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Expression and Significance of ER, PR, VEGF, CA15-3, CA125 and CEA in Judging the Prognosis of Breast Cancer

  • Zhang, Su-Jie;Hu, Yi;Qian, Hai-Li;Jiao, Shun-Chang;Liu, Zhe-Feng;Tao, Hai-Tao;Han, Lu
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.3937-3940
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    • 2013
  • Objective: To explore the expression and significance of estrogen receptor (ER), progestrone receptor (PR), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), CA15-3, CA125 and carcinoma embryonic antigen (CEA) expression in judging the prognosis of breast cancer. Materials and Methods: Sixty-five patients with breast cancer undergoing operations in the general surgery department were considered as the observation group, and 50 healthy outpatients of our hospital as the control group. Cubital venous blood was drawn in the morning from fasting patients in the two groups and chemiluminescence immunoassays were used to detect the levels of CA15-3, CA125 and CEA in serum. The follow-up duration was from 4 months to 2 years, and change in levels of the indicators was detected by dynamically drawing blood. After surgery, cancer tissue samples of patients in observation group remained on file (the non-recurrent patients were biopsied). Immunohistochemistry was applied to determine the expression of ER, PR and VEGF in tissue. Results: The effective rate of 12 patients with negative ER and PR expression was 33.3% in the observation group, being associated with prognosis to varying extents. Serum CA15-3, CA125 and CEA in the observation group were all significantly higher than in control group (p<0.01). With increase in pathological staging, levels of serum CA15-3, CA125 and CEA gradually increased (p<0.01). Levels in patients with lymph node metastasis were markedly higher than in those without (p<0.01). In addition, values with distal lymph node metastasis were notably higher than with adjacent lymph node metastasis (p<0.01). The postoperative follow-up results revealed that positive VEGF and levels of serum VEGF, CA15-3, CA125 and CEA in recurrence group were obviously higher than in non-recurrence group (p<0.01). Conclusions: Joint detection of ER and PR expression as well as levels of serum VEGF, CA15-3, CA125 and CEA is meaningful and can guide the diagnosis and treatment for breast cancer.

$^4I_{13/2}longrightarrow^4I_{15/2}$ Radiative Transitions of $Er^{3+}$ in $CaO-Al_2O_3$ Glasses ($CaO-Al_2O_3$계 유리에 함유된 $Er^{3+}$ 이온의 $^4I_{13/2}longrightarrow^4I_{15/2}$ 복사 천이 특성)

  • 원종원;박용완
    • Journal of the Korean Ceramic Society
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    • v.31 no.8
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    • pp.861-868
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    • 1994
  • CaO-Al2O3 glass is a good candidate as optical fiber amplifier and laser. In this study, optical properties for 4I13/2longrightarrow4I15/2 transition of Er3+ ions doped in CaO-Al2O3 glasses were investigated. Optical absorptions, radiative transition probabilities and lifetimes for 4I13/2 level were evaluated by using Judd-Ofelt theory. Also, induced- emmision cross-sections of 4I13/2longrightarrow4I15/2 transition were calculated. Radiative transition probability and lifetime of 4I13/2 level were 144.6s-1, 690$mutextrm{s}$ respectively for 60CaO.40Al2O3 glass(FS0) and 152.6s-1, 660 $mutextrm{s}$ for 54 CaO.36Al2O3.10SiO2 glass (FS10). Each induced-emission cross sections for FS0 and FS10 was 0.749$\times$10-20 $\textrm{cm}^2$, 0.892$\times$10-20 $\textrm{cm}^2$. Obtained values were comparable with those of ZBLA glass studied as optical fiber amplifier and laser material.

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Biomimetic sequestration of $CO_2$ and reformation to $CaCO_3$ using bovine carbonic anhydrase immobilized on SBA-15 (생체모방공학을 이용한 bovine carbonic anhydrase를 SBA-15에 고정화하여 이산화탄소분리와 재구성된 $CaCO_3$ 연구)

