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The effect of silk fibroin and rhBMP-2 on bone regeneration in rat calvarial defect model (백서 두개골결손모델에서 실크단백과 골형성단백 이식체가 골재생에 미치는 영향)

  • Nam, Jeong-Hun;Noh, Kyung-Lok;Pang, Eun-O;Yu, Woo-Geun;Kang, Eung-Sun;Kweon, Hae-Yong;Kim, Seong-Gon;Park, Young-Ju
    • Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
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    • v.36 no.5
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    • pp.366-374
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    • 2010
  • Introduction: This study evaluated the capability of silk fibroin (SF) and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 loaded SF (SF-BMP) as a bone defect replacement matrix when grafted in a calvarial bone defect of rats in vivo. Materials and Methods: A total 70 calvarial critical size defects (5.0 mm in diameter) made on 35 adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this study. The defects were transplanted with (1) rhBMP-2 loaded silk fibroin graft (SF-BMP: 0.8+$10\;{\mu}g$), (2) Silk fibroin (SF: $10\;{\mu}g$), and (3) no graft material (Raw). The samples were evaluated with soft x-rays, alkaline phosphatase activity, calcium/phosphate quantification, histological and histomorphometric analysis at postoperative 4 and 8 weeks. Results: The SF-BMP group ($48.86{\pm}14.92%$) had a significantly higher mean percentage bone area than the SF group ($24.96{\pm}11.01%$) at postoperative 4 weeks.(P<0.05) In addition, the SF-BMP group ($40.01{\pm}12.43%$) had a higher % bone area at postoperative 8 weeks than the SF group ($33.26{\pm}5.15%$). The mean ratio of gray scale levels to the host bone showed that the SF-BMP group ($0.67{\pm}0.08$) had a higher mean ratio level than the SF group ($0.61{\pm}0.09$) at postoperative 8 weeks. These differences were not statistically significant.(P=0.168 and P=0.243, respectively) The ratio of the calcium and phosphate contents of the SF-BMP ($0.93{\pm}0.22$) group was lower than that of the SF ($1.90{\pm}1.42$) group at postoperative 4 weeks. However, the SF-BMP group ($0.75{\pm}0.31$) had a higher Ca/$PO_4$ ratio than the SF ($0.68{\pm}0.04$) at postoperative 8 weeks. These differences were not statistically significant.(P=0.126 and P=0.627, respectively) For the bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, which is recognized as a reliable indicator of the osteoblast function, the SF-BMP ($23.71{\pm}8.60\;U/L$) groups had a significantly higher value than the SF group ($12.65{\pm}6.47\;U/L$) at postoperative 4 weeks.(P<0.05) At postoperative 8 weeks, the SF-BMP ($21.65{\pm}10.02\;U/L$) group had a lower bone-specific ALP activity than the SF group ($16.72{\pm}7.35\;U/L$). This difference was not statistically significant.(P=0.263) For the histological evaluation, the SF-BMP group revealed less inflammation, lower foreign body reactions and higher bone healing than the SF group at postoperative 4 and 8 weeks. The SF group revealed more foreign body reactions at postoperative 4 weeks. However, this immunogenic reaction decreased and the remnant of grafted material was observed at postoperative 8 weeks. For histomorphometric analysis, the SF-BMP group had a significantly longer bone length to total length ratio than those of the SF group at postoperative 4 and 8 weeks.(P<0.05) Conclusion: The rhBMP-2 loaded silk fibroin graft revealed fewer immunoreactions and inflammation as well as more new bone formation than the pure silk fibroin graft. Therefore, silk fibroin may be a candidate scaffold for tissue engineered bone regeneration.

The effects of noncrystalline calcium phosphate glass on the healing of 1-wall intrabony defects in beagle dogs (비결정성 calcium phosphate가 성견의 1면 골내낭에서의 치주조직 재생에 미치는 영향)

