• Title, Summary, Keyword: cancer cells

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Concept and limitation of breast cancer stem cells (유방암 줄기세포 개념 및 제한점)

  • Kim, Jong Bin;An, Jeong Shin;Lim, Woosung;Moon, Byung-In
    • The Journal of Medicine and Life Science
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.46-50
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    • 2018
  • Cancer, a leading mortality disease following cardiovascular disease worldwide, has high incidence as one out of every four adults in Korea. It was known to be caused by several reasons including somatic mutation, activation of oncogene and chromosome aneuploidy. Cancer cells show a faster growth rate and have metastatic and heterogeneous cell populations compared to normal cells. Cancer stem cells, the most invested field in cancer biology, is a theory to explain heterogeneous cell populations of cancer cells among several characteristics of cancer cells, which is providing the theoretical background for incidence of cancer and treatment failure by drug resistance. Cancer stem cells initially explain heterogeneous cell populations of cancer cells based on the same markers of normal stem cells in cancer, in which only cancer stem cells showed heterogeneity of cancer cells and tumor initiating ability of leukemia. Based on these results, cancer stem cells were reported in various solid cancers such as breast cancer, liver cancer, and lung cancer. Breast cancer stem cells were first reported in solid cancer which had tumor initiating ability and further identified as anti-cancer drug resistance. There were several identification methods in breast cancer stem cells such as specific surface markers and culture methods. The discovery of cancer stem cells not only explains heterogeneity of cancer cells, but it also provides theoretical background for targeting cancer stem cells to complete elimination of cancer cells. Many institutes have been developing new anticancer drugs targeting cancer stem cells, but there have not been noticeable results yet. Many researchers also reported a necessity for improvement of current concepts and methods of research on cancer stem cells. Herein, we discuss the limitations and the perspectives of breast cancer stem cells based on the current concept and history.

The Effect of Hwangryunhaedoktang on Proliferations of Various Human Cancer Cells (황련해독탕이 수종의 인간 암세포 증식에 미치는 영향)

  • Sung, Hyun Kyung;Min, Sang Yeon;Kim, Jang Hyun
    • The Journal of Pediatrics of Korean Medicine
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.59-68
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    • 2013
  • Objectives The aim of this study is to investigate whether hwang-ryun-haedok-tang (HDT) affect proliferations of androgen-dependent LNCaP prostate cancer cells, androgen-independent PC-3, DU-145 prostate cancer cells, MCF-7 human breast cancer cells, A549, NCI-H292 human pulmonary cancer cells and K-562 human chronic myelogenous leukemia cells. Materials and Methods Effects of HDT on proliferations of each cancer cell line were investigated. 20,000 cells/well were plated in each well of 96-well culture plate. After 24 hrs, 0.01-10% of HDT in culture medium was added to cancer cells. The number of cells was counted by using SRB assay or direct cell counting method after 72 hours from drug treatment. Effect of baicalein or berebrine on proliferation was assessed according to the same method. Results (1) HDT inhibited proliferations of LNCaP, PC-3 and DU-145 prostate cancer cells. (2) HDT inhibited proliferation of MCF-7 breast cancer cells. (3) HDT also inhibited proliferations of A549, NCI-H292 pulmonary cancer cells and K-562 chronic myelogenous leukemia cells. (4) Baicalein and berberine also showed inhibitory effects on proliferations of prostate and breast cancer cells. Conclusion : HDT inhibited proliferations of human prostate, breast, pulmonary and blood cancer cells. These results suggest us the potential use of HDT as a chemopreventive or chemotherapeutic agent. Effect of HDT on human cancer should be further investigated using in vivo experimental models that can reflect pathophysiology of human cancer through another studies.

