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Analysis of Cancer Incidence and Mortality in the Industrial Region of South-East Siberia from 1991 through 2010

  • Kutikhin, Anton G.;Yuzhalin, Arseniy E.;Brailovskiy, Valeriy V.;Zhivotovskiy, Alexey S.;Magarill, Yuri A.;Brusina, Elena B.
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.10
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    • pp.5189-5193
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    • 2012
  • Kemerovo is an industrial region of the Russian Federation characterized by highly developed mining, chemical, metallurgical and power industries. Many of the factories were closed down due to the socioeconomical crisis in the early 90's, and economic potential of the survivors has also decreased significantly. Paradoxically, this has led to the improvement of the ecological situation in the region and elimination of exposure to many chemical carcinogens. This factor, in combination with the improvement of oncological care, might be expected to have lead to a decline of cancer incidence and mortality in the region. To assess trends of cancer incidence and mortality in Kemerovo Region, we therefore carried out an analysis of relevant epidemiological data during 1991-2010. In fact, a significant increase of cancer incidence overall was revealed during 2001-2010. Male cancer incidence was significantly higher than female cancer incidence. Regarding gastric cancer incidence, statistically significant differences during 2001-2010 were found only for men, and male incidence exceeded female incidence. Concerning colorectal cancer incidence, it was lower during 2001-2005 and 2006-2010 as compared to the period of 1991-1996. Lung cancer incidence was significantly higher during 1991-2000 compared to 2001-2010. Among urban populations, cancer incidence was higher in comparison with rural population, but a gradual steady convergence of trends of cancer incidence among urban and rural populations was noted. Lung cancer, breast cancer, colorectal cancer, non-melanoma skin cancer, and gastric cancer are the most prevalent cancer forms in Kemerovo Region. There were no differences in cancer mortality between 2001-2005 and 2006-2010; however, male cancer mortality exceeded female cancer mortality. A similar situation was observed for gastric cancer, colorectal cancer, and lung cancer. Cancer mortality among urban populations exceeded mortality among rural population, for both genders. We suggest that these data can be used for development of modern programs of cancer prevention and early diagnostics in industrial regions of Siberia.

Analysis of Cancer Incidence in Zhejiang Cancer Registry in China during 2000 to 2009

  • Du, Ling-Bin;Li, Hui-Zhang;Wang, Xiang-Hui;Zhu, Chen;Liu, Qing-Min;Li, Qi-Long;Li, Xue-Qin;Shen, Yong-Zhou;Zhang, Xin-Pei;Ying, Jiang-Wei;Yu, Chuan-Ding;Mao, Wei-Min
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.14
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    • pp.5839-5843
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    • 2014
  • Objective: The Zhejiang Provincial Cancer Prevention and Control Office collected cancer registration data during 2000 to 2009 from 6 cancer registries in Zhejiang province of China in order to analyze the cancer incidence. Methods: Descriptive analysis included cancer incidence stratified by sex, age and cancer site group. The proportions and cumulative rates of 10 common cancers in different groups were also calculated. Chinese population census in 1982 and Segi's population were used for calculating age-standardized incidence rates. The log-linear model was used for fitting to calculate the incidence trends. Results: The 6 cancer registries in Zhejiang province in China covered a total of 60,087,888 person-years during 2000 to 2009 (males 30,445,904, females 29,641,984). The total number of new cancer cases were 163,104 (males 92,982, females 70,122). The morphology verified cases accounted for 69.7%, and the new cases verified only by information from death certification accounted for 1.23%. The crude incidence rate in Zhejiang cancer registration areas was $271.5/10^5$ during 2000 to 2009 (male $305.41/10^5$, female $236.58/10^5$), age-standardized incidence rates by Chinese standard population (ASIRC) and by world standard population (ASIRW) were $147.1/10^5$ and $188.2/10^5$, the cumulative incidence rate (aged from 0 to 74) being 21.7%. The crude incidence rate was $209.6/10^5$ in 2000, and it increased to $320.20/10^5$ in 2009 (52.8%), with an annual percent change (APC) of 4.51% (95% confidence interval, 3.25%-5.79%). Age-specific incidence rate of 80-84 age group was achieved at the highest point of the incidence curve. Overall with different age groups, the cancer incidences differed, the incidence of liver cancer being highest in 15-44 age group in males; the incidence of breast cancer was the highest in 15-64 age group in females; the incidences of lung cancer were the highest in both males and females over the age of 65 years. Conclusions: Lung cancer, digestive system malignancies and breast cancer are the most common cancers in Zhejiang province in China requiring an especial focus. The incidences of thyroid cancer, prostate cancer, cervical cancer and lymphoma have increased rapidly. Prevention and control measures should be implemented for these cancers.