  • Baik, Dong-Hoon;Hwang, Sung-Joon;Kim, Chang-Sung;Lee, Yong-Keun;Cho, Kyoo-Sung;Chai, Jung-Kiu;Kim, Chong-Kwan;Choi, Seong-Ho
    • Journal of Periodontal and Implant Science
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.113-126
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    • 2004
  • 연구목적 : 이번 실험의 목적은 외과적으로 형성된 성견의 1면 골내낭에 새롭게 제조된, Ca/P 비율이 0.6인 비결정성 calcium phosphate를 적용하였을 때 치주조직의 재생에 미치는 영향을 평가하는 것이다. 연구방법 : 6마리 성견의 양측 하악 제2소구치의 원심면, 제4소구치의 근섬면에 외과적으로 1면 골내낭을 형성하여 치은박리소파술을 시행한 부위를 대조군으로, calcium phosphate만을 이식한 부위를 실험 1군, calcium phosphate와 GTR을 동반한 부위를 실험 2군으로 설정하고 실험하여 술 후 8주에 치유결과를 조직학적으로 관찰하였다. 결론 : 1. 접합상피의 치근단 이동은 대조군에서 결손부 깊이의 30.90 ${\pm}$ 9.92%, 실험 1군에서 결손부 깊이의 24.08 ${\pm}$ 9.12%, 실험 2군에서 결손부 깊이의 38.68 ${\pm}$ 12.22%로 나타났으며 대조군과 실험 1,2군간에 통계적 유의차는 없었다. 2. 결합조직 유착은 대조군에서 결손부 깊이의 36.38 ${\pm}$ 9.03%, 실험 1군에서 결손부 깊이의 26.96 ${\pm}$ 4.24%, 실험 2군에서 결손부 깊이의 27.87 ${\pm}$ 9.70%로 나타났으며 대조군과 실험 1,2군간에 통계적 유의차는 없었다. 3. 신생백악질 형성은 대조군에서 결손부 깊이의 32.92 ${\pm}$ 10.51%, 실험 1군에서 결손부 깊이의 49.16 ${\pm}$ 12.70%, 실험 2군에서 결손부 깊이의 39.62 ${\pm}$ 12.14%로 나타났으며 대조군과 실험 1군간에 통계적 유의차가 있었다. 4. 신생골 형성은 대조군에서 결손부 깊이의 27.24 ${\pm}$ 7.49%, 실험 1군에서 결손부 깊이의 43.51 ${\pm}$ 13.34%, 실험 2군에서 결손부 깊이의 36.47 ${\pm}$ 15.11%로 나타났으며 대조군과 실험 1, 2군간에 통계적 유의차는 없었다. 이상의 결과에서 볼 때, calcium phosphate glasses는 신생골 형성에는 통계적으로 유의차는 없었지만 상당히 증가된 양상을 보였고 신생백악질 형성에는 크게 기여함을 알수 있었다.

Phytochemical compounds and quality characteristics of spray-dried powders with the blanching condition and selected forming agents from pressed extracts of Ligularia fischeri leaves (블랜칭 처리 및 부형제 종류에 따른 곰취 착즙액 분무건조 분말의 phytochemical 성분 및 품질특성)

  • Kim, Jae-Won;Park, In-Kyung;Youn, Kwang-Sup
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.20 no.5
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    • pp.659-667
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    • 2013
  • This study was performed to determine the effects of the blanching condition (immersion ratio 1:15 (w/v) for 3 min at $95^{\circ}C$, and solution containing 1% sodium chloride) and selected forming agents (dextrin DE=10, dextrin DE=20, ${\beta}$-cyclodextrin; each forming agents added 5%) on the phytochemical compounds and quality characteristics of Ligularia fischeri leaves. The moisture was not affected by the forming agent. The color of a, b and chroma values were low in the blanching treatment groups and were significantly lowest with ${\beta}$-cyclodextrin (CD). The polyphenol and flavonoid contents in the blanching treatment groups were higher than those in the non-blanching-treatment group. The ascorbic acid content was higher in the non-blanching-treatment group and was significantly highest in the group treated with dextrin (DE=10) whereas the blanching treatment groups showed lower dehydroascorbic acid content than the non-blanching-treatment group. The water absorption was higher in the non-blanching-treatment group and was significantly highest in the group treated with CD. The water solubility in the blanching treatment groups treated with dextrin (DE=20) and CD was higher than that in the blanching treatment group treated with DE=10. The total chlorophyll and chlorophyll a and b contents were high in the blanching treatment group treated with CD, and for the total carotenoid contents, the same tendency as that seen with the chlorophyll content was observed. With regard to the particle diameter, those in the blanching treatment groups were lower than that in the non-blanching-treatment group and was significantly lowest in the blanching treatment groups treated with DE=20 and CD. The result of SEM observation showed that the spray-dried powders in blanching treatment groups treated with the DE=20 and CD forming agents had uniform particle distribution.

Isolation of Marine Bacteria Killing Red Tide Microalgae -IV. Characteristics of Algicidal Substances, Produced from Micrococcus sp. LG-5 and the Effects on Marine Organisms- (적조생물 살조세균 탐색 -IV. 살조세균 Micrococcus sp. LG-5가 생산하는 살조물질의 특성과 해양생물에 미치는 영향-)