Cannabidiol Induces Cytotoxicity and Cell Death via Apoptotic Pathway in Cancer Cell Lines

  • ChoiPark, Won-HyungHyun-Do;Baek, Seung-Hwa;Chu, Jong-Phil;Kang, Mae-Hwa;Mi, Yu-Jing
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.87-94
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    • 2008
  • In view of obtaining potential anticancer compounds, we studied the inhibitory activity and the cytotoxic effects of a candidate compound in cancer cells. The cytotoxic effects of cannabidiol (CBD) in vitro were evaluated in NIH3T3 fibroblasts, B16 melanoma cells, A549 lung cancer cells, MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, Lenca kidney cells and SNU-C4 colon cancer cells. The cells were cultured in various concentrations of CBD for 48 h and 25 ${\mu}$M of CBD for 6-36 h. The cells were observed to exhibit inhibitory effects of the cell viability in their growth, and then cytotoxicity was estimated. The inhibitory activity of CBD was increased in all cancer cells and showed especially strong increment in breast cancer cells. The cytotoxicity of CBD increased in a dose- and time-dependent manner with growth inhibition in all cancer cell lines. Also, to assess the membrane toxicity induced by CBD, we investigated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. After treatment with various concentrations of CBD, LDH release rate of cancer cells was accelerated. On the other hand, in the induction of cell death, caspase-3, -8 and -9 activations were detected in cancer cells after treatment with various concentrations of CBD, and CBD effectively induced activity of caspase-3, -8 and -9 in A549 lung cancer cells, MDAMB-231 breast cancer cells and Renca kidney cells. Therefore these results suggest that CBD has a possibility of anticancer agents and anticancer effects against cancer cells by modulation of apoptotic pathway in the range of 5-80 ${\mu}$M concentration.

The Role of Notch1 Signaling in Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma

  • Kim, Hyeon Jin;Kim, Min-Jung;Kim, Areumnuri;Jung, Chang Won;Park, Sunhoo;Koh, Jae Soo;Myung, Jae Kyung
    • Cancer Research and Treatment
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    • v.49 no.2
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    • pp.509-517
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    • 2017
  • Purpose The Notch signaling pathway is widely expressed in normal, reactive, and neoplastic tissues; however, its role in thyroid tissues has not been fully elucidated. Therefore, this study was conducted to characterize the expression of the Notch signaling pathway in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) cells and anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) cells. Materials and Methods Expression of activated Notch1 in ATC and PTC paraffin-embedded tissues was determined by immunohistochemistry. The small interfering RNA technique was employed to knock down Notch1 expression in ATC and PTC cell lines. Results The expression of activated Notch1 was higher in ATC cases than in PTC cases. Inhibition of Notch1 significantly reduced proliferation and migration of ATC cells, but not PTC cells. In addition, inhibition of Notch1 in ATC cells significantly reduced the expression of key markers of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cells. Conversely, changes in the expression of these proteins were not observed in PTC cells. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that Notch1 expression plays different roles in tumor progression in ATC and PTC cells. We also found that Notch1 expression was significantly related to the highly invasive or proliferative activity of ATC cells.

IGF-1 from Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Promotes Radioresistance of Breast Cancer Cells

  • Yang, Hui-Ying;Qu, Rong-Mei;Lin, Xiao-Shan;Liu, Tong-Xin;Sun, Quan-Quan;Yang, Chun;Li, Xiao-Hong;Lu, Wei;Hu, Xiao-Fang;Dai, Jing-Xing;Yuan, Lin
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.23
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    • pp.10115-10119
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    • 2015
  • Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate effects of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AMSCs) on radioresistance of breast cancer cells. Materials and Methods: MTT assays were used to detect any influence of AMSC supernatants on proliferation of breast cancer cells; cell migration assays were used to determine the effect of breast cancer cells on the recruitment of AMSCs; the cell survival fraction post-irradiation was assessed by clonogenic survival assay; ${\gamma}$-H2AX foci number post-irradiation was determined via fluorescence microscopy; and expression of IGF-1R was detected by Western blotting. Results: AMSC supernatants promoted proliferation and radioresistance of breast cancer cells. Breast cancer cells could recruit AMSCs, especially after irradiation. IGF-1 derived from AMSCs might be responsible for the radioresistance of breast cancer cells. Conclusions: Our results suggest that AMSCs in the tumor microenvironment may affect the outcome of radiotherapy for breast cancer in vitro.

