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Microstructure and dielectric properties with a contents Ca of (Sr.Ca)$TiO_3$-based grain boundary layer ceramics ((Sr.Ca)$TiO_3$계 입계층 세라믹의 Ca변화량에 따른 미세구조 및 유전특성)

  • 최운식;김충혁;이준웅
    • Electrical & Electronic Materials
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    • v.7 no.6
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    • pp.534-542
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    • 1994
  • Microstructures and dielectric properties of (Sr$_{1-x}$ .Ca$_{x}$)TiO$_{3}$+0.006Nb$_{2}$O$_{5}$ (0.05.leq.x.leq.0.2) ceramic were investigated. The specimens fired in a reducing atmosphere(N$_{2}$) were painted on the surface with CuO paste, and then annealed at 1100.deg. C for 2 hr. SEM and EDAX revealed that CuO penetrated rapidly into the bulk along the grain boundaries during the annealing. Grain size increased with increasing Ca content up to 15[mol%], but decreased with further addition. In the specimens with 10-15[mol%l of Ca, excellent dielectric properties were obtained as follows; dielectric constant <25000, dielectric loss(tan .delta[%]) <0.3[%] and capacitance change rate with temperature <.+-.[%], respectively. All the specimens in this study exhibited dielectric relaxation with frequency as a function of the temperature. The dispersive frequency was over 10$^{6}$ [Hz].z].

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CA 15-3 (Mucin-1) and Physiological Characteristics of Breast Cancer from Lahore, Pakistan

  • Begum, Mumtaz;Karim, Sajjad;Malik, Arif;Khurshid, Rukhshan;Asif, Muhammad;Salim, Asmat;Nagra, Saeed Ahmed;Zaheer, Ahmad;Iqbal, Zafar;Abuzenadah, Adel Mohammed;Alqahtani, Mohammed Hussain;Rasool, Mahmood
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.10
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    • pp.5257-5261
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    • 2012
  • Background: High incidence of breast cancer and its fatal effect has reached an alarming stage across the globe, including the third world countries. Many factors have been reported to be associated with the development of breast cancer but detailed structural and functional information is missing. CA 15-3 is one of the known potential tumor marker of breast cancer; however little is known about structure and functional site of this protein. Present study aims to investigate the functional role of CA 15-3 in breast cancer, especially in development and metastasis. Material and Methods: Hundred female breast cancer patients confirmed by histopathological reports were included in the study. Their physiological characters were recorded in a performa. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique was used to estimate serum CA 15-3 level. Immunohistochemistry was done for estrogen (ER), progesterone (PR) and Her2/neu receptors expression. Results: The study revealed the details of physiological characteristics of female breast cancer. Mean age was $37.72{\pm}5.99$ and $55.05{\pm}7.28$ years and serum CA 15-3 (MUC1) level was $60.47{\pm}8.59$ and $63.17{\pm}4.58$ U/ml in pre and post-menopause respectively, and both groups of women had sedentary life style. Their receptor status especially of progesterone, estrogen and HER-2/neu were positive in 50% of premenopausal women and 65% of postmenopausal women. Conclusion: There are multiple physiological factors promoting breast cancer. High serum CA 15-3 level and hormonal imbalance of ER, PR and Her2/neu appears to be the main cause of breast cancer. It may be possible that the functional sites of these proteins may be altered which may increase the chances of metastasis in breast cancer.

Lower the Detection Limits of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

  • John A., Eliades;Song, Jong-Han;Kim, Jun-Gon;Kim, Jae-Yeol;O, Jong-Ju;Kim, Jong-Chan
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
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    • pp.243-244
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    • 2013
  • Over the past 15 years, several groups have incorporated radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) based instruments before the accelerator in accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) systems for ion-gas interactions at low kinetic energy (<40 eV). Most AMS systems arebased on a tandem accelerator, which requires negative ions at injection. Typically, AMS sensitivity abundance ratios for radioactive-to-stable isotope are limited to Xr/Xs >10^-15, and the range of isotopes that can be analyzed is limited because of theneed to produce rather large negative ion beams and the presence of atomic isobaric interferences after stripping. The potential of using low-kinetic energy ion-gas interactions for isobar suppression before the accelerator has been demonstrated for several negative ion isobar systems with a prototype RFQ system incorporated into the AMS system at IsoTrace Laboratory, Canada (Ontario, Toronto). Requisite for any such RFQ system applied to very rare isotope analysis is large transmission of the analyte ion. This requires proper phase-space matching between the RFQ acceptance and the ion beam phase space (e.g. 35 keV, ${\varphi}3mm$, +-35 mrad), and the ability to control the average ion energy during interactions with the gas. A segmented RFQ instrument is currently being designed at Korea Institute for Science and Technology (한국과학기술연구원, KIST). It will consist of: a) an initial static voltage electrode deceleration region, to lower the ion energy from 35 keV down to <40 eV at injection into the first RFQ segment; b) the segmented quadrupole ion-gas interaction region; c) a static voltage electrode re-acceleration region for ion injection into a tandem accelerator. Design considerations and modeling will be discussed. This system should greatly lower the detection limits of the 6 MV AMS system currently being commissioned at KIST. As an example, current detection sensitivity of 41Ca/Ca is limited to the order of 10^-15 while the 41Ca/Ca abundance in modern samples is typically 41Ca/Ca~10^-14 - 10^-15. The major atomic isobaric interference in AMS is 41K. Proof-of-principal work at IsoTrace Lab. has demonstrated that a properly designed system can achieve a relative suppression of KF3-/41CaF3- >4 orders of magnitude while maintaining very high transmission of the 41CaF3- ion. This would lower the 41Ca detection limits of the KIST AMS system to at least 41Ca/Ca~10^-19. As Ca is found in bones and shells, this would potentially allow direct dating of valuable anthropological archives and archives relevant to our understanding of the most pronounced climate change events over the past million years that cannot be directly dated with the presently accessible isotopes.

