• Title, Summary, Keyword: cancer prevention

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Colorectal Cancer Concealment Predicts a Poor Survival: A Retrospective Study

  • Li, Xiao-Pan;Xie, Zhen-Yu;Fu, Yi-Fei;Yang, Chen;Hao, Li-Peng;Yang, Li-Ming;Zhang, Mei-Yu;Li, Xiao-Li;Feng, Li-Li;Yan, Bei;Sun, Qiao
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.7
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    • pp.4157-4160
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    • 2013
  • Objectives: Understanding the situation of cancer awareness which doctors give to patients might lead to prognostic prediction in cases of of colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods: Subsets of 10,779 CRC patients were used to screen the risk factors from the Cancer Registry in Pudong New Area in cancer awareness, age, TNM stage, and gender. Survival of the patients was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method and assessed by Cox regression analysis. The views of cancer awareness in doctors and patients were surveyed by telephone or household. Results: After a median observation time of 1,616 days (ranging from 0 to 4,083 days) of 10,779 available patients, 2,596 of the 4,561 patients with cancer awareness survived, whereas 2,258 of the 5,469 patients without cancer awareness and 406 of the 749 patients without information on cancer awareness died of the disease. All-cause and cancer-specific survival were poorer for the patients without cancer awareness than those with (P < 0.001 for each, log-rank test). Cox multivariate regression analysis showed that cancer concealment cases had significantly lower cancer-specific survival (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.299; 95 % confidence interval (CI): 1.200-1.407)and all-cause survival (HR = 1.324; 95 % CI: 1.227-1.428). Furthermore, attitudes of cancer awareness between doctors and patients were significantly different (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Cancer concealment, not only late-stage tumor and age, is associated with a poor survival of CRC patients.

Analysis of Cancer Incidence in Zhejiang Cancer Registry in China during 2000 to 2009

  • Du, Ling-Bin;Li, Hui-Zhang;Wang, Xiang-Hui;Zhu, Chen;Liu, Qing-Min;Li, Qi-Long;Li, Xue-Qin;Shen, Yong-Zhou;Zhang, Xin-Pei;Ying, Jiang-Wei;Yu, Chuan-Ding;Mao, Wei-Min
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.14
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    • pp.5839-5843
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    • 2014
  • Objective: The Zhejiang Provincial Cancer Prevention and Control Office collected cancer registration data during 2000 to 2009 from 6 cancer registries in Zhejiang province of China in order to analyze the cancer incidence. Methods: Descriptive analysis included cancer incidence stratified by sex, age and cancer site group. The proportions and cumulative rates of 10 common cancers in different groups were also calculated. Chinese population census in 1982 and Segi's population were used for calculating age-standardized incidence rates. The log-linear model was used for fitting to calculate the incidence trends. Results: The 6 cancer registries in Zhejiang province in China covered a total of 60,087,888 person-years during 2000 to 2009 (males 30,445,904, females 29,641,984). The total number of new cancer cases were 163,104 (males 92,982, females 70,122). The morphology verified cases accounted for 69.7%, and the new cases verified only by information from death certification accounted for 1.23%. The crude incidence rate in Zhejiang cancer registration areas was $271.5/10^5$ during 2000 to 2009 (male $305.41/10^5$, female $236.58/10^5$), age-standardized incidence rates by Chinese standard population (ASIRC) and by world standard population (ASIRW) were $147.1/10^5$ and $188.2/10^5$, the cumulative incidence rate (aged from 0 to 74) being 21.7%. The crude incidence rate was $209.6/10^5$ in 2000, and it increased to $320.20/10^5$ in 2009 (52.8%), with an annual percent change (APC) of 4.51% (95% confidence interval, 3.25%-5.79%). Age-specific incidence rate of 80-84 age group was achieved at the highest point of the incidence curve. Overall with different age groups, the cancer incidences differed, the incidence of liver cancer being highest in 15-44 age group in males; the incidence of breast cancer was the highest in 15-64 age group in females; the incidences of lung cancer were the highest in both males and females over the age of 65 years. Conclusions: Lung cancer, digestive system malignancies and breast cancer are the most common cancers in Zhejiang province in China requiring an especial focus. The incidences of thyroid cancer, prostate cancer, cervical cancer and lymphoma have increased rapidly. Prevention and control measures should be implemented for these cancers.