Inhibitory Effect of Kale Juice on the Growth and DNA Incorporation of Human Cancer Cells

  • Lee, Seon-Mi;Park, Kun-Young
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.167-173
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    • 1997
  • The inhibitory effects of kale juice on the growh and DNA incorporation of human cancer cells, using HT-29 colon cancer cells, MG-63 osteosarcoma cells, AGS gastric adenocarcinoma cells and K-562 leukemia cells, were studied. The growth of human cancer cells were inhibited in the presence of kale juice (10, 20 nd 40$\mu$l/ml) and the effects were the juice concentration- and incubation time-dependent up to 6 days. When 20$\mu$l/ml of kale juice was added to the media of HT-29, MG-63, AGS and K-562 cancer cells, the cell growth after 6 or 4 days of incubation was retarded by 83~95% of control group. Morphological changes of HT-29 colon cancer cells wre studied under inverted microscope. As the concentration of kale juice increased up to 20$\mu$l/ml, degree of cell aggregation was decreased. Moreover, the DNA incorporation o AGS gastric adenocarcinoma cells and MG-63 osteosarcoma cells which were labeled with [$^3$H] thymidine was significantly reduced after 2 days of incubation at 37$^{\circ}C$ with kale juice. Therefore, we concluded that kale juice strongly decreased the growth of various human cancer cells.

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Tim-3 Expression by Peripheral Natural Killer Cells and Natural Killer T Cells Increases in Patients with Lung Cancer - Reduction after Surgical Resection

  • Xu, Li-Yun;Chen, Dong-Dong;He, Jian-Ying;Lu, Chang-Chang;Liu, Xiao-Guang;Le, Han-Bo;Wang, Chao-Ye;Zhang, Yong-Kui
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.22
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    • pp.9945-9948
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    • 2014
  • Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate Tim-3 expression on peripheral CD3-CD56+ natural killer (NK) cells and CD3+CD56+ natural killer T (NKT) cells in lung cancer patients. Materials and Methods: We analyzed Tim-3+CD3-CD56+ cells, Tim-3+CD3-$CD56^{dim}$ cells, Tim-3+CD3-$CD56^{bright}$ cells, and Tim-3+CD3+CD56+ cells in fresh peripheral blood from 79 lung cancer cases preoperatively and 53 healthy controls by flow cytometry. Postoperative blood samples were also analyzed from 21 members of the lung cancer patient cohort. Results: It was showed that expression of Tim-3 was significantly increased on CD3-CD56+ cells, CD3-$CD56^{dim}$ cells and CD3+CD56+ cells in lung cancer patients as compared to healthy controls (p=0.03, p=0.03 and p=0.04, respectively). When analyzing Tim-3 expression with cancer progression, results revealed more elevated Tim-3 expression in CD3-CD56+ cells, CD3-$CD56^{dim}$ cells and CD3+CD56+ cells in cases with advanced stages (III/IV) than those with stage I and II (p=0.02, p=0.04 and p=0.01, respectively). In addition, Tim-3 expression was significantly reduced on after surgical resection of the primary tumor (p<0.01). Conclusions: Tim-3 expression in natural killer cells from fresh peripheral blood may provide a useful indicator of disease progression of lung cancer. Furthermore, it was indicated that Tim-3 might be as a therapeutic target.

Transglutaminase 2 Promotes Autophagy by LC3 Induction through p53 Depletion in Cancer Cell

  • Kang, Joon Hee;Lee, Seon-Hyeong;Cheong, Heesun;Lee, Chang Hoon;Kim, Soo-Youl
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.34-40
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    • 2019
  • Transglutaminase 2 (TGase 2) plays a key role in p53 regulation, depleting p53 tumor suppressor through autophagy in renal cell carcinoma. We found that microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 (LC3), a hallmark of autophagy, were tightly associated with the level of TGase 2 in cancer cells. TGase 2 overexpression increased LC3 levels, and TGase 2 knockdown decreased LC3 levels in cancer cells. Transcript abundance of LC3 was inversely correlated with level of wild type p53. TGase 2 knockdown using siRNA, or TGase 2 inhibition using GK921 significantly reduced autophagy through reduction of LC3 transcription, which was followed by restoration of p53 levels in cancer cells. TGase 2 overexpression promoted the autophagy process by LC3 induction, which was correlated with p53 depletion in cancer cells. Rapamycin-resistant cancer cells also showed higher expression of LC3 compared to the rapamycin-sensitive cancer cells, which was tightly correlated with TGase 2 levels. TGase 2 knockdown or TGase 2 inhibition sensitized rapamycin-resistant cancer cells to drug treatment. In summary, TGase 2 induces drug resistance by potentiating autophagy through LC3 induction via p53 regulation in cancer.

