• Title, Summary, Keyword: cancer risk

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Preventive and Risk Reduction Strategies for Women at High Risk of Developing Breast Cancer: a Review

  • Krishnamurthy, Arvind;Soundara, Viveka;Ramshankar, Vijayalakshmi
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.895-904
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    • 2016
  • Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed invasive cancer among women. Many factors, both genetic and non-genetic, determine a woman's risk of developing breast cancer and several breast cancer risk prediction models have been proposed. It is vitally important to risk stratify patients as there are now effective preventive strategies available. All women need to be counseled regarding healthy lifestyle recommendations to decrease breast cancer risk. As such, management of these women requires healthcare professionals to be familiar with additional risk factors so that timely recommendations can be made on surveillance/risk-reducing strategies. Breast cancer risk reduction strategies can be better understood by encouraging the women at risk to participate in clinical trials to test new strategies for decreasing the risk. This article reviews the advances in the identification of women at high risk of developing breast cancer and also reviews the strategies available for breast cancer prevention.

Psychological Impact of Health Risk Appraisal of Korean Women at Different Levels of Breast Cancer Risk: Neglected Aspect of the Web-based Cancer Risk Assessment Tool

  • Kye, Su-Yeon;Park, Kee-Ho;Park, Hyeong-Geun;Kim, Myung-Hyun
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.437-441
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    • 2012
  • Objective: Health risk appraisal is often utilized to modify individual's health behavior, especially concerning disease prevention, and web-based health risk appraisal services are being provided to the general public in Korea. However, little is known about the psychological effect of the health risk appraisal even though poorly communicated information by the web-based service may result in unintended adverse health outcomes. This study was conducted to explore the psychological effect of health risk appraisal using epidemiological risk factor profile. Methods: We conducted a randomized trial comparing risk factor list type health risk appraisal and risk score type health risk appraisal. We studied 60 women aged 30 years and older who had no cancer. Anxiety level was assessed using the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory YZ. Results: The results of multivariate analysis showed that risk status was the independent predictors of increase of state anxiety after health risk appraisal intervention when age, education, health risk appraisal type, numeracy, state anxiety, trait anxiety, and health risk appraisal type by risk status interaction was adjusted. Women who had higher risk status had an odd of having increased anxiety that was about 5 times greater than women who had lower risk status. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that communicating the risk status by individual health risk appraisal service can induce psychological sequelae, especially in women having higher risk status. Hospitals, institutes, or medical schools that are operating or planning to operate the online health risk appraisal service should take side effects such as psychological sequelae into consideration.

Compliance with Screening Recommendations According to Breast Cancer Risk Levels in Izmir, Turkey

  • Acikgoz, Ayla;Ergor, Gul
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.1737-1742
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    • 2013
  • Early diagnosis has a major role in improving prognosis of breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to assess the risk status of women 35-69 years of age using risk assessment models and the prevalence of mammography in a community setting. The sample of this cross sectional study consisted of 227 women, 35-69 years of age residing in Izmir, a city located in western region of Turkey. A questionnaire was used to collect data and the Gail and Cuzick-Tyrer models were applied to assess the risk of breast cancer. In this study, 52.7% of women had mammography at least once, and 41.3% of the women over the age of 40 had mammography screening in the last two years. The five years risk for breast cancer was high in 15.8% of women according to the Gail model and ten years risk was high in 21.7% with the Cuzick-Tyrer model. In the present study, the breast cancer risk levels were assessed in a population setting for the first time in Turkey using breast cancer risk level assessment models. Being in 60-69 age group, having low education and not being in menopause were significant risk factors for not having mammography according to logistic regression analysis. Mammography utilization rate was low. Women must be educated about breast cancer screening methods and early diagnosis. The women in the high risk group should be informed on their risk status which may increase their attendance at breast cancer screening.

Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Using the Gail Model: a Turkish Study

  • Erbil, Nulufer;Dundar, Nursel;Inan, Cigdem;Bolukbas, Nurgul
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.303-306
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    • 2015
  • Purpose: This study was conducted to determine risk of developing of breast cancer among Turkish women. Materials and Methods: Using a descriptive and cross-sectional approach, data were collected from 231 women. Breast cancer risk was calculated using the National Cancer Institute's on-line verson of called as the Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool or the Gail Risk Assesment Tool. Results: The average age of women was $45.0{\pm}8.06$ years. It was revealed that 6.1% of participants reported having first degree relatives who had had breast cancer, with only four women having more than one first-degree relative affected (1.7%). The mean five-year breast cancer risk for all women was $0.88{\pm}0.91%$, and 7.4% of women had a five-year breast cancer risk >1.66% in this study. Mean lifetime breast cancer risk up to age 90 years was $9.3{\pm}5.2%$. Conclusions: The breast cancer risk assessment tool can help in the clinical management of patient seeking advice concerning screening and prevention. Healthcare providers in Turkey can use this approach to estimate an individual's probability of developing breast cancer.

