-2342
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    • 2013
  • Meta-analyses have shown that microRNA polymorphisms have variable effects in different population. Yet, no meta-analysis investigated the association of two common polymorphisms of miRNA, mir-499 rs3746444 polymorphism and mir-149 rs2292832 polymorphism, with cancer risk in the Chinese population. We searched the PubMed, Web of Knowledge, MEDLINE, CNKI databases, as well as Cochrane library, updated on December 31, 2012 for assays regarding cancer risk association with these two common polymorphisms in the present meta-analysis. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were used to explore the strength of associations. The results showed that rs3746444 polymorphism was associated with increased cancer risk (dominant model: GG/AG vs. AA: OR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.14-1.80; recessive model: GG vs. AG/AA: OR = 1.54, 95% CI: 1.04-2.30; homozygote model: GG vs. AA: OR = 1.69, 95% CI: 1.10-2.60; heterozygote model: AG vs. AA: OR = 1. 35, 95% CI: 1.09-1.67), and rs3746444 was associated with liver cancer in the subgroup of cancer types. For the rs2292832 polymorphism, the results showed no significant risk association in both overall pooled analysis and subgroup of cancer types, smoking status, gender and tea drinking status in the Chinese population. This meta-analysis suggested that the rs3746444 GG genotype is associated with increased cancer risk, especially liver cancer, while the rs2292832 polymorphism showed no association with cancer risk in Chinese.

Projected lifetime cancer risk from cone-beam computed tomography for orthodontic treatment

  • Jha, Nayansi;Kim, Yoon-Ji;Lee, Youngjun;Lee, Ju Young;Lee, Won Jin;Sung, Sang-Jin
    • The korean journal of orthodontics
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    • v.51 no.3
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    • pp.189-198
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    • 2021
  • Objective: To estimate the projected cancer risk attributable to diagnostic cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) performed under different exposure settings for orthodontic purposes in children and adults. Methods: We collected a list of CBCT machines and their specifications from 38 orthodontists. Organ doses were estimated using median and maximum exposure settings of 105 kVp/156.8 mAs and 130 kVp/200 mAs, respectively. The projected cancer risk attributable to CBCT procedures performed 1-3 times within 2 years was calculated for children (aged 5 and 10 years) and adult (aged 20, 30, and 40 years) male and female patients. Results: For maximum exposure settings, the mean lifetime fractional ratio (LFR) was 14.28% for children and 0.91% for adults; this indicated that the risk to children was 16 times the risk to adults. For median exposure settings, the mean LFR was 5.25% and 0.58% for children and adults, respectively. The risk of cancer decreased with increasing age. For both median and maximum exposure settings, females showed a higher risk of cancer than did males in all age groups. Cancer risk increased with an increase in the frequency of CBCT procedures within a given period. Conclusions: The projected dental CBCT-associated cancer risk spans over a wide range depending on the machine parameters and image acquisition settings. Children and female patients are at a higher risk of developing cancer associated with diagnostic CBCT. Therefore, the use of diagnostic CBCT should be justified, and protective measures should be taken to minimize the harmful biological effects of radiation.

Association between the XRCC3 Thr241Met Polymorphism and Breast Cancer Risk: an Updated Meta-analysis of 36 Case-control Studies

  • Mao, Chang-Fei;Qian, Wen-Yi;Wu, Jian-Zhong;Sun, Da-Wei;Tang, Jin-Hai
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.16
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    • pp.6613-6618
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    • 2014
  • Background: The X-ray repair cross-complementing group 3 (XRCC3) is a highly suspected candidate gene for cancer susceptibility. Attention has been drawn upon associations of the XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphism with breast cancer risk. However, the previous published findings remain controversial. Hence, we performed a meta-analysis to accurately evaluate any association between breast cancer and XRCC3 T241M (23, 812 cases and 25, 349 controls) in different inheritance models. Materials and Methods: PubMed and Web of Science databases were searched systematically until December 31, 2013 to obtain all the records evaluating the association between the XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphism and breast cancer risk. Crude odds ratios (ORs) together with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the strength of associations. Results: When all eligible studies were pooled into the meta analysis of XRCC3 T241M polymorphism, a significantly increased breast cancer risk was observed in heterozygote comparison (OR=1.06, 95%CI=1.01-1.12). No significant associations were found in other models. In subgroup analysis, this polymorphism seemed to be associated with elevated breast risk in Asians. No publication bias was detected. Conclusions: This meta-analysis suggests that the T241M polymorphism confers a weakly increased breast cancer risk. A study with the larger sample size is needed to further evaluate gene-gene and gene-environment interactions of the XRCC3 T241M polymorphism with breast cancer risk.