Trend of Cancer Incidence in Nepal from 2003 to 2012

  • Poudel, Krishna Kanta;Huang, Zhibi;Neupane, Prakash Raj
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.2171-2175
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    • 2016
  • Trends in cancer incidence is a key tool to identify the pattern of cancer of any country. This retrospective study was performed to present the trends of change in cancer incidence in Nepal.The total number of cancer cases in males was 26,064 while the total number of females cancer cases was 29,867 throughout the 10 years from 2003 to 2012. The cancer incidence per 100,000 in males was 12.8 in 2003 and 25.8 people in 2012. Similarly, in females, the crude incidence rate was 15.1 in 2003 and 26.7 per 100,000 in 2012. Cancer incidence was low at early age but it was increased with age in both sexes in Nepal. Lung cancer was the most common cancer in males throughout, while it was the third most common cancer in females. Cervix uteri was the most common site of cancer in females throughout the 10 years, with a clear trend for increase in breast cancer within this time.

Breast Cancer in Lopburi, a Province in Central Thailand: Analysis of 2001-2010 Incidence and Future Trends

  • Sangkittipaiboon, Somphob;Leklob, Atit;Sriplung, Hutcha;Bilheem, Surichai
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.18
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    • pp.8359-8364
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    • 2016
  • Background: Thailand has come to an epidemiologic transition with decreasing infectious diseases and increasing burden of chronic conditions, including cancer. Breast cancer has the highest incidence rates among females throughout Thailand. This study aimed to identify the current burden and the future trends of breast cancer of Lopburi, a province in the Central Thailand. Materials and Methods: We used cancer incidence data from the Lopburi Cancer Registry to characterize and analyze the incidence of breast cancer in Central Thailand. With joinpoint and age-period-cohort analyses, the incidence of breast cancer in the province from 2001 to 2010 and project future trends from 2011 to 2030 was investigated. Results: Age-adjusted incidence rates of breast cancer in Lopburi increased from 23.4 to 34.3 cases per 100,000 female population during the period, equivalent to an annual percentage change of 4.3% per year. Both period and cohort effects played a role in shaping the increase in incidence. Joinpoint projection suggested that incidence rates would continue to increase in the future with incidence for women ages 50 years and above increasing at a higher rate than for women below the age of 50. Conclusions: The current situation where early detection measures are being promoted could increase detection rates of the disease. Preparation of sufficient budget for treatment facilities and human resources, both in surgical and medical oncology, is essential for future medical care.

Pancreatic Cancer Incidence and Mortality Patterns in China, 2009

  • Chen, Wan-Qing;Liang, Di;Zhang, Si-Wei;Zheng, Rou-Shou;He, Yu-Tong
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.12
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    • pp.7321-7324
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    • 2013
  • Objective: To estimate the incidence and mortality rates for pancreatic cancer in China. Methods: After checking and reviewing the cancer registry data in 2009 from 72 cancer registry centers, we divided cancer registry areas into urban and rural areas. Incidence/mortality rates, age-specific incidence/mortality rates, age-standardized incidence/mortality rates, proportions, and cumulative incidence/mortality rates for pancreatic cancer were calculated. Results: The total number of newly diagnosed pancreatic cancer cases and deaths in 2009 were 6,220 and 5,650, respectively. The crude incidence rate in all cancer registry areas was 7.28/100,000 (males 8.24, females 6.29). The age-standardized incidence rate by Chinese standard population (ASR) was 3.35/100,000, with ranking at 7th among all cancers. Pancreatic cancer incidence rate was 8.19/100,000 in urban areas whereas it was 5.41/100 000 in rural areas. Cancer mortality rate in all cancer registry areas was 6.61/100,000 (males 7.45; females 5.75), with ranking at 6th among all cancers, and 7.42/100 000 in urban but 4.94/100000 in rural areas. Conclusions: Pancreatic cancer incidence and mortality rates have shown a gradual increase in China. Owing to the difficulty of early diagnosis, identification of high-risk population and modification of risk factors are important to reduce the burden of pancreatic cancer.

