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The Role Of Tumor Marker CA 15-3 in Detection of Breast Cancer Relapse After Curative Mastectomy (유방암 환자에서 근치적 유방 절제술 후 재발 발견에 대한 CA 15-3의 역할)

  • Hyun, In-Young;Kim, In-Ho;Lee, Moon-Hee;Kim, Chul-Soo
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine
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    • v.38 no.4
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    • pp.311-317
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    • 2004
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the utility of tumor marker CA 15-3 in the following: the diagnosis of breast cancer relapse after curative mastectomy, and the differentiation or the value of tumor marker by site of metastases. Materials and Methods: Two hundred two patients (median age 48 years) with breast cancer included in the follow-up after curative mastectomy. The tumor marker CA 15-3 was determined by IRMA (CIS BIO INTERNATIONAL, France). Test values > 30 U/ml were considered elevated (positive). Results: Among 202 patients, recurrent diseases were found in 16 patients. CA 15-3 was elevated in 5 of 16 patients with recurrences. There was no false-positive patient who had elevated CA 15-3. Sensitivity and specificity of CA 15-3 for detection of breast cancer recurrence were 31%, and 100%. CA 15-3 was elevated in all of the 4 patients with liver metastases. CA 15-3 was elevated in none of the patients who relapsed with metastasis to bone-only or contralateral breast-only. Conclusion: The tumor marker CA 15-3 in the detection of breast cancer relapse after curative mastectomy is specific, but not sensitive. However, it is useful to rule out liver metastases of breast cancer, which indicates bad prognosis.

Clinical Significance of Combined Detection of Serum Tumor Markers in Diagnosis of Patients with Ovarian Cancer

  • Bian, Jing;Li, Bo;Kou, Xian-Juan;Liu, Tian-Zhou;Ming, Liang
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.11
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    • pp.6241-6243
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    • 2013
  • Objective: To explore the predictive value of tumor markers, including cancer antigen 72-4 (CA72-4), cancer antigen 15-3 (CA15-3) and cancer antigen 125 (CA125), in single or combined detection, for the diagnosis of ovarian cancer. Methods: 120 patients diagnosed with ovarian cancer from August 2011 to March 2013 and 80 patients diagnosed with benign ovarian tumors were enrolled in this test, along with 50 health examination women randomly selected from the database as controls. Serum levels of CA72-4, CA15-3 and CA125 in this study were determined by electrochemiluminescence (ECL). Results: Serum levels of CA72-4, CA15-3 and CA125 in ovarian cancer were higher than those in healthy group and benign group (P<0.01).The sensitivity of combined detection of those three tumor markers for diagnosis of ovarian cancer was obviously higher than with single detection with each marker (P<0.01). Conclusions: CA72-4, CA15-3 and CA125 could be a good combination in the diagnosis of ovarian cancer. Patients whose tumor markers continue to increase should be highly suspected of malignancy.

Relationships among Serum CA15-3 Tumor Marker, TNM Staging, and Estrogen and Progesterone Receptor Expression in Benign and Malignant Breast Lesions

  • Atoum, Manar;Nimer, Nisreen;Abdeldayem, Sawsan;Nasr, Hamzah
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.857-860
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    • 2012
  • Serum tumor marker CA15-3 is widely used in follow-up for assessment of breast cancer prognosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate levels among healthy females and patients, to assess differences with tumor stage and grade, and to determine the relationship with estrogen and progesterone receptor expression. One hundred and thirty six Jordanian females were enrolled in this study: Forty-five were healthy females; seventy-two were diagnosed with breast cancer and nineteen diagnosed with benign breast lesions. Elevated serum CA15-3 level was significantly observed among breast cancer patients ($37.95{\pm}6.65$) compared to both healthy ($14.97{\pm}0.8$) and benign females ($12.30{\pm}1.55$), but no significant association was detected between serum CA15-3 level and age of cancer onset, menarche age, menopause age, parity and BMI. Decreased CA15-3 level was significantly associated with hormone therapy and oral contraceptive consumption among breast cancer patients. Significantly elevated CA15-3 serum levels were found among grade II, III and stage II and III breast cancer females compared to normal healthy females. Elevated CA15-3 serum levels were also found among ER+/PR+($54.242{\pm}7.89$) and ER+/PR-($37.08{\pm}8.22$) compared to healthy control females.