A Study of Variables related to Breast Self-examination Practice in Adult Women (일 지역 여성의 유방자기검진(BSE)과 관련 변인에 관한 연구)

  • Choi, Yeon-Hee
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Community Health Nursing
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.89-101
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    • 1997
  • Breast cancer ranks as one of the major health problems in adult women. The purpose of this study is to determine relationships among the practice of Breast Self-Examination(BSE) and the variables of cancer risk and other genernal factors. This knowledge may be helpful in designing a BSE educational program to promote breast self-examination on a regular basis. The study population included 205 women who live in K city. Personal interviews were conducted to determine the individual's breast self-examination behavior, the level of Breast Cancer Risk according to general factors as well as her reasons for not doing a breast self-examination. The collected data was analyzed with an SAS program The results were summarized as follows : 1. The level of Breast Cancer Risk of the subjects is as follows: high risk(9%), moderate risk(11%), boderline risk(12%), no increased risk (68%). 2. There was no difference in the practice of BSE between women who were at high cancer risk and at no increased cancer risk. 3. BSE practice levels according to general foctors were significantly related to the residence and the level of education of the subjects. The performing of regular breast self-examination in urban areas was 7% and in rural areas was 0%. Regularly practiced breast self-examination in women with a low education was 5% and in college educated women, it was 29%. 4. BSE education was significantly related to the residence and the level of education of the subjects. The majority learned BSE through 'a magazine or journal'. 5. The reason of the majority of women did not perform a regular breast self-examination was, 'Didn't know the BSE technique'. On the basis of this study it can be concluded that the development of a BSE education program is needed to help women perform the examination correctly.

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Association between the DICER rs1057035 Polymorphism and Cancer Risk: Evidence from a Meta-analysis of 1,2675 Individuals

  • Yu, Yan-Yan;Kuang, Dan;Yin, Xiao-Xv
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.119-124
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    • 2015
  • Background: DICER, one of the microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis proteins, is involved in the maturation of miRNAs and is implicated in cancer development and progression. The results from previous epidemiological studies on associations between DICER rs1057035 polymorphism and cancer risk were inconsistent. Thereforewe performed this meta-analysis to summarize possible associations. Materials and Methods: We searched all relevant articles on associations between DICER rs1057035 polymorphism and cancer risk from PubMed, EMBASE, Chinese Biomedical Literature and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure until August 2014. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to assess any associations. Heterogeneity tests, sensitivity analyses and publication bias assessments were also performed in this meta-analysis. All analyses were conducted using STATA software. Results: Seven case-control studies, including 4,875 cancer cases and 7,800 controls were included in the meta-analysis. Overall, the results indicated that the C allele of DICER rs1057035 polymorphism was significantly associated with decreased cancer risk in allelic comparison, heterozygote and dominant genetic models (C vs T: OR=0.88, 95%CI 0.81-0.95, p=0.002; TC vs TT: OR=0.85, 95%CI 0.77-0.93, p=0.001; CC/TC vs TT: OR=0.86, 95%CI 0.78-0.94, p=0.001). In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, a significantly decreased cancer risk was found in Asian but not Caucasian populations. Conclusions: The present meta-analysis suggests that the C allele of the DICER rs1057035 polymorphism probably decreases cancer risk. However, this association may be Asian-specific and the results should be treated with caution. Further well-designed studies based on larger sample sizes and group of populations are needed to validate these findings.

