• Title, Summary, Keyword: calprotectin

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Fecal calprotectin concentration in neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis

  • Yoon, Jung Min;Park, Ju Yi;Ko, Kyung Ok;Lim, Jae Woo;Cheon, Eun Jeong;Kim, Hyo Jeong
    • Korean Journal of Pediatrics
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    • v.57 no.8
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    • pp.351-356
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: Among the many factors associated with acute intestinal mucosal infection, numerous studies have proposed the usefulness of fecal calprotectin. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of fecal calprotectin in the diagnosis of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Methods: We collected 154 stool samples from 16 very low birth weight and premature newborns at the Konyang University Hospital neonatal intensive care unit or neonatal nursery. The stool samples were collected using the Calprest device, and the fecal calprotectin level was measured with the $B\ddot{U}HLMANN$ Calprotectin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Results: Fecal calprotectin levels were significantly higher in the NEC group than in the non-NEC group (P=0.02). There was a significant positive linear relationship between the fecal calprotectin level and number of days after birth (P=0.00) in the gestational age <26 weeks group. There was a significant negative linear relationship between the calprotectin level and number of days after birth (P=0.03) in the gestational age ${\geq}26$ weeks and <30 weeks group. There was no difference in the calprotectin levels according to the type and method of feeding between the NEC and non-NEC groups. Conclusion: Fecal calprotectin levels were significantly increased in premature infants with NEC. The fecal calprotectin test is a noninvasive, easy, and useful tool for the diagnosis of NEC.

Investigation on the Surface Hydrophobicity and Aggregation Kinetics of Human Calprotectin in the Presence of Calcium

  • Yousefi, Reza;Ardestani, Susan K.;Saboury, Ali Akbar;Kariminia, Amina;Zeinali, Madjid;Amani, Mojtaba
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.38 no.4
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    • pp.407-413
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    • 2005
  • Calcium and zinc binding protein, calprotectin is a multifunctional protein with broad spectrum antimicrobial and antitumoural activity. It was purified from human neutrophil, using a two-step ion exchange chromatography. Since surface hydrophobicity of calprotectin may be important in membrane anchoring, membrane penetration, subunits oligomerization and some biological roles of protein, in this study attempted to explore the effect of calcium in physiological range on the calprotectin lipophilicity. Incubation of human calprotectin ($50\;{\mu}g/ml$) with different calcium concentrations showed that 1-anilino-8-naphthalene sulfonic acid (ANS) fluorescence intensity of the protein significantly elevates with calcium in a dose dependent manner, suggesting an increase in calprotectin surface hydrophobicity upon calcium binding. Our study also indicates that calcium at higher concentrations (6, 8 and 10 mM) induces aggregation of human calprotectin. Our finding demonstrates that the starting time and the rate constant of calprotectin aggregation depend on the calcium concentration.

Usefulness of fecal immunochemical test and fecal calprotectin for detection of active ulcerative colitis

  • Kim, Dong Ju;Jeoun, Yoon Mi;Lee, Dong-won;Koo, Ja Seol;Lee, Sang Woo
    • Intestinal research
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.563-570
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    • 2018
  • Background/Aims: Ulcerative colitis undergoes periods of exacerbation and remission. Fecal calprotectin levels increase with gut inflammation and correlate with endoscopic disease activity in ulcerative colitis. Intestinal blood loss and fecal immunochemical test levels also correlate with endoscopic disease activity. This study statistically evaluated the usefulness of fecal calprotectin, fecal immunochemical test, and C-reactive protein (CRP) as markers of disease activity. Methods: A total 106 ulcerative colitis patients who underwent endoscopy and fecal calprotectin, fecal immunochemical test, and CRP testing, from March 2015 to August 2016, were retrospectively reviewed. Disease activity was assessed using a partial Mayo score and Mayo endoscopic score. The ability of fecal and serologic tests to reflect endoscopic disease severity was statistically evaluated. Results: Among 106 patients, 68 underwent endoscopy and stool study within 2 weeks. In patients with mild to severe activity, fecal immunochemical test and fecal calprotectin were superior to CRP at Mayo endoscopic score detection rate. The area under the curves of fecal immunochemical test and fecal calprotectin for the detection of Mayo endoscopic score ${\geq}1$ were 0.956 and 0.942, respectively, and were superior to that of CRP (0.756). At Mayo endoscopic score, the effects of combination of fecal immunochemical test and CRP or fecal calprotectin and CRP were found to be higher than those of the independent fecal immunochemical test or fecal calprotectin. Conclusions: Fecal immunochemical test and fecal calprotectin can effectively detect active ulcerative colitis better than remission. As these markers reflect the status of mucosal inflammation, they may reduce the requirement for invasive endoscopic examination.