Impact of Perceived Cancer Risk on the Cancer Screening Rate in the General Korean Population: Results from the Korean Health Panel Survey Data

  • Kim, Jae-Hyun;Park, Eun-Cheol;Yoo, Ki-Bong
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.23
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    • pp.10525-10529
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    • 2015
  • Objective: To investigate the relationship between the perception of cancer risk and likelihood of having undergone cancer screening. Materials and Methods: We used data from the Korean Health Panel Survey from December 2011 onward. Of 3,390 patients who visited a hospital during the previous year, we included data from 2,466 individuals; 924 samples were excluded due to missing data. Logistic regression analysis and the chi square test were used to investigate the association between perceived cancer risk and the likelihood of having undergone cancer screening. Results: For patients who perceived their risk of developing cancer during the next 10 years to be 30-40%, the odds ratio was increased 1.65 fold (95%CI: 1.223, 2.234) compared with those who perceived their risk to be almost zero. Although the difference was not statistically significant, perceiving cancer risk as either extremely low or extremely high appears to be associated with a reduced likelihood of having undergone cancer screening, resulting in an inverted U-shaped relationship. Conclusions: Physicians and researchers should be aware of the importance of the affective component of risk perception. Policies addressing the influence of cancer risk perception should be implemented in South Korea and worldwide.

Risk Factors for Thyroid Cancer: A Hospital-Based Case-Control Study in Korean Adults

  • Myung, Seung-Kwon;Lee, Chan Wha;Lee, Jeonghee;Kim, Jeongseon;Kim, Hyeon Suk
    • Cancer Research and Treatment
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    • v.49 no.1
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    • pp.70-78
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    • 2017
  • Purpose Although the incidence of thyroid cancer in Korea has rapidly increased over the past decade, few studies have investigated its risk factors. This study examined the risk factors for thyroid cancer in Korean adults. Materials and Methods The study design was a hospital-based case-control study. Between August 2002 and December 2011, a total of 802 thyroid cancer cases out of 34,211 patients screened from the Cancer Screenee. Cohort of the National Cancer Center in South Korea were included in the analysis. A total of 802 control cases were selected from the same cohort, and matched individually (1:1) by age (${\pm}2years$) and area of residence for control group 1 and additionally by sex for control group 2. Results Multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis using the control group 1 showed that females and those with a family history of thyroid cancer had an increased risk of thyroid cancer, whereas ever-smokers and those with a higher monthly household income had a decreased risk of thyroid cancer. On the other hand, the analysis using control group 2 showed that a family history of cancer and alcohol consumption were associated with a decreased risk of thyroid cancer, whereas higher body mass index (BMI) and family history of thyroid cancer were associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer. Conclusion These findings suggest that females, those with a family history of thyroid cancer, those with a higher BMI, non-smokers, non-drinkers, and those with a lower monthly household income have an increased risk of developing thyroid cancer.

Cancer Risk Factors in Korean News Media: a Content Analysis

  • Kye, Su Yeon;Kwon, Jeong Hyun;Kim, Yong-Chan;Shim, Minsun;Kim, Jee Hyun;Cho, Hyunsoon;Jung, Kyu Won;Park, Keeho
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.731-736
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    • 2015
  • Background: Little is known about the news coverage of cancer risk factors in Korea. This study aimed to examine how the news media encompasses a wide array of content regarding cancer risk factors and related cancer sites, and investigate whether news coverage of cancer risk factors is congruent with the actual prevalence of the disease. Materials and Methods: A content analysis was conducted on 1,138 news stories covered during a 5-year period between 2008 and 2012. The news stories were selected from nationally representative media in Korea. Information was collected about cancer risk factors and cancer sites. Results: Of various cancer risk factors, occupational and environmental exposures appeared most frequently in the news. Breast cancer was mentioned the most in relation to cancer sites. Breast, cervical, prostate, and skin cancer were overrepresented in the media in comparison to incidence and mortality cases, whereas lung, thyroid, liver, and stomach cancer were underrepresented. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this research is the first investigation dealing with news coverage about cancer risk factors in Korea. The study findings show occupational and environmental exposures are emphasized more than personal lifestyle factors; further, more prevalent cancers in developed countries have greater media coverage, not reflecting the realities of the disease. The findings may help health journalists and other health storytellers to develop effective ways to communicate cancer risk factors.