  • JEONG Seong-Youn;PARK Young-Tae;KIM Mu-Chan;CHOI Seok-Cheol;SEONG Hee-Kyung;KIM Jai-Young;KIM Tae-Un;LEE Won-Jae
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.339-347
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    • 2000
  • An algicidal bacterium, Micrococcus sp. LG-5 against the harmful dinoflagellate, Cochlodinium polykrikoides was isolated. The optimal conditions for the highest algicidal activity of bacterial culture filtrate showed in the range of $20{\~}30^{\circ}C$, at pH 7.0 and $3.0{\%}$ of NaCl concentration. In addition, $IC_(50)(mean of 50{\%} inhibitory concentration)$ of the culture filtrate against C. polykrikoides after incubation of 5 days was $0.482{\%}$. To investigate heat and pH stability of the culture filtrate of Micrococcus sp. LG-5, the culture filtrate ($pore size, 0.1 {\mu}m$) was heated to $121^{\circ}C for 15 min$ and adjusted pH from 2.0 to 10.0. There were no significant changes in algicidal activity by heat treatment and the pH change between pH from 5.0 to 10.0. The algicidal substances produced from Micrococcus sp. LG-5 were mainly detected in the fraction of $10,000{\~}1,000$ MWCO (molecular weight cut-off). The culture filtrate of Micrococous sp. LG-5 showed antimicrobial activity against Enterococcus faecalis, Escheiichia coli, Uebsiella pneunioniae and Vibrio altinolyticus, but did not show against Pseudomonas aeminosa, P. Buorescens, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, V. cholerae and V parahaemolyicus. The culture filtrate of Micrococcus sp. LG-5 was examined against 16 phytoplankton species and showed the algicidal activity against Ajexandzium tuarense, Eutreptiella Drnnastin, Gymnodinium catenatum, G. mikimotoi, G. sanguineum, eyodinium impuaicum, Heterocapsa triquetra, Heterosipa akashiwo, Prorocentrum micans and Pyraminonas sp.. However no algicidal effects of Micrococcus sp. LG-5 were observed against Chlamydomonas sp., Cylindrotheoa closterium, P. mininum, P. triestimum, Pseudonieschia sp. and Sczipuiella trochoidea. On the other hand, algicidal activity on the tested marinelivefood was not detected except for Isochrysis galbana. In addition, physiological responses of cultured olive flounder (Paralichthys oliraceus) exposed to $1 and 10{\%}$ of the culture filtrate of Micrococcus sp. LG-5 were measured. There were no clear changes in AST, GGT, creatinine, urea, total cholesterol, total protein, albumine, $Mg^(+2), Ca^(+2), Na^+, K^+, and Cl^-$. These results indicate that olive flounders were not affected when they were exposed to the culture filtrate of Micrococcus sp. LG-5.