Effects of a Cancer Prevention Advertisement on Beliefs and Knowledge about Cancer Prevention

  • Kye, Su Yeon;Yoo, Jisu;Lee, Min Hee;Jun, Jae Kwan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.14
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    • pp.5793-5800
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    • 2015
  • Background: Outcome-expectation beliefs and knowledge may ultimately influence behavior for cancer prevention. The aims of this study were to measure changes in knowledge and beliefs about cancer prevention before and after viewing a television advertisement and identify the factors affecting receptivity to its messages. Materials and Methods: A one-group pretest-posttest design was used in this study of 1,000 individuals aged 20 to 65 years who were recruited online in November 2014. The outcome variables included cancer prevention beliefs based on the Health Belief Model (five items) and knowledge about risk factors for cancer (seven items). Results: Perceived susceptibility, perceived benefits, and self-efficacy increased significantly and their perceived severity and perceived barriers decreased significantly, after participants viewed the television advertisement. Correct responses to questions about risk factors also increased significantly, except for smoking. The main factors affecting changes in the outcome variables were age, interest in cancer prevention, social network, satisfaction with the ad, and pretest scores. Conclusions: Television advertisements with positive frameworks can be an efficient channel of improving beliefs and knowledge about cancer prevention in a short period. The continuous development of intervention materials that consider the demographics, needs, and satisfaction of the target group will be necessary for future studies.

Significance of Thrombocytosis in Clinicopathologic Characteristics and Prognosis of Gastric Cancer

  • Li, Fang-Xuan;Wei, Li-Juan;Zhang, Huan;Li, Shi-Xia;Liu, Jun-Tian
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.16
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    • pp.6511-6517
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: We aimed to study the relationship between thrombocytosis and clinical features of gastric cancerfocussing on platelet counts and gastric cancer progression through different TNM stages. Methods: According to the normal range of platelet count in our institution, 1,596 patients were divided to two groups: a thrombocytosis group (120 patients, > $400{\times}1000/{\mu}L$) and a control group (1,476 patients, ${\leq}400{\times}1000/{\mu}L$). Results: The incidence of thrombocytosis was 7.5%. Higher platelet counts were observed in patients with older age, larger tumor size, deeper invasion, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis and advanced TNM stage. In multivariate logistic regression, tumor size, depth of tumor invasion, lymph node metastasis and TNM stage were independent risk factors for thrombocytosis of gastric cancer patients. On prognostic analysis, age, tumor size, tumor location, histologic type, depth of tumor invasion, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis and TNM stage and platelet count were important factors. Tumor size, invasion depth, lymph node metastasis, TNM stage and the platelet count were independent prognostic factors. Conclusion: Thrombocytosis is associated with clinical features of gastric cancer patients and correlates with a poor prognosis.

Correlation Between Mammograghic Findings and Clinical/Pathologic Features in Women with Small Invasive Breast Carcinomas

  • Li, Jun-Nan;Xu, Jing;Wang, Ju;Qing, Chun;Zhao, Yu-Mei;Liu, Pei-Fang
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.24
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    • pp.10643-10646
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    • 2015
  • Background: To study the relationship between mammographic findings and clinical/pathologic features in women with 1-15mm sized invasive breast cancer. Materials and Methods: We investigated a consecutive series of 134 cases diagnosed in Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital in 2007. Mammographic findings were classified into five groups as follows :1) stellate mass without calcification; 2) non-stellate mass without calcification; 3) intermediate suspicious calcification with or without associated mass; 4) higher probability malignant calcification with or without associated mass; 5) focal asymmetry/distortion without associated calcification. Associations between mammographic and clinical/pathological features (menopause status/family history/histologic grade/lymph node status and ER/PR/HER2 status) was analyzed through logistic regression and chi square tests. Results: Compared to the stellate mass without calcification group, higher probability malignant calcification patients were associated significantly with a positive lymph node status, always presenting in patients who were non-menopausal and with a family history of carcinoma. Conclusions: Higher probability malignant calcifications with or without associated tumor masses are associated with clinical/pathologic features of poor prognosis.

HPV Vaccination for Cervical Cancer Prevention is not Cost-Effective in Japan

  • Isshiki, Takahiro
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.15
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    • pp.6177-6180
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    • 2014
  • Background: Our study objectives were to evaluate the medical economics of cervical cancer prevention and thereby contribute to cancer care policy decisions in Japan. Methods: Model creation: we created presence-absence models for prevention by designating human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination for primary prevention of cervical cancer. Cost classification and cost estimates: we divided the costs of cancer care into seven categories (prevention, mass-screening, curative treatment, palliative care, indirect, non-medical, and psychosocial cost) and estimated costs for each model. Cost-benefit analyses: we performed cost-benefit analyses for Japan as a whole. Results: HPV vaccination was estimated to cost $291.5 million, cervical cancer screening $76.0 million and curative treatment $12.0 million. The loss due to death was $251.0 million and the net benefit was -$128.5 million (negative). Conclusion: Cervical cancer prevention was not found to be cost-effective in Japan. While few cost-benefit analyses have been reported in the field of cancer care, these would be essential for Japanese policy determination.