Cancer Incidence in Korean Vietnam Veterans During 1992-2003: The Korean Veterans Health Study

  • Yi, Sang-Wook
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.46 no.6
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    • pp.309-318
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    • 2013
  • Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between Vietnam experience including exposure to military herbicides and cancer incidence in Korean Vietnam War veterans. Methods: The cancer cases of 185 265 Vietnam veterans from January 1, 1992 to December 31, 2003 were confirmed from the Korea National Cancer Incidence Database. The age-adjusted incidence and standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated using the male population during 1992 to 2003 as a standard population. Results: The age-adjusted overall cancer incidence per 100 000 person-years was 455.3 in Vietnam veterans. The overall cancer incidence was slightly yet significantly lower in veterans (SIR, 0.97; 95% confidence interval, 0.95 to 0.99) than in the general population. The overall cancer incidence in enlisted soldiers was not lower (SIR, 1.00), whereas that in officers was significantly lower (SIR, 0.87) than in the general population. The incidences of prostate cancer and T-cell lymphoma in all veterans, and lung cancer and bladder cancer in enlisted soldiers, and colon cancer and kidney cancer in non-commissioned officers, and colon cancer, kidney cancer, and prostate cancer in officers, were higher than in the general population. The SIR for overall cancer among Vietnam veterans rose from 0.92 for 1992-1997 to 0.99 for 1998-2003. Conclusions: The overall cancer incidence in Vietnam veterans was not higher than in the general male population. Vietnam veterans and military rank subcohorts experienced a higher incidence of several cancers, including prostate cancer, T-cell lymphoma, lung cancer, bladder cancer, kidney cancer, and colon cancer than the general population. The SIR for overall cancer increased over time in Vietnam veterans.

Prediction of Cancer Incidence and Mortality in Korea, 2017

  • Jung, Kyu-Won;Won, Young-Joo;Oh, Chang-Mo;Kong, Hyun-Joo;Lee, Duk Hyoung;Lee, Kang Hyun
    • Cancer Research and Treatment
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    • v.49 no.2
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    • pp.306-312
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    • 2017
  • Purpose This study aimed to report on cancer incidence and mortality for the year 2017 in Korea in order to estimate the nation's current cancer burden. Materials and Methods Cancer incidence data from 1999 to 2014 were obtained from the Korea National Cancer Incidence Database, and cancer mortality data from 1993 to 2015 were acquired from Statistics Korea. Cancer incidence and mortality were projected by fitting a linear regression model to observe age-specific cancer rates against observed years, and then multiplying the projected age-specific rates by the age-specific population. The Joinpoint regression model was used to determine at which year the linear trend changed significantly; we only used data of the latest trend. Results A total of 221,143 new cancer cases and 80,268 cancer deaths are expected to occur in Korea in 2017. The most common cancer sites are the colorectum, stomach, lung, thyroid, and breast. These five cancers represent half of the overall burden of cancer in Korea. For mortality, the most common sites are the lung, liver, colorectal, stomach, and pancreas. Conclusion The incidence rate of all cancers in Korea appears to have decreased mainly because of a decrease in thyroid cancer. These up-to-date estimates of the cancer burden in Korea could be an important resource for planning and evaluation of cancer-control programs.