Effects of Duchesnea indica on Human Stomach Cancer Cells(KATOIII) (사매의 KATOIII 위암세포(胃癌細胞)에 대(對)한 항암효능(抗癌效能))

  • Lim, Joong-Hwa;Kim, Jin-Sung;Yoon, Sang-Hyub;Ryu, Ki-Won;Ryu, Bong-Ha
    • The Journal of Internal Korean Medicine
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.302-309
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    • 2005
  • Background : Death by cancer, malignant tumor, is on the increase around the world. In South Korea, cancer is the number one cause of death, and, in South Korea, stomach cancer is the most common form of cancer. This may be due to genetic and enviornmental factors. Because stomach cancer is so prevalent here, this study was undertaken. Objectives: This study was conducted to investigate the anti-cancer effects of Duchesnea indica(Andr.) Focke. in human stomach cancer cells(KATOIII). Materials & Methods: For human stomach cancer cells KATO III cells were obtained from Korea Cell Line Bank. The water decoction of Duchesnea indica(Andr.) Focke was added to cultures. First, morphological changes were examined under an inverted microscope. The destruction of stomach cancer cells was measured through Trypan blue exclusion testing, and suppression of viability of stomach cancer cells was measured via MTT assay. Anti-cancer mechanisms were assessed by analyzing the cell cycle. Results & Conclusions : In morphologic change, stomach cancer cells showed the withdrawn and floating appearance that is typical in cellular impairment. In each test group more stomach cancer cells were killed than in the control group to a statistically significant degree. Each test group showed more suppression of viability of stomach cancer cells than that of the control group to a statistically significant degree. Analysis of the cell cycle showed that Duchesnea indica(Andr.) Focke inhibited division of stomach cancer cells. This experiment yielded empirical evidence for Duchesnea indica(Andr.) Focke as a statistically significant anticarcinogen, specifically against stomach cancer.

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Identification of a Cancer Stem-like Population in the Lewis Lung Cancer Cell Line

  • Zhang, An-Mei;Fan, Ye;Yao, Quan;Ma, Hu;Lin, Sheng;Zhu, Cong-Hui;Wang, Xin-Xin;Liu, Jia;Zhu, Bo;Sun, Jian-Guo;Chen, Zheng-Tang
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.761-766
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    • 2012
  • Objective: Although various human cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been defined, their applications are restricted to immunocompromised models. Developing a novel CSC model which could be used in immunocompetent or transgenic mice is essential for further understanding of the biomolecular characteristics of tumor stem cells. Therefore, in this study, we analyzed murine lung cancer cells for the presence of CSCs. Methods: Side population (SP) cells were isolated by fluorescence activated cell sorting, followed by serum-free medium (SFM) culture, using Lewis lung carcinoma cell (LLC) line. The self-renewal, differentiated progeny, chemosensitivity, and tumorigenic properties in SP and non-SP cells were investigated through in vitro culture and in vivo serial transplantation. Differential expression profiles of stem cell markers were examined by RT-PCR. Results: The SP cell fraction comprised 1.1% of the total LLC population. SP cells were available to grow in SFM, and had significantly enhanced capacity for cell proliferation and colony formation. They were also more resistant to cisplatin in comparison to non-SP cells, and displayed increased tumorigenic ability. Moreover, SP cells showed higher mRNA expression of Oct-4, ABCG2, and CD44. Conclusion: We identified SP cells from a murine lung carcinoma, which possess well-known characteristics of CSCs. Our study established a useful model that should allow investigation of the biological features and pharmacosensitivity of lung CSCs, both in vitro and in syngeneic immunocompetent or transgenic/knockout mice.