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Electrosynthesized poly(1,5-diaminonaphthalene)/polypyrrole nanowires bilayer as an immunosensor platform for breast cancer biomarker CA 15-3

  • Nguyen, Van-Anh;Nguyen, Huy L.;Nguyen, Dzung T.;Do, Quan P.;Tran, Lam D.
    • Current Applied Physics
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    • v.17 no.11
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    • pp.1422-1429
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    • 2017
  • In this paper, an electrosynthesized bilayer film of polypyrrole nanowire and poly(1,5-diaminonaphthalene) on a disposable screen-printing carbon ink electrode is presented. The inner polypyrrole nanowire layer had a large surface-to-volume ratio and high conductivity in the neutral medium, whereas the outer layer of poly(1,5diaminonaphthalene) had functional amino groups on the polymer chains. The combination of polypyrrole nanowire and poly(1,5diaminonaphthalene) showed a promising material for electrochemical biosensing. Here we reported an electrochemical immunosensor based on this approach for the purpose of detecting breast cancer biomarkers. The bilayer could enhance the surface coverage of antibody anti-CA 15-3 and consequently improve the sensitivity and stability of the immunosensors. The magnetic beads were used as carriers of labeled antibody anti-CA15-3 and HRP (horseradish peroxidase) in order to achieve an amplification of the signal. Under optimized conditions, the linear range of the immunoassay was $0.05-20U\;mL^{-1}$ with a detection limit of $0.02U\;mL^{-1}$ CA 15-3 antigen.

Differential expression of rice calmodulin promoters in response to stimuli and developmental tissue in transgenic tobacco plants

  • Kim, Yu-Jung;Cho, Eun-Kyung;Lee, Soo-In;Lim, Chae-Oh;Choi, Young-Ju
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.43 no.1
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    • pp.9-16
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    • 2010
  • The promoters of OsCaM1 and OsCaM3 were characterized after sequencing and fused to the reporter gene, GUS. The constructs were then transformed into the tobacco plant. Histochemical analysis of GUS showed different expression patterns in pOsCaM1::GUS and pOsCaM3:: GUS transgenic plants. The expression of pOsCaM1::GUS in 4- to 15-day-old seedlings in particular was observed only in the root, while the expression of pOsCaM3::GUS was detected in both the cotyledons and root. Also, pRCaM1::GUS was detected in all the tissues surrounding the root system, while the presence of pOsCaM3::GUS was observed in the root, except in the root meristem. However, in mature transgenic plants, the expression of pOsCaM1::GUS and OsRCaM3::GUS was scarcely detected. Under wounding stress, the GUS activity of pOsCaM1 and pOsCaM3 was strongly induced, and the activity of pOsCaM3 especially, was retained for long periods. In the phloem, pOsCaM3 activity induced by hormone treatments and abiotic stresses was also identified.

Effect of the applied voltage of pulsed electric fields and temperature on the reduction of calcium ion concentration (고전압 펄스 전계의 인가전압과 온도가 수중 칼슘 농도 저감에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Jae-Hyun;Chang, In-Soung
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.95-101
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    • 2019
  • High voltage impulse(HVI) has been gained attention as an alternate technique controlling $CaCO_3$ scale formation. Investigation of key operational parameters for HVI is important, however, those had not been reported yet. In this study, the effect of temperature and applied voltage of HVI on $Ca^{2+}$ concentration was studied. As the applied voltage from 0 to 15kV and the temperature increased from 20 to $60^{\circ}C$, the $Ca^{2+}$ concentration decreased, indicating that the aqueous $Ca^{2+}$ precipitated to $CaCO_3$. The $Ca^{2+}$ concentration decreased up to 81% under the condition of 15kV and $60^{\circ}C$. Rate constant for the precipitation reaction, k was determined under different temper1ature and voltage. The reaction rate constant under the 15kV and $60^{\circ}C$ condition was evaluated to $66{\times}10^{-3}L/(mmol{\cdot}hr)$, which was 5 times greater than the k of the reaction without HVI at same temperature. The increases in k by HVI at higher temperature region(40 to $60^{\circ}C$) was much greater than at lower temperature region(20 to $40^{\circ}C$), which implies temperature is more important parameter than voltage for reducing $Ca^{2+}$ concentration at high temperature region. These results show that the HVI induction accelerates the precipitation to $CaCO_3$, particularly much faster at higher temperature.

