• Title, Summary, Keyword: bulgogi

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Sensory Characteristics of Bulgogi Sauce and Bulgogi added with Licorice Extract (감초 추출물 첨가 불고기 및 불고기 소스의 관능 특성)

  • Jung, Hyo Sun;Shin, Eon-Tak;Yoon, Hye Hyun
    • Culinary science and hospitality research
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.80-91
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    • 2015
  • This study investigated the sensory characteristics of Bulgogi sauce and Bulgogi added with various amounts (0, 25, 50, 75, 100 %) of licorice extract used as sugar. The color values, $^{\circ}Brix$, pH, attribute difference and acceptance of the samples were tested. As for the color of the Bulgogi sauce sweetened with various % of the licorice extract, a higher percentage of the licorice extract showed a higher L-value. In addition, the $^{\circ}Brix$ of the Bulgogi sauce significantly increased in conjunction with additional licorice extract, although the pH did not show any differences. Attribute difference analysis results revealed that the transparency of the Bulgogi sauce and gloss of the Bulgogi were highest in the sample containing 100% of licorice extract. The sweet odor, both for the Bulgogi sauce and Bulgogi, increased with higher amounts of licorice extract, as well as the scent of the herb. Furthermore, Bulgogi sauce with 50% licorice extract resulted in the highest score for umami taste. The aftertaste of both the Bulgogi sauce and Bulgogi appeared to be the highest with 75% of licorice extract. Bulgogi marinade prepared with 50% of licorice extract possessed the significantly highest score in the overall acceptance test.

Analysis of Volatile Compounds in Bulgogi Prepared by Different Heating Procedure

  • Cho, In-Hee;Lee, Hyong-Joo;Kim, Young-Suk
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.428-432
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    • 2005
  • To compare volatile compounds in bulgogi cooked by different heating procedures, bulgogi was prepared by convection oven, electric pan and charcoal grill. A total of 61 volatile compounds, consisting of 4 pyrazines, 10 sulfur-containing compounds, 7 carbonyls, 7 alcohols, 7 aliphatic hydrocarbons, 25 terpene hydrocarbons, and 1 miscellaneous compound, were tentatively identified in bulgogi cooked by the three heating methods. Comparatively, the difference in volatile compounds identified in bulgogi using the three different heating methods was not significant, except for sulfur-containing compounds and carbonyls which were detected at higher levels in the bulgogi cooked by convection oven than in that cooked by the other two heating methods. On the other hand, some compounds, such as furfural, benzaldehyde, and (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, were detected only in the bulgogi cooked by charcoal.

Gamma Irradiation of Ready-to-Cook Bulgogi Improves Safety and Extends Shelf-Life without Compromising Organoleptic Qualities

  • Jo, Cheo-Run;Han, Chang-Duk;Chung, Kang-Hyun;Byun, Myung-Woo
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.191-195
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    • 2003
  • We investigated the effects of gamma irradiation on the microbiological, chemical and sensory qualities of bulgogi, a traditional Korean meat product. Gamma irradiation reduced the number of coliform bacteria and bacterial colonies counted in Salmonella-Shigella selective agar to a non-detectable level. Thermophillic microorganisms (mainly Bacillus spp.) in bolgogi refrigerated for 20 days were also significantly reduced by 3 log cycles by 2.5 to 7.5 kGy of irradiation, compared to the control. Electron donating ability and shear force of ready-to-cook bulgogi was not significantly affected by gamma irradiation. Irradiation increased the 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) value. The irradiated, raw, ready-to-cook bulgogi had significantly higher scores in color and appearance than those of non-irradiated controls from sensory evaluation. The overall acceptance of cooked bulgogi had higher scores in non-irradiated or 2.5 kGy-irradiated bulgogi than the 5.0- or 7.5-kGy irradiated counterparts. In conclusion, irradiation at 2.5 kGy is recommended as a method to improve shelf-life, safety, and to achieve acceptable quality of ready-to-cook bulgogi without any adverse changes in the sensory characteristics.