Relationship between Preoperative Serum CA15-3 and CEA Levels and Clinicopathological Parameters in Breast Cancer

  • Moazzezy, Neda;Farahany, Tahereh Zarnoosheh;Oloomi, Mana;Bouzari, Saeid
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.1685-1688
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    • 2014
  • Background: CEA and CA 15.3 serum tumor markers are currently used in clinical practice for monitoring therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum level of these markers among healthy females and invasive breast carcinoma (IBC) patients and to determine any relationships with clinicopathological factors. Materials and Methods: 60 Iranian females were enrolled in this study, 30 healthy and 30 diagnosed with breast cancer who had not received any preoperative chemotherapy or hormone therapy. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assays were used for the quantitative determination of the cancer associated antigens, CEA and MUC1 (CA15-3). Results: The serological levels of CEA and CA15-3 ($5.0033{\pm}0.49{\mu}g/L$ and $178.1667{\pm}15.11$ U/ml) in the breast cancer patients were significantly higher (p=0.00) than the serum levels of normal controls ($1.1237{\pm}0.11{\mu}g/L$ and $21.13{\pm}3.058$ U/ml). Regarding the CEA marker, a significant correlation with grade of tumor was shown. Furthermore, there was a low correlation between CA15-3 and CEA marker with correlation coefficient r=0.08. Conclusions: Collectively, markedly high levels of CEA and CA15-3 were found in our patients, pointing to their use as additional tools after clinical diagnosis.

Significant Correlation between Salivary and Serum Ca 15-3 in Healthy Women and Breast Cancer Patients

  • Laidi, Fatna;Bouziane, Amal;Lakhdar, Amina;Khabouze, Samira;Amrani, Mariam;Rhrab, Brahim;Zaoui, Fatima
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.11
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    • pp.4659-4662
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    • 2014
  • The tumor marker CA 15-3 is one of the most import reliable for metastatic breast cancer monitoring. While it is generally assessed in serum of patients, blood sampling is an invasive method compared to saliva sampling which is simple and could be an alternative to blood according to many studies. The aim of this investigation was to assess the relationship between serum and salivary concentrations of the protein CA 15-3 in patients with breast cancer and healthy asymptomatic volunteers. A case-control study was conducted with 60 women: 29 breast cancer patients from the Maternity Hospital Souissi Rabat (Morocco) and 31 healthy asymptomatic women. The CA 15-3 concentrations in saliva and serum samples were assessed using an enzyme immune assay (EIA kits) and comparison between cases and controls was made by the Mann-Whitney test. The correlation between serum and saliva CA 15-3 concentration was tested using Pearson correlation. The comparison result of CA15-3 concentration in saliva and serum level in cases and controls was not statistically significant (p>0.05). However, the correlation between salivary and serum CA 15-3 concentration was positive and statistically significant (r=0.27, p=0.03). In conclusion, the positive correlation between salivary and serum expression found in our study suggests that saliva could be an alternative to blood sampling to help breast cancer monitoring.

Performance Enhancement Directional CSMA/CA Algorithm in mmWave Bands (밀리미터파 대역에서 지향성 CSMA/CA의 성능 향상을 위한 알고리즘)

  • Kim, Mee-Joung;Lee, Woo-Yong
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences
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    • v.37 no.1B
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    • pp.15-20
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    • 2012
  • In this paper, an algorithm that enhances the conventional directional CSMA/CA protocol in IEEE 802.15.3c is proposed under saturation environments. For the algorithm, a Markov chain model is presented and analyzed in no-ACK mode. The effects of directional antennas and the features of IEEE 802.15.3c MAC are considered in the model. The optimal sizes of contention window are derived from the numerical results. The numerical results show that the proposed directional CSMA/CA algorithm outperforms conventional one. The overall analysis is verified by simulation. The obtained results provide the criterion for selecting the optimal parameters and developing a MAC protocol that enhances the performance of mmWave WPANs.