Improving the diagnosis of high grade and stage bladder cancer by detecting increased urinary calprotectin expression in tumor tissue and tumor-associated inflammatory response

  • Sahin, Yusuf;Yucetas, Ugur;Ates, Huseyin Aytac;Erkan, Erkan;Yucetas, Esma;Temiz, Mustafa Zafer;Toktas, Mahmut Gokhan;Kadihasanoglu, Mustafa;Topkaya, Birsen Cigdem
    • Investigative and Clinical Urology
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    • v.60 no.5
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    • pp.343-350
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    • 2019
  • Purpose: To investigate whether measurement of urinary calprotectin can serve as a biomarker in the diagnosis of primary bladder cancer and to confirm its diagnostic role in determining high grade and stage disease. Materials and Methods: Urinary calprotectin was measured in spot urine samples from patients with primary bladder cancer and control subjects. To confirm levels in urine, tissue samples were also obtained from bladder tumor and healthy trigone of bladder by transurethral resection in both groups. Finally, calprotectin levels in tissue and urine of the patients and control subjects were compared and their diagnostic potential was investigated in high grade and stage bladder cancers. Results: Of 82 participants, 52 were patients with bladder cancer and 30 were control subjects. The two groups were comparable in terms of age, smoking status, and comorbidities. Tissue and urinary calprotectin levels were significantly higher in the bladder cancer group. In subgroup analyses, urinary calprotectin levels were significantly higher in patients with high-grade, muscle-invasive tumors. After receiver operating characteristic analyses, the sensitivity and specificity of urinary calprotectin was 100% and 96.7%, respectively, in the diagnosis of primary bladder cancer. High grade and stage bladder cancers were detected with sensitivity and specificity of 70% and 74.2%, and 80% and 84.8%, respectively. Conclusions: Urinary calprotectin may be a valuable parameter in the diagnosis of primary bladder cancer with high sensitivity and specificity. Furthermore, it may be useful in the prediction of high grade and stage disease. However, more investigations are needed.

Diagnostic Value of Fecal Calprotectin as a Screening Biomarker for Gastrointestinal Malignancies

  • Khoshbaten, Manouchehr;Pishahang, Parinaz;Nouri, Mohammad;Lashkari, Alireza;Alizadeh, Mahasti;Rostami-Nejad, Mohammad
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.1667-1670
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    • 2014
  • Background: Calprotectin in feces seems to be a more sensitive marker for gastrointestinal (GI) cancers than fecal occult blood, but its specificity may be too low for screening average risk populations. This study aims at evaluating the diagnostic value of fecal calprotectin as a screening biomarker for GI malignancies. Materials and Methods: In a case-control study, 100 patients with GI malignancies (50 patients with colorectal cancer and 50 patients with gastric cancer) and 50 controls were recruited in Tabriz Imam Reza and Sina hospitals during a 24-month period. One to two weeks after the last endoscopy/colonoscopy, fecal specimens were collected by the patients and examined by ELISA method for quantitative measurement of calprotectin content. The results were compared between the three groups. Results: The mean fecal calprotectin level was $109.1{\pm}105.3$ (2.3-454.3, median:74), $241.1{\pm}205.2$ (3.4-610.0, median:19.3) and $45.9{\pm}55.1{\mu}g/g$ (1.3-257.1, median:19.3) in gastric cancer, colorectal cancer and control group, respectively, the differences being significant (p<0.001) and remaining after adjustment for age. The optimal cut-off point for fecal calprotectin was ${\geq}75.8{\mu}g/g$ for distinguishing colorectal cancer from normal cases (sensitivity and specificity of 80% and 84%, respectively). This value was ${\geq}41.9{\mu}g/g$ for distinguishing gastric cancer from normal cases (sensitivity and specificity of 62%). Conclusions: Our results revealed that fecal calprotectin might be a useful and non-invasive biomarker for distinguishing colorectal cancer from non-malignant GI conditions. However, due to low sensitivity and specificity, this biomarker may not help physicians distinguishing gastric cancer cases from healthy subjects.

The role of fecal calprotectin in pediatric disease

  • Jeong, Su Jin
    • Korean Journal of Pediatrics
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    • v.62 no.8
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    • pp.287-291
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    • 2019
  • Fecal calprotectin (FC) is a calcium- and zinc-binding protein of the S100 family, mainly expressed by neutrophils and released during inflammation. FC became an increasingly useful tool both for gastroenterologists and for general practitioners for distinguishing inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) from irritable bowel syndrome. Increasing evidences support the use of this biomarker for diagnosis, follow-up and evaluation of response to therapy of several pediatric gastrointestinal diseases, ranging from IBD to nonspecific colitis and necrotizing enterocolitis. This article summarizes the current literature on the use of FC in clinical practice.