Analysis of American Consumer Interest in Bulgogi: Application of Importance-Performance Analysis in the U.S. Market

  • Lee, Min-A;Park, So-Hyun
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.348-355
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    • 2010
  • This study used importance-performance analysis of different attributes of Bulgogi to investigate Americans' interest in this food. The results of this study will help determine the potential of expanding its consumption in the American foodservice market. Questionnaires were distributed to 200 diners in Korean restaurants located in New York, U.S.A. from July 13 to Oct 8, 2009. A total of 172 copies were returned and analyzed in this study. Statistical analyses were conducted using SPSS 17.0. Of the total subjects, 74.4% were already familiar with Bulgogi and 69.2% had at least one experience trying it. Targeting the respondents who had eaten Bulgogi, preference and satisfaction toward the dish, as well as the intention to repurchase and recommend it to others, were examined, and scores were found to be very high at 4.53, 4.46, 4.26, and 4.47 points, respectively, on a 5-point scale. According to importance-performance analysis, the top five Bulgogi attributes in importance were taste, freshness, flavor, tenderness, and juiciness, and those for performance were freshness, flavor, taste, tenderness, and overall acceptability. However, sweetness and saltiness showed relatively lower performance and ease of purchase was noted as an attribute needing improvement. Therefore, American consumers' needs for Bulgogi should be met by enhancing its flavor, while maintaining the traditional taste, as well as by supplementing the channels providing Bulgogi.

The Change of the Concept and Meaning of Bulgogi in Cookery Book & Dictionary (문헌에 나타난 불고기의 개념과 의미 변화)

  • Lee, Kyou-Jin;Cho, Mi-Sook
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.25 no.5
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    • pp.508-515
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    • 2010
  • The purpose of this research was to investigate the transition of the concept and meaning of "bulgogi". "Bulgogi" is a representative Korean food and is also a global menu item. The first dictionary that presented the word "bulgogi" was the Keunsajeon (big dictionary). The results of an analysis of 17 dictionaries published in the last 60 years showed the immutable definition of "neobiani" as seasoned and broiled beef. In contrast, "bulgogi" has been termed differently, from "simply grilled meat of an animal" to the same meaning as that of "neobiani". Furthermore, to define the difference between common grilled meat in modern versus present time, a review of 26 cookery books from Sieuijeanseo, written in late 1800, to The Taste of Korea, written in 1987, were selected and examined. To date, the first appearance of the word "bulgogi" mentioned in a cook book was in Practice in Higher Cuisine, which was written by Shin- young Bang in 1958. The book states that "bulgogi" is the second name or the vulgar designation of "neobiani".

Application of a Kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis) to Improve the Textural Quality on Beef Bulgogi Treated with Hydrostatic Pressure

  • Lee, Eun-Jung;Oh, Se-Wook;Lee, Nam-Hyouck;Kim, Young-Ho;Lee, Dong-Un;Yamamoto, Katsuhiro;Kim, Yun-Ji
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.317-324
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    • 2009
  • In order to reduce the increased hardness of beef bulgogi due to hydrostatic pressure (HP), kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis) was applied. To understand the changes of shear force in beef bulgogi with kiwifruit induced by HP, changes in chemical properties of myofibril (Mf) with 10% kiwifruit induced by HP were investigated. From the SDS-PAGE patterns of Mf with 10% kiwifruit, there was an observed increase in the degradation of myosin heavy chain (MHC) by HP (300-500 MPa) to that by 0.1 MPa. This result indicates that HP may enhance enzyme action from a kiwifruit for the degradation of MHC, and the similar phenomenon occurred in the beef bulgogi with kiwifruit induced by HP. The shear force of beef bulgogi without a kiwifruit induced by 400 and 500 MPa significantly increased compared to that by 0.1 MPa (p<0.05). However, in the beef bulgogi with 10% or 20% kiwifruit, the shear force induced by 400 or 500 MPa was similar or slightly lower than that by 0.1 MPa. Consequently, adding kiwifruit to bulgogi could reduce the hardness of HP-induced beef bulgogi due to the enzyme action in the kiwifruit accelerated by HP.

Development of Ready-to-Eat Bulgogi Sauce with No Change of Sensory Properties after High-Dose Irradiation

  • Shin, Mee-Hye;Park, Jin-Gyu;Kim, Cheon-Jei;Lee, Ju-Woon
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.366-371
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    • 2011
  • Viscosity is critically important for bulgogi sauce. However, exposure to irradiation may decrease the rheological properties of bulgogi sauce. This study was conducted to compare the effects of gamma irradiation (0-9 kGy) on viscosity, molecular weight, pH, reducing end level, and water solubility of xanthan gum, guar gum, and locust bean gum as thickening agents/stabilizers in bulgogi sauce. The physicochemical properties of all samples changed (p<0.05) from 3965 to 0 cP (viscosity), from 6048 to 28 kDa (molecular weight), from 5.79 to 4.62 (pH), from 0.13 mg/mL to 1.72 mg/mL (reducing end level), and from 6% to 87% (water solubility) following gamma irradiation. Viscosity after irradiation was most stable (p<0.05) in xanthan gum (from 1249 to 92 cP) compared with guar gum (from 3965 to 0 cP) and locust bean gum (from 1631 to 0 cP). The sensory properties (texture and taste) of bulgogi sauce prepared with xanthan gum (1%, w/w) were highly maintained (about 7.0-5.0) after high-dose irradiation of up to 40 kGy. These results indicate that xanthan gum can be effectively used as a thickening agent/stabilizer in bulgogi sauce, which had low viscosity after irradiation.