  • Vinoba, Mari;Kim, Dae-Hoon;Lim, Kyoung-Soo;Jeong, Soon-Kwan;Alagar, Muthukaruppan
    • Proceedings of the KAIS Fall Conference
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    • pp.495-499
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    • 2010
  • The biocatalytic capture of $CO_2$, and its precipitationas $CaCO_3$, over bovine carbonic anhydrase (BCA) immobilized on a pore-expanded SBA-15 support was investigated. SBA-15 was synthesized using TMB as a pore expander, and the resulting porous silica was characterized by XRD, BET, IR, and FE-SEM analysis. BCA was immobilized on SBA-15 through various approaches, including covalent attachment (BCA-CA), adsorption (BCA-ADS), and cross-linked enzyme aggregation (BCA-CLEA). The immobilization of BCA on SBA-15 was confirmed by the presence of zinc metal in the EDXS analysis. The effects of pH, temperature, storage stability, and reusability on the biocatalytic performance of BCA were characterized by examining para-nitrophenyl acetate (p-NPA) hydrolysis. The $K_{cat}/K_m$ values for p-NPA hydrolysis were 740.05, 660.62, and $680.11M^{-1}s^{-1}$, respectively, where as $K_{cat}/K_m$ for free BCA was $873.76M^{-1}s^{-1}$. The amount of $CaCO_3$ precipitate was measured quantitatively using anion-selective electrode and was found to be 12.41, 11.82, or 11.28 mg $CaCO_3$/mg for BCA-CLEA, BCA-ADS, or BCA-CA, respectively. The present results indicate that the immobilized BCA-CLEA, BCA-ADS, and BCA-CA are green materials, and are tunable, reusable, and promising biocatalysts for $CO_2$ sequestration.

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Temporal Changes of Plasma Vitellogenin (VTG), Alkaline-Labile Protein Phosphorus (ALPP), Calcium (Ca), Glutamate Pyruvate Transaminase (GPT) and Hepatosomatic Index (HSI) in the $Estradiol-17\beta-Administered$ Immature Rockfish, Sebastes schlegeli ($Estradiol-17\beta$의 복강주사에 따른 미성숙 조피볼락, Sebastes schlegeli의 혈장 VTG, ALPP, Ca, GPT 및 HSI의 일시적 변동)

  • Hwang, Un-Gi;Sim, Jeong-Min;Park, Seung-Yun;Ji, Jeong-Hun;Gang, Ju-Chan
    • Journal of fish pathology
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.191-198
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    • 2004
  • Temporal changes of plasma vitellogenin (VTG), alkaline-labile protein phosphorus (ALPP), calcium (Ca), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) and hepatosomatic index (HSI) were examined in the $estradiol-17\beta$ ${E_2}$-administered immature rockfish, Sebastes schlegeli. Fish were intraperitoneally injected with ${E_2}$ (5 ㎎/kg B.W.) in 70% ethanol and then plasma were extracted at 0, 1, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 days. VTG band was detected at a molecular weight position of about 170 kDa on Day 3 in SDS-PAGE. This band became more distinct at 6 days but its was gradually thinned with time-course, and not detected at 15 days. Plasma ALPP and Ca increased suddenly at 1 day and the highest concentrations were detected at 6 days and then these concentrations decreased gradually with time-course. ALPP and Ca concentrations at 15 days after E2 administration were very similar to that before E2 administration. GPT was increased at 1 day and higher GPT was detected at 3 days. However, GPT was gradually decreased with time-course. GPT and HSI at 15 days after E2 administration were also very similar to that before E2 administration. HSI was also increased at 1 day and the highest value was detected at 3 days and then gradually decreased with time-course. These results suggest that plasma ALPP, Ca, GPT and HSI could be utilized as a biomarker of exogenous E2 exposure in coastal ecosystem, because the changes of ALPP, Ca, GPT and HSI after E2 administration are very similar to that of VTG.

Requests for Tumor Marker Tests in Turkey Without Indications and Frequency of Elevation in Benign Conditions

  • Cure, Medine Cumhur;Cure, Erkan;Kirbas, Aynur;Yazici, Tarkan;Yuce, Suleyman
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.12
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    • pp.6485-6489
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    • 2012
  • Aims: To investigate the incidence of ordering tests for tumor markers which are used in cancer diagnosis, follow-up treatment and detection of recurrence, the rate of elevation in benign diseases and which clinics order them frequently. Materials and Method: Data for the tumor markers carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), cancer antigen 125 (CA 125), cancer antigen 15-3 (CA 15-3) and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) that were ordered by all the clinics in our Hospital between 2010 and 2011 were screened. When excluding repeated orders the results of 3,416 patients were available. It has been determined that in which benign diseases were the tumor markers frequently ordered and which of these conditions had high levels of them. Results: CA 19-9 was ordered for 1,858 patients 191 (10.3%) were malignant while 1667 (89.7%) were ordered in benign diseases. For CEA the total was 1,710, 226 (13.2%) malignant and 1484 (86.8%) benign, and for CA 125 1267, 111 (8.8%) malignant and 1156 (91.2%) benign. AFP was ordered for 1687 cases, 80 (4.7%) malignant but 1607 (95.3%) benign. CA 15-3 was ordered 1449 times, 174 (12%) for malignant and 1275 (88%) for benign diseases. In all cases, considerable proportions were positive. Conclusions: It was shown that clinicians frequently order tumor markers for benign conditions. The findings of this study has shown that tumor markers are used widely without indications as cancer screening tests.

