• Title, Summary, Keyword: bubble size distribution

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New Bubble Size Distribution Model for Cryogenic High-speed Cavitating Flow

  • Ito, Yutaka;Tomitaka, Kazuhiro;Nagasaki, Takao
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Propulsion Engineers Conference
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    • pp.700-710
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    • 2008
  • A Bubble size distribution model has been developed for the numerical simulation of cryogenic high-speed cavitating flow of the turbo-pumps in the liquid fuel rocket engine. The new model is based on the previous one proposed by the authors, in which the bubble number density was solved as a function of bubble size at each grid point of the calculation domain by means of Eulerian framework with respect to the bubble size coordinate. In the previous model, the growth/decay of bubbles due to pressure difference between bubble and liquid was solved exactly based on Rayleigh-Plesset equation. However, the unsteady heat transfer between liquid and bubble, which controls the evaporation/condensation rate, was approximated by a theoretical solution of unsteady heat conduction under a constant temperature difference. In the present study, the unsteady temperature field in the liquid around a bubble is also solved exactly in order to establish an accurate and efficient numerical simulation code for cavitating flows. The growth/decay of a single bubble and growth of bubbles with nucleation were successfully simulated by the proposed model.

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Theoretical Study of Coherent Acoustic Inverse Method for Bubble Sizing in Bubbly Water

  • Choi, Bok-Kyoung;Yoon, Suk-Wang
    • The Journal of the Acoustical Society of Korea
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    • v.15 no.4E
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    • pp.3-8
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    • 1996
  • The bubble size distribution is critical information to understand sound propagation and ambient noise in the ocean. To estimate the bubble size distribution in a bubbly water, the sound attenuation has been only in the conventional acoustic bubble sizing method without considering the sound speed variation. However, the effect of the sound speed variation in bubbly water cannot be neglected because of its compressibility variation. The sound attenuation is also affected by the sound speed variation. In this paper, a coherent acoustic bubble sizing inverse technique is introduced as a new bubble sizing technique with considering sound speed variation as well as the sound attenuation. This coherent sizing method is theoretically verified with the bubble distribution functions of single-size, Gaussian, and power-law functions. Its numerical test results with the coherent acoustic bubble sizing method show good agreement with the given bubble distributions.

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Design Parameters Estimations for Bubble Column Reactors to Remove Toxic Gases (독성가스 제거용 기포탑 반응기의 설계기법)

  • Oh, Junghwan;Hong, Min Sun
    • Korean Journal of Hazardous Materials
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.99-108
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    • 2018
  • Gas-liquid bubble column reactors are extensively used in industrial processes. A detailed knowledge of bubble size distribution is needed for determining the mass transfer in gas-liquid film. Experimental data on bubble size distribution and liquid-side mass transfer coefficient($k_L$) were used to calculate the estimated time to saturation in bubble column reactor. Also, the gas flux was evaluated to the liquid-side mass transfer coefficient($k_L$) and solubility data for hydrogen sulfide($H_2S$) and chlorine($Cl_2$) absorption into water. Simulation results show that $H_2S$ absorption time to 50 % of saturation concentrations are 611 sec and 1,329 sec when bubble diameters are 0.5 mm and 4.5 mm, while absorbing 1 % $H_2S$ gas. In case of $Cl_2$, absorption time range 657 to 1,400 sec when bubble size range 0.5 mm to 4.5 mm, while absorbing 1 % $Cl_2$ gas. Calculated simulation results can be used in the design of emergency relief bubble reactors.

Bubble size characteristics in the wake of ventilated hydrofoils with two aeration configurations

  • Karn, Ashish;Ellis, Christopher R;Milliren, Christopher;Hong, Jiarong;Scott, David;Arndt, Roger EA;Gulliver, John S
    • International Journal of Fluid Machinery and Systems
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.73-84
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    • 2015
  • Aerating hydroturbines have recently been proposed as an effective way to mitigate the problem of low dissolved oxygen in the discharge of hydroelectric power plants. The design of such a hydroturbine requires a precise understanding of the dependence of the generated bubble size distribution upon the operating conditions (viz. liquid velocity, air ventilation rate, hydrofoil configuration, etc.) and the consequent rise in dissolved oxygen in the downstream water. The purpose of the current research is to investigate the effect of location of air injection on the resulting bubble size distribution, thus leading to a quantitative analysis of aeration statistics and capabilities for two turbine blade hydrofoil designs. The two blade designs differed in their location of air injection. Extensive sets of experiments were conducted by varying the liquid velocity, aeration rate and the hydrofoil angle of attack, to characterize the resulting bubble size distribution. Using a shadow imaging technique to capture the bubble images in the wake and an in-house developed image analysis algorithm, it was found that the hydrofoil with leading edge ventilation produced smaller size bubbles as compared to the hydrofoil being ventilated at the trailing edge.