Improvement of Lipid Oxidation Stability of Seasoned Pork and Formula Development of Seasoning Sauce for Pork Bulgogi with Doenjang and Onion Using Mixture Experimental Design

  • Oh, Hyun-Ju;Kim, Chang-Soon;Chang, Duk-Joon
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.772-779
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    • 2008
  • The antioxidative effect of doenjang (fermented soybean paste) and onion added in the seasoned pork, bulgogi was evaluated and the optimum mixture ratio of ingredients in seasoning sauce has been established using mixture experimental design (MED). When the seasoned pork, bulgogi was prepared with soy sauce 12% (control), doenjang 9% (in replacement of soy sauce 9%) added group (DG), and doenjang 9% and onion 33.4% (in replacement of water 33.4%) added group (DOG), and stored at $-25^{\circ}C$ for 6 months, the peroxide value (POV) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value of control, DO, and DOG were all lower than that of control from the initial stage of storage. The antioxidative effect of seasoned pork was found to increase with the replacement of doenjang in seasoning sauce for pork bulgogi. Moreover, antioxidative effects in DOG increased more synergistically. Therefore, the lipid oxidation stability of pork bulgogi was improved by the addition of doenjang and onion onto the seasoning sauce. The optimum mixture ratio of seasoning sauce for pork bulgogi followed up by the MED was found to be doenjang 7.10%, soy sauce 9.46%, onion 19.72%, and water 42.58% with excellent sensory quality.

Development of Bulgogi Sauce Added with Concentrated Curcuma longa L. (울금 농축액을 첨가한 불고기 소스의 개발)

  • Park, Sung-Won;Byun, Gwang-In
    • Culinary science and hospitality research
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.143-158
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    • 2014
  • This study was conducted the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of Bulgogi sauce added with concentrated Curcuma longa L.. Increasing the amount of concentrated Curcuma longa L. in the Bulgogi sauce tended to increase the pH values, lightness(L), redness(a) and yellowness(b) values. It also tended to increase DPPH radical activity, but total polyphenol contents of Bulgogi sauce added with concentrated Curcuma longa L. were not significantly different among all the samples. In sensory evaluation, Bulgogi sauce added with 10% concentrated Curcuma longa L. had an excellent score in sensory taste, but Bulgogi sauce added with 20% concentrated Curcuma longa L. had an excellent score in overall preference. Seasoned roasted beef addition with 20% concentrated Curcuma longa L. had an excellent score in sensory preference. Therefore, this results suggest that 20% concentrated Curcuma longa L. should be applied to Bulgogi sauce for high sensory preference.

Growth Modelling of Listeria monocytogenes in Korean Pork Bulgogi Stored at Isothermal Conditions

  • Lee, Na-Kyoung;Ahn, Sin Hye;Lee, Joo-Yeon;Paik, Hyun-Dong
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.108-113
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    • 2015
  • The purpose of this study was to develop predictive models for the growth of Listeria monocytogenes in pork Bulgogi at various storage temperatures. A two-strain mixture of L. monocytogenes (ATCC 15313 and isolated from pork Bulgogi) was inoculated on pork Bulgogi at 3 Log CFU/g. L. monocytogenes strains were enumerated using general plating method on Listeria selective medium. The inoculated samples were stored at 5, 15, and $25^{\circ}C$ for primary models. Primary models were developed using the Baranyi model equations, and the maximum specific growth rate was shown to be dependent on storage temperature. A secondary model of growth rate as a function of storage temperature was also developed. As the storage temperature increased, the lag time (LT) values decreased dramatically and the specific growth rate of L. monocytogenes increased. The mathematically predicted growth parameters were evaluated based on the modified bias factor ($B_f$), accuracy factor ($A_f$), root mean square error (RMSE), coefficient of determination ($R^2$), and relative errors (RE). These values indicated that the developed models were reliably able to predict the growth of L. monocytogenes in pork Bulgogi. Hence, the predictive models may be used to assess microbiological hygiene in the meat supply chain as a function of storage temperature.