Study on $CaCO_3$ Preparation from MSWI Fly Ash (생활쓰레기 소각(燒却)비산재로부터 $CaCO_3$ 제조(製造)에 관한 연구(硏究))

  • Choi, Woo-Zin;Park, Eun-Kyu
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Resources Recycling
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    • v.15 no.5
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    • pp.47-51
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    • 2006
  • The total amount of ash generated from the municipal solid waste incineration(MSWI) in Korea was approximately 420,000 tons in 2005 including 68,000 tons of fly ash. Fly ash from MSWI generally contains high amount of CaO (upto ${\sim}50%$) due to the treatment of flue gas by spraying CaO-base materials. Currently, most of fly ash generated is finally ended up with specially designed landfill sites and only less then 20% of fly ash is recycled. In the present work, preparation of $CaCO_3$ from the MSWI ny ash was studied to promote the fly ash recycling. Fly ash obtained from the dust collector in stoker-type MSWI is used to selectively dissolve CaO by using the sugar solution. Then, $CO_2$ gas was passed through the dissolved solution to pro- duce $CaCO_3$ powder. The optimum conditions for CaO dissolution were solid content 10%, reaction time 15 minutes, sugar concentration $10{\sim}15%\;and\;pH\;10.5{\sim}11.0$. The high grade $CaCO_3$ powder was obtained and the experimental conditions are also discussed.

Quality Changes of 'Yeobong' Strawberry with CA Storage Conditions (CA저장조건에 따른 '여봉' 딸기의 품질변화)

  • Kim, Ji-Gang;Hong, Seong-Sik;Jeong, Seok-Tae;Kim, Young-Bae;Jang, Hyun-Sae
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.871-876
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    • 1998
  • 'Yeobong' strawberries were stored at $2^{\circ}C$ under controlled atmosphere (CA) containing the combinations of $O_2{\;}(3.8%)$ and $CO_2{\;}(10,{\;}15,{\;}20%)$ and air as control. Atmospheres of $3%{\;}O_2+15%{\;}CO_2$ and $8%{\;}O_2+15%{\;}CO_2$ reduced respiration and ethylene production rates. Fruits kept under CA conditions of 10% and 15% $CO_2$ were harder than those stored under 20% $CO_2$ and air. The CA conditions of 10% or 15% $CO_2$ maintained approximately 80% of vitamin C for 24 days. Redness were increased and then decreased, but the changing trends were not clear among the storage conditions. Anthocyanin contents in $3%{\;}O_2+15%{\;}CO_2$ and $8%{\;}O_2+15%{\;}CO_2$ were slightly increased for 16 days and then decreased thereafter, while anthocyanin content in air was rapidly increased for 8 days. After 16 days of storage, off-flavor were perceived in all CA storage. And strawberries stored in 20% $CO_2$ conditions were unacceptable after 20 days. The 20% $CO_2$ significantly affected off-flavor of strawberries, but there was no significant difference between 10% $CO_2$ and 15% $CO_2$ conditions. Ethanol which is in relation to off-flavor was higher with elevated $CO_2$ levels. Although CA conditions under $3%{\;}O_2+15%{\;}CO_2$ was effective in delaying the quality changes, there was high ethanol content compared to $8%{\;}O_2+15%{\;}CO_2$ condition. Strawberry kept under $8%{\;}O_2+15%{\;}CO_2$ was maintained the shelf-life for 24 days and the condition prolonged more $4{\sim}8$ days and 12 days than the other CA conditions and air, resectively.