Protein, Ca, Mg and P Intakes of Breast-fed Infants during Lactation (모유영양아의 수유기간별 단백질, 칼슘, 마그네슘과 인 섭취량)

  • 김을상;금혜경
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.36 no.9
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    • pp.942-949
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    • 2003
  • This study was longitudinally conducted to evaluate the intakes of protein, Ca, Mg and P of exclusively breast-fed infants compared with the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) for Korean infants. Twenty Korean lactating women and their infants during the first 3 months of lactation in Incheon area were participated. Protein, Ca and Mg, and P contents in the milk were determined using semimicro Kjeldahl (N ${\times}$ 6.38) , atomic absorption spectrophotometer and colorimeter, respectively, and also the milk consumption of the infants was measured by the test-weighing method. Protein contents of the milk were 1.96, 1.63, 1.51, 1.25 and 1.16 g/100 ml, and protein intakes of the breast-fed infants were 9.00, 9.85, 9.17, 8.97 and 7.76 g/day at 7, 15, 30, 60 and 90 days postpartum. The average protein intake per body weight of the breast-fed infants was 1.84 g/kg/day. The average intakes of Ca, Mg, P were 172.1 mg/day, 15.2 mg/day and 91.4 mg/day, respectively, and the average Ca/P ratio was 1.91. There was positive correlation between protein and Ca, protein and p, and Ca and P contents while negative correlation between Mg and P, The body weight of breast-fed infants increased normally from 3.6 $\pm$ 0.41 g at birth to three month during lactation. It is suggested that the breast-fed infants in Incheon area consume almost adequately protein, Ca and P from the milk compared with RDA for Korean infants.

A Study on Redox Properties of CaSnO3 Oxygen Carrier for Chemical Looping Combustion Process (매체순환연소공정용 CaSnO3 산소전달입자의 산화·환원 특성 연구)

  • Son, Eun Nam;Baek, Seung Hun;Lee, Roosse;Sohn, Jung Min
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.43-48
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    • 2019
  • This study investigated the feasibility of $CaSnO_3$ particles as an oxygen carrier in chemical looping combustion (CLC). $CaSnO_3$ particles had a perovskite crystal structure and showed the structural stability after repeated reduction-oxidation reactions. The oxygen transfer capacity was 15.4 wt% almost the same as the calculated theoretical value from the crystal structure transformation during reduction. After $10^{th}$ cycles of reduction and oxidation, the oxygen transfer capacity and rate were still maintained constantly at an operating temperature. In conclusion, $CaSnO_3$ particles could be a good alternative material as an oxygen carrier in CLC.

The Influence of PbO Content on the Crystallisation Characteristics and Dielectric Properties of Glass Frit for LTCC (LTCC용 Glass Frit의 결정화 특성 및 유전 특성에 대한 PbO 함량의 영향)

  • Park, Jeong-Hyun;Kim, Yong-Nam;Song, Kyu-Ho;Yoo, Jae-Young
    • Journal of the Korean Ceramic Society
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    • v.39 no.5
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    • pp.438-445
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    • 2002
  • In this study, the glass frit of $PbO-TiO-2-SiO_2-BaO-ZnO-Al_2O-3-CaO-B_2O_3-Bi_2O_3-MgO$ system was manufactured. The glass was melted at $1,400{\circ}C$, quenched and attrition-milled. The glass frit powder was pressed and fired for 2h at the range of $750~1,000{\circ}C$. The crystallization of glass frit began at about $750{\circ}$ and at low temperature, the main crystal phases were hexagonal celsian($BaAl_2Si_2O_8$) and alumina. As the firing temperature increased, the crystal phases of monoclinic celsian, zinc aluminate, zinc silicate, calcium titanium silicate and titania appeared. And the increase of firing temperature led to transformation of hexagonal celsian to monoclinic. The only glass frit containing 15wt% PbO had the crystal phase of solid solution of $PbTiO_3-CaTiO_3$. At the frequency of 1 MHz, the dielectric constant of glass frit crystallized was in the range of 11~16 and the dielectric loss less than 0.020. But the glass frit containing 15wt% PbO had the dielectric constant of 17~26 and loss of 0.010~0.015 because of crystal phase of solid solution of $PbTiO_3-CaTiO_3$.

The Insulation Characteristics of ($Ba_{0.85}Ca_{0.15}$)$TiO_3$-Zn Dielectrics (($Ba_{0.85}Ca_{0.15}$)$TiO_3$-Zn 유전체의 절연특성)

  • 홍경진;구할본;김태성;이준웅
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers Conference
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    • pp.29-33
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    • 1995
  • The ($Ba_{0.85}Ca_{0.15}$)$TiO_3$-Zndielectrics was made by ZnO mol ratio from 0.1 to 0.4. The characteristics of structural was analyzed by SEM and XRD and the insulating properties was examined by dielectric constant and resistivity. The grain size were 1.3[$\mu\textrm{m}$] and those shape ware a rectangular. The relativity density were over 90[%] in all specimen. It was found that the best insulating characteristics were obtained for 0.3 mol ratio.

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