Analysis of Esophageal Cancer Time Trends in China, 1989-2008

  • Zhao, Jun;He, Yu-Tong;Zheng, Rong-Shou;Zhang, Si-Wei;Chen, Wan-Qing
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.9
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    • pp.4613-4617
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    • 2012
  • National cancer incidence data were utilized to analyze trends in esophageal cancer incidence in China in order to provide basic information for making cancer control strategy. We retrieved and re-sorted valid esophageal cancer incidence data from National Central Cancer Registry Database over 20 years period from 1989 to 2008. Crude incidence and age-standardized incidence rates were calculated for analysis, with annual percent change estimated by Joinpoint software for long term trend analysis. The crude incidence rate of esophageal cancer was found to have remained relatively stable in both urban and rural areas over the 20 year period. Age standardized incidence rate (ASR) in cancer registration areas decreased from 39.5/100,000 in 1989 to 23.0/100,000 in 2008 in all areas (AAPC=-3.3%, 95% CI:-2.8~-3.7). The trend was no change in urban areas and 2.1% average annual decrease observed in rural aras. Before the year of 2000, esophageal cancer incidence rates significant decreased with 2.8% annually and then the rates kept stable. Over 20 years from 1989 to 2008, esophageal cancer age standardized incidence rate in cancer registration areas decreased with time. However, esophageal cancer is still a big issue and efforts for control should be continuously enhanced. Cancer registration is playing an important role in cancer control with the number of registries increasing and data quality improving in China.

Female Breast Cancer Incidence and Mortality in Morocco: Comparison with Other Countries

  • Khalis, Mohamed;El Rhazi, Karima;Charaka, Hafida;Chajes, Veronique;Rinaldi, Sabina;Nejjari, Chakib;Romieu, Isabelle;Charbotel, Barbara
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.12
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    • pp.5211-5216
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    • 2016
  • Background: Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy and the leading cause of cancer death among women worldwide. In Morocco, there have been few recent descriptive studies on female breast cancer. The aim of this study was to describe the latest available incidence and mortality rates of breast cancer among Moroccan women and to compare them with rates in other regional and Western countries. Methods: For this descriptive study, Moroccan incidence data were obtained from the most recent reports of the cancer registries of Casablanca and Rabat. Information on breast cancer incidence for different countries were obtained primarily from publicly available cancer registries and Cancer Incidence in Five Continents, Volume X. Mortality data were extracted from the GLOBOCAN 2012 published by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Results: The age-standardized incidence (World) rate of breast cancer in Moroccan women increased from 35.0 to 39.0 per 100,000 women between 2004 and 2008, showing an annual increase of 2.85 %. The highest incidence rates were registered in the age groups of 45-49, 50-54 and 55-59 years (106.1, 108.2 and 108.5 respectively). Sixty-nine percent of female breast cancer cases were diagnosed at stages II and III. In 2012, the estimated number of women who died of breast cancer in Morocco was 2,878. The crude, age-standardized (World) mortality rates were 17.3 and 18.0 per 100,000, respectively. Conclusion: Although the incidence of female breast cancer in Morocco is lower than in Western countries, evidence shows that the rate is rising. This increase of breast cancer incidence has been observed in parallel with changes in reproductive behavior and adoption of a Western lifestyle. Prevention policies need to be implemented.

Cancer Incidence and Mortality in Osaka, Japan: Future Trends Estimation with an Age-Period-Cohort Model

  • Utada, Mai;Ohno, Yuko;Shimizu, Sachiko;Ito, Yuri;Tsukuma, Hideaki
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.8
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    • pp.3893-3898
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    • 2012
  • In previous studies we predicted future trends in cancer incidence for each prefecture in order to plan cancer control. Those predictions, however, did not take into account the characteristics of each prefecture. We therefore used the results of age-period-cohort analysis of incidence and mortality data of Osaka, and estimated the incidence and mortality of cancers at all sites and selected sites. The results reflect the characteristics of Osaka, which has and is expected to have large number of patients with liver cancer. We believe our results to be useful for planning and evaluating cancer control activities in Osaka. It would be worthwhile to base the estimation of cancer incidence and mortality in each prefecture on each population-based cancer registry.