2R of Thymidylate Synthase 5'-untranslated Enhanced Region Contributes to Gastric Cancer Risk: a Meta-analysis

  • Yang, Zhen;Liu, Hong-Xiang;Zhang, Xie-Fu
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.5
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    • pp.1923-1927
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    • 2012
  • Background: Studies investigating the association between 2R/3R polymorphisms in the thymidylate synthase 5'-untranslated enhanced region (TYMS 5'-UTR) and gastric cancer risk have generated conflicting results. Thus, a meta-analysis was performed to summarize the data on any association. Methods: Pubmed, Embase, and CNKI databases were searched for all available studies. The strength of association between TYMS 5'-UTR 2R/3R polymorphism and gastric cancer risk was estimated by odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: Six individual case-control studies with a total of 1, 472 cases and 1, 895 controls were included into this meta-analysis. Analyses of total six relevant studies showed that there was no obvious association between the TYMS 5'-UTR 2R/3R polymorphism and gastric cancer risk. Subgroup analyses based on ethnicity showed 2R of TYMS 5'-UTR 2R/3R contributes to gastric cancer risk in the Asian population ($OR_{Homozygote\;model}$ = 1.71, 95%CI 1.19-2.46, P = 0.004; $OR_{Recessive\;genetic\;model}$ = 1.70, 95%CI 1.18-2.43, P = 0.004). However, the association in Caucasian populations was uncertain due to the limited studies. Conclusions: Our meta-analysis suggests that 2R of TYMS 5'-UTR 2R/3R contributes to gastric cancer risk in the Asian population, while this association in Caucasians populations needs further study.

Updated Assessment of the Association of the XRCC1 Arg399Gln Polymorphism with Lung Cancer Risk in the Chinese Population

  • Yang, Hai-Yan;Yang, Si-Yu;Shao, Fu-Ye;Wang, Hai-Yu;Wang, Ya-Dong
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.495-500
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    • 2015
  • Background: Published studies have reported relationships between X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1) Arg399Gln polymorphism and lung cancer risk in Chinese population. However, the epidemiological results remained controversial. The objective of this study was to clarify the association of XRCC1 Arg399Gln polymorphism with lung cancer risk in the Chinese population. Materials and Methods: Systematic searches were performed through the database of Medline/Pubmed, Web of Science, Embase, CNKI and WanFang Medical Online. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence interval (95%CI) were calculated to estimate the strength of the association. Results: Overall, we observed an increased lung cancer risk among subjects carrying XRCC1 codon 399 Gln/Gln genotype (OR=1.36, 95%CI: 1.09-1.71) in the Chinese population on the basis of 19 studies with 5,416 cases and 5,782 controls. We did not observe any association between XRCC1 codon 399 Arg/Gln and Arg/Gln+Gln/Gln polymorphisms and lung cancer risk (OR=1.00, 95%CI: 0.92-1.08 and OR=1.05, 95%CI: 0.97-1.13, respectively). Limiting the analysis to studies with controls in agreement with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE), we observed an increased lung cancer risk among subjects carrying XRCC1 codon 399 Gln/Gln genotype (OR=1.18, 95%CI: 1.01-1.38). When stratified by source of control, we observed an increased lung cancer risk among subjects carrying XRCC1 codon 399 Arg/Gln+Gln/Gln genotype on the basis of hospitalized patient-based controls (OR=1.21, 95%CI: 1.04-1.42) and among subjects carrying XRCC1 codon 399 Gln/Gln genotype on the basis of healthy subject-based controls (OR=1.22, 95%CI: 1.04-1.43). Conclusions: Our findings indicated that certain XRCC1 Arg399Gln variants might affect the susceptibility of lung cancer in Chinese population. Larger sample size studies are required to confirm our findings.

Meta Analysis of Association of the IL-17F rs763780T>C Gene Polymorphism with Cancer Risk

  • Chen, Xiang-Jun;Zhou, Tao-You;Chen, Min;Pu, Dan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.19
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    • pp.8083-8087
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: To investigate the association of IL-17F rs763780T>C with cancer risk. Materials and Methods: We searched the Cochrane Central Library, PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CNKI (China National Knowledge Infrastructure) and WangFang databases until May 2014 for a meta-analysis conducted using RevMan 5.2 software. Results: A total of ten papers were included into this meta analysis, involving 3, 336 cases and 4, 217 healthy people. There were no significant differences on association of IL-17F rs763780T>C polymorphism with cancer risk except in the CC vs TT genetic model. Although the the risk in the gastric cancer group is higher than that in control group, there were no significant differences on the association of IL-17F rs763780T>C polymorphism with other cancers. Conclusions: Our meta analysis reveal the IL-17A rs763780T>C gene polymorphism is involved in risk of gastric cancer but not other tumor types.