Cigarette Smoking and Pancreatic Cancer Risk: A Revisit with an Assessment of the Nicotine Dependence Phenotype

  • Nakao, Makoto;Hosono, Satoyo;Ito, Hidemi;Oze, Isao;Watanabe, Miki;Mizuno, Nobumasa;Yatabe, Yasushi;Yamao, Kenji;Niimi, Akio;Tajima, Kazuo;Tanaka, Hideo;Matsuo, Keitaro
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.7
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    • pp.4409-4413
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    • 2013
  • Background: Cigarette smoking is a well-established risk factor of pancreatic cancer (PC). Although an association between nicotine dependence phenotype, namely time to first cigarette (TTFC) after waking, and the risk of several smoking-related cancers has been reported, an association between TTFC and PC risk has not been reported. We assessed the impact of smoking behavior, particularly TTFC, on PC risk in a Japanese population. Materials and Methods: We conducted a case-control study using 341 PC and 1,705 non-cancer patients who visited Aichi Cancer Center in Nagoya, Japan. Exposure to risk factors, including smoking behavior, was assessed from the results of a self-administered questionnaire. The impact of smoking on PC risk was assessed with multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for potential confounders to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: Cigarettes per day (CPD) and/or smoking duration were significantly associated with PC risk, consistent with previous studies. For TTFC and PC risk, we found only a suggestive association: compared with a TTFC of more than 60 minutes, ORs were 1.15 (95%CI, 0.65-2.04) for a TTFC of 30-60 minutes and 1.35 (95%CI, 0.85-2.15) for that of 0-30 minutes (p trend=0.139). After adjustment for CPD or smoking duration, no association was observed between TTFC and PC. Conclusions: In this study, we found no statistically significant association between TTFC and PC risk. Further studies concerning TTFC and PC risk are warranted.

Study on Theoretical Models of Regional Humanity Lung Cancer Hazards Assessment

  • Zhang, Chuan;Gao, Xing
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.5
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    • pp.1759-1764
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    • 2015
  • Purpose: To establish the concept of lung cancer hazard assessment theoretical models, evaluating the degree of lung cancer risk of Beijing for regional population lung cancer hazard assessment to provide a basis for technical support. Materials and Methods: ISO standards were used to classify stratified analysis for the entire population, life cycle, processes and socioeconomic management. Associated risk factors were evaluated as lung cancer hazard risk assessment first class indicators. Study design: Using the above materials, indicators were given the weight coefficients, building lung cancer risk assessment theoretical models. Regional data for Beijing were entered into the theoretical model to calculate the parameters of each indicator and evaluate the degree of local lung cancer risk. Results: Adopting the concept of lung cancer hazard assessment and theoretical models for regional populations, we established a lung cancer hazard risk assessment system, including 2 first indicators, 8 secondary indicators and 18 third indicators. All indicators were given weight coefficients and used as information sources. Score of hazard for lung cancer was 84.4 in Beijing. Conclusions: Comprehensively and systematically building a lung cancer risk assessment theoretical model for regional populations in conceivable, evaluating the degree of lung cancer risk of Beijing, providing technical support and scientific basis for interventions for prevention.

Relationships between Knowledge about Early Detection, Cancer Risk Perception and Cancer Screening Tests in the General Public Aged 40 and Over (암 조기발견 지식.암발생 위험성 지각과 암 조기검진 수검 여부와의 관계: 40세 이상 일반인 대상으로)

  • Yang, Young-Hee
    • Asian Oncology Nursing
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.52-60
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    • 2012
  • Purpose: This study is to determine knowledge about early detection and risk perception of cancer according to taking cancer screening tests in the general population. Methods: The participants were 151 people aged 40 years or older. A questionnaire consisted of knowledge about early detection (warning signs, cancer screening methods, general knowledge for early detection), cancer risk perception and history of cancer screening during past 2 years. Results: The percentages of correct answers were 64.7% in knowledge about warning signs, 73.7% in knowledge of cancer screening tests and 80.1% in general knowledge for early detection. Participants had the highest knowledge about screening methods for stomach cancer and the lowest for liver and colon cancer. The level of risk perception was medium. The participants who participated in cancer screening showed lower risk perception than those who did not. There was no significant relationship between knowledge and performance of cancer screening. The primary reason for not participating in cancer screening was patient's perception of their own health. Conclusion: These results suggest that cancer risk perception can affect the performance of cancer screening and we need to study how to handle this problem. Additionally screening programs should focus on liver cancer and colon cancer.