Glass Forming Ability and Characteristic Evaluation in Ca-Mg-Zn Alloy System (Ca-Ma-Zn 합금계에서 비정질 형성능 및 특성 평가)

  • Park, Eun-Soo;Kim, Won-Tae;Kim, Do-Hyang
    • Journal of Korea Foundry Society
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.77-84
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    • 2006
  • The effect of alloy composition on the glass forming ability (GFA) of the Ca-rich Ca-Mg-Zn alloys has been investigated in $Ca_{65}Mg_{5+x}Zn_{30-x}$ and $Ca_{55+x}Mg_{15}Zn_{30-x}$ (x=0, 5, 10, 15, 20) alloys. In a wide composition range of 15-25% Zn and 10-20% Mg bulk metallic glass (BMG) samples with the diameter larger than 6 mm are fabricated by conventional copper mold casting method in air atmosphere. Among the alloys investigated, the $Ca_{65}Mg_{15}Zn_{20}$ alloy exhibits the highest GFA enabling to form BMG sample with the diameter of at least 15 mm. The crystalline phase formed during solidification of $Ca_{65}Mg_{15}Zn_{20}$ ($D_{max}=15\;mm$) could be identified as a mixture of $Ca_3Zn$ and $CaMg_2$ cause by the redistribution of the constituent elements on long-range scale. The compressive fracture strength and fracture elongation of the $Ca_{65}Mg_{15}Zn_{20}$ BMG are 602 MPa and 2.08% respectively. The ${\sigma}$ parameter which has been recently proposed for evaluating GFA exhibits better correlation with GFA of Ca-Mg-Zn alloys than other parameters suggested so far such as ${\Delta}T_x$, $T_{rg}$, K, ${\gamma}$, and ${\Delta}T^*$ parameters.

Performance Analysis of Directional CSMA/CA for IEEE 802.15.3c under Saturation Environments

  • Kim, Mee-Joung;Kim, Yong-Sang;Lee, Woo-Yong
    • ETRI Journal
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.24-34
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    • 2012
  • In this paper, the directional carrier sense multiple access/collision avoidance (CSMA/CA) protocol in the immediate acknowledgement mode for IEEE 802.15.3c is analyzed under saturation environments. For the analysis, a sensing region and an exclusive region with a directional antenna are computed probabilistically and a Markov chain model in which the features of IEEE 802.15.3c and the effects of using directional antennas are incorporated is analyzed. An algorithm to find the maximal number of concurrently transmittable frames is proposed. The system throughput and the average transmission delay are obtained in closed forms. The numerical results show the impact of directional antennas on the CSMA/CA media access control (MAC) protocol. For instance, the throughput with a small beamwidth of antenna is more than ten times larger than that for an omnidirectional antenna. The overall analysis is verified by a simulation. The obtained results will be helpful in developing an MAC protocol for enhancing the performance of mmWave wireless personal area networks.

Prognostic Significance of Circulating Tumor Cells and Serum CA15-3 Levels in Metastatic Breast Cancer, Single Center Experience, Preliminary Results

  • Tarhan, Mustafa Oktay;Gonel, Ataman;Kucukzeybek, Yuksel;Erten, Cigdem;Cuhadar, Serap;Yigit, Seyran Ceri;Atay, Aysenur;Somali, Isil;Dirican, Ahmet;Demir, Lutfiye;Koseoglu, Mehmet
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.1725-1729
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    • 2013
  • Background: Breast cancer is the second leading cancer causing death in women. Circulating tumor cells are among the prognostic factors while tumor markers are of diagnostic value and can be used for follow-up. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between the prognostic significance of the serum CA15-3 levels, number of circulating tumor cells and histopathological tumor factors. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients recently diagnosed with breast cancer were included in the study. Number of circulating tumor cells and serum CA15-3 level were assessed when metastasis was detected and diagnostic value was assessed. Presence of associations with estrogen and progesterone receptors, c-erbB2, Ki-67 proliferation index and histological grade were also evaluated. Results: Median overall survival of the patients with serum CA15-3 levels of >108 ng/dl was 19 months whereas for those with a low serum level it was 62 months. Median overall survival for CTC ${\geq}5$ vs CTC<5 patients was 19 months and 40 months respectively. The difference between the two groups was statistically significant. Conclusions: Prognostic significance of the CTC count and CA15-3 levels in metastatic breast cancer patients was demonstrated.