Experience of patients with inflammatory bowel disease in using a home fecal calprotectin test as an objective reported outcome for self-monitoring

  • Wei, Shu-Chen;Tung, Chien-Chih;Weng, Meng-Tzu;Wong, Jau-Min
    • Intestinal research
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.546-553
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    • 2018
  • Background/Aims: Fecal calprotectin (fC) level is a predictive marker of mucosal healing for patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Home fC tests are now available. We evaluated the performance of the smartphone-based IBDoc home testing system in patients with IBD and obtained their feedback as an objective patient-reported outcome. Methods: This prospective study enrolled consecutive patients with IBD in clinical remission. fC in the same stool sample was assessed by using both the laboratory test (Quantum Blue calprotectin test) and home test (IBDoc). The correlation between the 2 tests was analyzed using the Pearson method. In addition, the patients were asked to fill a questionnaire based on their experience. Results: Fifty-one patients with IBD (68 tests and 49 questionnaires) were included. The correlation between Quantum Blue test and IBDoc was good (r=0.776, P<0.0001). After the test, 56% patients found IBDoc easy to perform, and 96% were satisfied with it. Thirty-nine patients (80%) had a strong (>70%) probability to use it for future monitoring if the price was acceptable. By using $250{\mu}g/g$ as the cutoff, the agreement between home test and laboratory results was 80%, and by using $600{\mu}g/g$ as the cutoff, the agreement increased to 92%. Conclusions: The correlation between the laboratory and home tests was good. Most patients found the home test to be feasible and easy to use and preferred it over laboratory test and endoscopy for monitoring. Therefore, the home test could be used as an objective patient-reported outcome.

Amino Acid-Based Formula in Premature Infants with Feeding Intolerance: Comparison of Fecal Calprotectin Level

  • Jang, Hyo-Jeong;Park, Jae Hyun;Kim, Chun Soo;Lee, Sang Lak;Lee, Won Mok
    • Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.189-195
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    • 2018
  • Purpose: We investigated fecal calprotectin (FC) levels in preterm infants with and without feeding intolerance (FI), and compared the FC levels according to the type of feeding. Methods: The medical records of 67 premature infants were reviewed retrospectively. The fully enteral-fed infants were classified into two groups; the FI group (29 infants) and the control group (31 infants). Seven infants with necrotizing enterocolitis, sepsis, and perinatal asphyxia were excluded. If breast milk (BM) or preterm formula (PF) could not be tolerated by infants with FI, amino acid-based formula (AAF) was tried temporarily. Once FI improved, AAF was discontinued, and BM or PF was resumed. We investigated the FC levels according to the type of feeding. Results: Significant differences were found in gestational age, birth weight, age when full enteral feeding was achieved, and hospital stay between the FI and control group (p<0.05). The FC levels in the FI group were significantly higher than those in the control group (p<0.05). The FC levels in the AAF-fed infants with FI were significantly lower than those in the BM- or PF-fed infants (p<0.05). The growth velocities (g/d) and z scores were not significantly different between the FI and control group (p>0.05). Conclusion: The FC levels in AAF-fed infants with FI showed significantly lower than those in the BM- or PF-fed infants with FI. The mitigation of gut inflammation through the decrease of FC levels in AAF-fed infants with FI could be presumed.

Fecal Calprotectin Level Reflects the Severity of Clostridium difficile Infection

  • Kim, Jieun;Kim, Heejung;Oh, Hyun Ju;Kim, Hyung Sun;Hwang, Youn Jee;Yong, Dongeun;Jeong, Seok Hoon;Lee, Kyungwon
    • Annals of Laboratory Medicine
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.53-57
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    • 2017
  • Clostridium difficile is a significant nosocomial and community-acquired pathogen, and is the leading cause of antibiotic-induced diarrhea associated with high morbidity and mortality. Given that the treatment outcome depends on the severity of C. difficile infection (CDI), we aimed to establish an efficient method of assessing severity, and focused on the stool biomarker fecal calprotectin (FC). FC directly reflects the intestinal inflammation status of a patient, and can aid in interpreting the current guidelines, which requires the integration of indirect laboratory parameters. The distinction of 80 patients with CDI versus 71 healthy controls and 30 severe infection cases versus 50 mild cases was possible using FC as a marker. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curves were 0.821 and 0.746 with a sensitivity of 75% and 70% and specificity of 79% and 80%, for severe versus mild cases, respectively. We suggest FC as a predictive marker for assessing CDI severity, which is expected to improve the clinical management of CDI.