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Prognostic Value of Preoperative Serum CA 242 in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cases

  • Feng, Ji-Feng;Huang, Ying;Chen, Qi-Xun
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.1803-1806
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    • 2013
  • Purpose: Carbohydrate antigen (CA) 242 is inversely related to prognosis in many cancers. However, few data regarding CA 242 in esophageal cancer (EC) are available. The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic value of CA 242 and propose an optimum cut-off point in predicting survival difference in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted of 192 cases. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for survival prediction was plotted to verify the optimum cuf-off point. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate prognostic parameters for survival. Results: The positive rate for CA 242 was 7.3% (14/192). The ROC curve for survival prediction gave an optimum cut-off of 2.15 (U/ml). Patients with CA 242 ${\leq}$ 2.15 U/ml had significantly better 5-year survival than patients with CA 242 >2.15 U/ml (45.4% versus 22.6%; P=0.003). Multivariate analysis showed that differentiation (P=0.033), CA 242 (P=0.017), T grade (P=0.004) and N staging (P<0.001) were independent prognostic factors. Conclusions: Preoperative CA 242 is a predictive factor for long-term survival in ESCC, especially in nodal-negative patients. We conclude that 2.15 U/ml may be the optimum cuf-off point for CA 242 in predicting survival in ESCC.

Morbidity Patterns and Health Care Behavior of Residents in Urban Low Income Area (도시영세지역(都市零細地域) 주민(住民)의 상병(傷病)및 의료이용(醫療利用) 양상(樣相) -대구직할시를 중심으로-)

  • Woo, Kuck-Hyeun
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.25-39
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    • 1985
  • This study was conducted to assess the morbidity and medical facilities utilization patterns of the residents in urban low income area. Study population included 2,002 family members of 468 households in the low income area (LA) of Nam-san 4 Dong, Jung Gu of Taegu city and 1,709 family members of 374 households in surrounding neighbourhood control area (CA). Well trained nursing school students interviewed mainly with housewives according to the pretested questionaire between July 1 and July 30, 1984. Age-sex distribution of the study population in LA was similar to that in CA. The average monthly income of a household in LA was 236,000 won and 356,000 won in CA. Educational level of the residents in LA was lower than that in CA; average years of school education of the 20 years old or above in LA was 6.9 years compared with 8.5 years in CA. The average family members per room in LA was 2.6 and 2.2 in CA, and proportion of Medicaid program beneficiary was 29.4% in LA and 1.9% in CA. Prevalence rate of illness during 15-day period was 131 per 1,000 population in LA and 71 in CA(p<0.01) and that of the chronic illness for 1 year was 134 per 1,000 population in LA and 89 in CA(p<0.01). The most common illness experienced during 15 days was respiratory disease(24.0% in LA ana 29.8% in CA) and followed by gastro-intestinal disorders(21.0% in LA, 20.6% in CA). Injury or poisoning was 10.3% in LA and 3.3% in CA. Castro-intestinal disorder was the most common chronic illness in both LA (22.7%) and CA (21.7%), and followed by musculoskeletal disease in LA and neuralgia in CA. Mean activity restricted days among the persons with illness during 15-day period was 4.0 days in LA and 2.2 days in CA. Among persons with illness during 15 days, 17.9% in LA and 11.6% in CA did not seek any medical treatment and the most frequently utilized medical facility was pharmacy in LA (35.5%) and local clinic or hospital OPD in CA (42.1%). Among persons with chronic illness, 15.2% in LA and 9.2% in CA did not seek for medical treatment, and residents in LA as well as residents in CA utilized local clinic or hospital OPD more frequently than pharmacy or drugstores, especially those who have medical insurance. The most common reason for not treating illness experienced during 15-day period and chronic illness was economical constraint in both LA and CA. The higher prevalence rate of illness during 15-day period and chronic illness in LA than that in CA seems to be highly correlated with their lower economic status and educational level and crowded living condition. The utilization pattern of medical facilities was associated with the medical security status. A program to improve the economic status and living condition should be integrated with the health program to promote the health of the population in low income area.

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