Relations between Composition, Temperature and Electrical Conductivity of (60-xSiO2-40Na2O-xCaO(x=0∼15wt%) Glass System ((60-x)SiO2-40Na2O-xCaO(x=0∼15wt%)조성유리계의 조성, 온도 및 전기전도도간의 상관특성)

  • Jung, Y.J.;Lee, K.H.;Kim, T.H.;Kim, Y.S.;Chin, H.J.;Ryu, B.K.
    • Korean Journal of Materials Research
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    • v.17 no.8
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    • pp.414-419
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    • 2007
  • We report the electrical conductivity of the mixed alkali silicate glasses in the system (60-x)$SiO_2-40Na_2O-xCaO(x=0\sim15wt%)$ in the temperature range from $150^{\circ}C$ to $620^{\circ}C$. In the range from $150^{\circ}C$ to glass transition temperature$(T_g)$, the electrical conductivities of glass samples had a tendency to be proportion with temperature. The glasses of containing over 7.5wt% CaO showed lower conductivities than the glasses of containing 0 and 5wt% CaO because two kinds of alkali ions$(Na^+,\;Ca^{2+})$ were obstructed each other. On the other hand, in the range from $T_g$ to $620^{\circ}C$, the electrical conductivity of glasses($7.5{\leq}x{\leq}12.5$) was unstable and decreased in some region. From XRD results, the $Na_4Ca(SiO_3)_3$ phase were observed in these glasses. This means the alkali ions didn't behave as carrier, it seems that this caused the conductivities decrease. In case of glass of containing 15wt% CaO, any crystal phase were not observed. This means the alkali ions behaved as carrier, it consequently seems the conductivity increased.

Correlation of Preoperative Ki67 and Serum CA15.3 Levels with Outcome in Early Breast Cancers - a Multi Institutional Study

  • Rasmy, A;Abozeed, W;Elsamany, S;El Baiomy, M;Nashwa, A;Amrallah, A;Hasaan, E;Alzahrani, A;Faris, M;Alsaleh, K;AlFaraj, A
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.7
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    • pp.3595-3600
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    • 2016
  • Background: To investigate the association between preoperative pathological Ki-67 labeling index and serum tumor marker cancer antigen 15-3 (CA 15-3) with clinic-pathological parameters and treatment outcomes in early breast cancer. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study at 4 cancer centers in Saudi Arabia and Egypt was performed. Data were collected for female patients diagnosed with unilateral early breast cancer between March 2010 and October 2013. Cases treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) followed by surgery and radiotherapy were included. NACT included 6-8 cycles of anthracycline and taxane based regimens. Trastuzumab and hormonal treatments were added according to HER2 and hormone receptor status. Baseline serum CA15.3 and pathological Ki67 levels were evaluated and correlated with disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Results: A total of 280 pts was included. The median age was 49 years (38-66 y) and median overall survival was 35 (20-38) months (mo). Estrogen receptors (ER), progesterone receptors (PR) and HER 2 receptors were positive in 233 (83.2%), 198 (70%) and 65 cases (23.2%), respectively. High preoperative Ki67 and CA15.3 were noted in 177 (63.2%) and 131 (46.8%). A total of 45 (16%) patients had distal or local recurrence and 24 (8.6%) died of their disease. Most of the relapsed cases had high preoperative Ki-67 (n=41, 91%) and CA15.3 (n=28, 62%) values. All of the patients who died had a high Ki-67 but CA15.3 was high in 9 (37%) only. Mean DFS/OS in patients with high preoperative Ki-67 was 32 months /32 months as compared to 37 months/35 months in those with normal Ki-67 (p<0.001). Correlation of preoperative CA15.3 and survival was statistically not significant. Conclusions:Preoperative Ki-67 can be a predictive and prognostic marker. Higher levels are associated with poor DFS and OS in patients with early BC.