Tea Consumption, Alcohol Drinking and Physical Activity Associations with Breast Cancer Risk among Chinese Females: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

  • Gao, Ying;Huang, Yu-Bei;Liu, Xue-Ou;Chen, Chuan;Dai, Hong-Ji;Song, Feng-Ju;Wang, Jing;Chen, Ke-Xin;Wang, Yao-Gang
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.12
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    • pp.7543-7550
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    • 2013
  • Objective: To evaluate associations between tea consumption, alcohol drinking and physical activity and breast cancer risk among Chinese females. Methods: Three English databases (PubMed, ScienceDirect and Wiley) and three Chinese databases (CNKI, WanFang and VIP) were independently searched by 2 reviewers up to December 2012, complemented by manual searches. The quality of included studies was assessed with the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale items. Random-effects models were used to estimate the pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Potential publication bias was estimated through Egger's and Begg's tests. Heterogeneity between studies was evaluated with $I^2$ statistics. Results: Thirty-nine studies involving 13,204 breast cancer cases and 87,248 controls were identified. Compared with non-drinkers, regular tea drinkers had decreased risk (OR=0.79, 95%CIs: 0.65-0.95; $I^2$=84.9%; N=16). An inverse association was also found between regular physical activity and breast cancer risk (OR=0.73, 95%CIs: 0.63-0.85; $I^2$=77.3%; N=15). However, there was no significant association between alcohol drinking and breast cancer risk (OR=0.85, 95%CIs: 0.72-1.02; $I^2$=63.8%; N=26). Most of the results from the subgroup analysis were consistent with the main results. Conclusion: Tea consumption and physical activity are significantly associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer in Chinese females. However, alcohol drinking may not be associated with any elevation of risk.

Survival of Cancer Patients in Northeast China: Analysis of Sampled Cancers from Population-Based Cancer Registries

  • Li, Yanxia;Yu, Liya;Na, Jun;Li, Shuang;Liu, Li;Mu, Huijuan;Bi, Xuanjuan;An, Xiaoxia;Li, Xun;Dong, Wen;Pan, Guowei
    • Cancer Research and Treatment
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    • v.49 no.4
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    • pp.1106-1113
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    • 2017
  • Purpose The cancer survival was characterized by following up sampled subgroups of cancer cases from three population-based cancer registries in Northeast China. Materials and Methods Survival analysis was used to analyze 6,871 patients, who had one of the 21 most common cancers based on sampling from the population-based cancer registries of three cities in Liaoning Province. All patients were diagnosed between 2000 and 2002 and were followed up to the end of 2007 by active and passive methods. The 5-year age standardized relative survival rates (ASRS) were estimated for all cancers combined and each of the 21 individual cancers. Results The survival status was traced for 80.8% of 8,506 sampled cancer cases. The 5-year ASRS for all 21 cancers combined was 41.5% (95% confidence interval, 40.3 to 42.7), the highest ASRS was observed for thyroid cancer (85.2%), breast cancer (78.9%), uterine corpus cancer (75.9%), and urinary bladder cancer (70.2%); the lowest 5-year ASRS was noted in pancreatic cancer (8.8%), liver cancer (11.0%), esophageal cancer (18.8), and lung cancer (19.6%). The cancer survival rates in Liaoning cities were similar to those of urban areas in mainland China, but significantly lower than those in Hong Kong, Korea, and Japan. Conclusion The strikingly poor cancer survival rates in three cities of Liaoning Province and in other places in China highlight the need for urgent investment in cancer prevention, early detection, and standardized and centralized treatment.

Validity and Necessity of Sub-classification of N3 in the 7th UICC TNM Stage of Gastric Cancer

  • Li, Fang-Xuan;Zhang, Ru-Peng;Liang, Han;Quan, Ji-Chuan;Liu, Hui;Zhang, Hui
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.2091-2095
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    • 2013
  • Background: The $7^{th}$ TNM staging is the first authoritative standard for evaluation of effectiveness of treatment of gastric cancer worldwide. However, revision of pN classification within TNM needs to be discussed. In particular, the N3 sub-stage is becoming more conspicuous. Methods: Clinical data of 302 pN3M0 stage gastric cancer patients who received radical gastrectomy in Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital from January 2001 to May 2006 were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Location of tumor, depth of invasion, extranodal metastasis, gastric resection, combined organs resection, lymph node metastasis, rate of lymph node metastasis, negative lymph nodes count were important prognostic factors of pN3M0 stage gastric cancers. TNM stage was also associated with prognosis. Patients at T2N3M0 stage had a better prognosis than other sub-classification. T3N3M0 and T4aN3aM0 patients had equal prognosis which followed the T2N3M0. T4aN3bM0 and T4bN3aM0 had lower survival rate than the formers. T4bN3bM0 had worst prognosis. In multivariate analysis, TNM stage group and rate of lymph node metastasis were independent prognostic factors. Conclusions: The sub-stage of N3 may be useful for more accurate prediction of prognosis; it should therefore be applied in the TNM stage system.