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Studies on the Meat Production and Woolskin Processing of Sheep and Korean Native Goats for Increasing Farm Income as a Family Subsidiary Work (농가부업(農家副業)의 소득향상(所得向上)을 위한 양육생산(羊肉生産) 및 모피가공(毛皮加工)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Kwon, Soon-Ki;Kim, Jong-Woo;Han, Sung-Wook;Lee, Kyu Seung
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.93-114
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    • 1978
  • The purpose of the study was to find out possible ways for increasing farm income through the sheep and Korean native goats farming, and to investigate meat productivity, wool productivity; woolskin utility, physiological characteristics and correlation between economical college animal farm of the Chungnam National University and sample farms in the suburbs of Dae jeon City were selected for feeding 20 heads of Corriedale wethers and another 20 heads Korean native kids as research materials for the periods of 5th May-26th November, 1977. The data such as growth rate, carcass, viscera weight, blood picture and plamsa components, hebage intake and economic traits were obtained and analysed. The result of the study are summarized as follows: 1. Meat production and quality 1) After 196days of feeding, the body weight of sheep and Korean native goats was increased by two times of those at the beginning of the trial, i.e. 20kg and 8kg respectively. 2) There was no significance of growth rates of sheep in housing and grazing. 3) The growth rate of Korean native goats were excellent at the mountainous areas of Gong ju-Gun where infectious diseases were not found 4) Accroding to the body measurements of 18-month-old sheep, percentages of hip height, body length, rump length, chest depth, chest width, hip width, chest girth and forearm circumference to the withers height were 103,%, 104%, 33%, 44%, 31%, 23%, 135% and 15% respectively, and those of hip height, body length, chest depth and chest girth of 8-month-old native goats to the withers height were 106%, 109%, 46% and 122,% respecitively. As a result, it was found that the percentage of hip height, body length and chest depth of Korean native goats were higher than those of sheep while that of the chest girth of goats was lower. 5) In the carcass data, 47, $52{\pm}2.27%$ of carcass percentage, $34.61{\pm}1.62%$ of lean meat, $26.07{\pm}2.51%$ of viscera, $9.75{\pm}1.4%$ of bone, and $20.95%{\pm}2.14%$ of woolskin for sheep, and $45.58{\pm}5.63%$ of carcass percentage, $27.62{\p}3.81%$ of meat, $34.86{\pm}4.16%$ of viscera, $11.66{\pm}1.83%$ of bone, $3.63{\pm}1.61%$ of skull and $9.26{\pm}2.41%$ of woolskin for native goats were obtained. 6) The contents of moisture, crude protein, crude fat and crude ash in native goat meat were much similar in both plots of housing and grazing. It was, however, known that the contents of moisture and protein were higher in grazinrg than in housing, while fat content was lower in grazing plots. 7) The weights of visceral organs shown similar tendency for both of sheep and native goats. For the weights of liver, heart, kidney and spleen, significance was not reconized among the treatments. Those of rumen, reticulum, small and large intestine were heavier in grazing than in housing, while the amount of visceral fat was heavier in housing. 2. Wool productivity and woolskin 1) The wool production of sheep for 7 months was $3.88{\pm}1.02kg$, and wool percentage, staple length, straighten length, wool growth per day and number of crimps were $9.27{\pm}1.48%$, 8. $47{\pm}1.00cm$, $10.63{\pm}0.99cm$, $0.40{\pm}0.04cm$ and $2.78{\pm}0.40$ respecitively. 2) The tensile strength and tear strength of woolskin treated by alum tanning were highest on the skin obtained from rump, i.e. $1,351kg/mm^2$ and $2,252kg/mm^2$ respectively, and they are in order of loin and shoulder. 3. Utilization and improvement of pasture. 1) The difference of herbage intake of native goats was not recognized between grazing and tethering, but the intake in the afternoon was s lightly higher than that in the morning. However the hervage intake of sheep was superior in grazing and in the afternoon. 2) The cultivation effect was lower in the native goat plots due to their cultivation abilities, in other words, the establishment rates of pasture by hoof cultivation were 60.25% in the goat plots and 77.35% in the sheep plots. 4. Correlation among economical traits. 1) The correlation between live weight of sheep and daily gain was higher. On the other hand, the correlation between other traits was not significant except that live weight, daily gain and lean meat percentage to the length of thoracic vertebrae. The live weight of native goats and meat production were highly correlated, and high correlation was also found between weights of carcass and meat. However, negative correlation was shown between viscera weight and live weight as well as daily gain. 2) The correlatoin between fleece weight of sheep and other traits such as live weight, daily gain and fleece percentage is very high at the 1% siginficant level, and this means that rapid-growth individuals can produce much fleece. 3) The correlation between the factors such as weights of live body, lean meat and viscera of sheep and body measurements, i. e. chest girth and body length was highest, and weights, of carcass and lean meat was highly correlated to chest width and depth. It will be therefore reasonable that the meat productivity estimates will have to be made on the basis of chest girth and body length. The meat production traits of native goats were highly correlated to the most of body measurement data, and the correlation coefficient between chest girth and weights of live body, carcass, lean meat and bone percentage was very high, i. e. 0.992-0.974 in particular. The correlations of meat production traits to chest depth, forearm circumference, body length were 0.759-0.911, 0.759-0.909 and 0.708-0.872 respectively. Therefore, the meat production of native goats will have to be estimated on the basis of chest data. 5. Blood picture and plasma components. 1) The number of erythrocyte and MCHC of native goats were $12.93{\times}10^6/mm^3$ and 36.14%, and those of sheep were $10.68{\times}10^6/mm^3$ and 36.26 respectively. The values of native goats were significantly higher than those of sheep. 2) The hemoglobin concentration, PVC, MCV and MCR of native goats were 10.92 g/100ml, $23.40{\mu}^3$ and 10.94 pg, and those of sheep were 11.73 g/100ml, 36.25 ml/100ml, $33.97{\mu}^3$ and 30.2 ml/100ml 8.43 pg respectively. The values of native goats were significantly lower those of sheep. 3) The number of leukocytes of native goats was significantly higher than that of sheep, that is, $11.64{\times}10^3/mm^3$ in native goats and $9.32{\times}10^3/mm^3$ in sheep. 4) In differential count of leukocyte, neutrophil was significantly high in native goats while lympocyte in sheep. On the other hand, the basophil, eosinophil and monocyte were not significant between native goats and sheep. 5) The amounts of total protein and glucose in the plasma of native goats were 6.2g/100ml and 53.6mg/100ml, and those of sheep were 5.6g/100ml and 45.7mg/100ml, which means that the values of native goats were significantly higher that those of sheep. The amount of total-lipid of native goats(127.6mg/100ml) was significantly than that of sheep(149.6mg/100ml). 6) The amount of non-protein nitrogen, cholesterol, Ca, P, K, Na and Cl were not different between native goats and sheep. 6. Economic analysis. 1) The gross revenue of a farm which fed native goats and sheep was 4,000won per head and the optimum size for feeding them in a farm as a subsidiary work is 5-10 heads. 2) Since there was no difference between housing and grazing, they can be fed in group for farm's subsidiary work. 3) They can be also fed by youths and house wives in the suburbs of cities, because labour requirement is estimated as only two hours per days for feeding 5 heads of native goats and sheep.

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