Characteristics of Bubble Flow Behavior in a Gas-liquid Countercurrent Bubble Column Bioreactor (기-액 향류 흐름 기포탑 생물 반응기에서 기포 흐름 거동 특성)

  • Son, Sung-Mo;Kang, Suk-Hwan;Lee, Chan-Gi;Jung, Sung-Hyun;Kang, Yong;Kim, Sang-Done
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
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    • v.43 no.2
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    • pp.272-277
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    • 2005
  • Characteristics of bubbling behavior and bubble properties were investigated in a gas-liquid countercurrent bubble column of in diameter 0.152 m and 3.5 m in height, respectively. Effects of gas and liquid velocities and bubble distribution mode(even, wall-side, central or asymmetric distribution) on the bubble properties such as chord length, frequency, rising velocity and holdup in the reactor were measured and examined by means of dual resistivity probe method. The bubble size, frequency and holdup increased with increasing gas($U_G$) or liquid velocity($U_L$). The rising velocity of bubbles increased with increasing $U_G$, whereas decreased with increasing $U_L$. The uniformity of bubble size distribution and bubble holdup decreased when the distribution mode of bubbles at the gas distributor was changed from even to wall-side, central or asymmetric. The central distribution of bubbles was better than asymmetric mode but worse than wall-side distribution, in considering the bubble holdup and uniformity of distribution.

Flow visualizations and analysis on characteristics of bubbly flows exhausted from a venturi-type bubble generator with an air vent (공기유입구를 가진 벤츄리 형상의 기포발생기에서 토출되는 기포 유동 특성의 가시화 측정 분석)

  • Bae, Hyunwoo;Lee, Seungmin;Song, Moonsoo;Sung, Jaeyong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Visualization
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.60-68
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    • 2019
  • Flow visualizations have been carried out to analyze the characteristics of bubby flows exhausted from a venturi-type bubble generator with an air vent. For various design parameters and operating conditions of the bubble generator, the images of bubbly flows was recorded using a high-speed camera and a microscope. Then the amount and size distribution of bubble was evaluated by an image processing technique. The results show that for increasing the amount of bubble, it is more effective to reduce the venturi throat than to enlarge the air vent diameter. If the water flow rate increases, the bubble generation rate increases but reaches a status of saturation, whose condition depends on Reynolds number at a given air vent diameter. The bubble size increases as the diameter of venturi throat decreases and Reynolds number increases. However, the air vent diameter is not a significant factor on bubble size.

Numerical Simulation of Cavitating Flows on a Foil by Using Bubble Size Distribution Model

  • Ito, Yutaka;Nagasaki, Takao
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Propulsion Engineers Conference
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    • pp.216-227
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    • 2004
  • A new cavitating model by using bubble size distribution based on bubbles-mass has been proposed. Both liquid and vapor phases are treated with Eulerian framework as a mixture containing minute cavitating bubbles. In addition vapor phase consists of various sizes of vapor bubbles, which are distributed to classes based on their mass. The bubble number-density for each class was solved by considering the change of the bubble-mass due to phase change as well as generation of new bubbles due to heterogeneous nucleation. In this method, the bubble-mass is treated as an independent variable, and the other dependent variables are solved in spatial coordinates and bubble-mass coordinate. Firstly, we employed this method to calculate bubble nucleation and growth in stationary super-heated liquid nitrogen, and bubble collapse in stationary sub-cooled one. In the case of bubble growth in super-heated liquid, bubble number-density of the smallest class based on its mass is increased due to the nucleation. These new bubbles grow with time, and the bubbles shift to larger class. Therefore void fraction of each class is increased due to the growth in the whole class. On the other hand, in the case of bubble collapse in sub-cooled liquid, the existing bubbles are contracted, and then they shift to smaller class. It finally becomes extinct at the smallest one. Secondly, the present method is applied to a cavitating flow around NACA00l5 foil. Liquid nitrogen and liquid oxygen are employed as working fluids. Cavitation number, $\sigma$, is fixed at 0.15, inlet velocities are changed at 5, 10, 20 and 50m/s. Inlet temperatures are 90K in case of liquid nitrogen, and 90K and 1l0K in case of liquid oxygen. 110K of oxygen is corresponding to the 90K of nitrogen because of the same relative temperature to the critical one, $T_{r}$=$T/T_c^{+}$. Cavitating flow around the NACA0015 foils was properly analyzed by using bubble size distribution. Finally, the method is applied to a cavitating flow in an inducer of the LE-7A hydrogen turbo-pump. This inducer has 3 spiral foils. However, for simplicity, 2D calculation was carried out in an unrolled channel at 0.9R cross-section. The channel moves against the fluid at a peripheral velocity corresponding to the inducer revolutions. Total inlet pressure, $Pt_{in}$, is set at l00KPa, because cavitation is not generated at a design point, $Pt_{in}$=260KPa. The bubbles occur upstream of the foils and collapse between them. Cavitating flow in the inducer was successfully predicted by using the bubble size distribution.

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Estimation of Effects of Underwater Acoustic Channel Capacity Due to the Bubbles in the High Frequency Near the Coastal Area

  • Zhou, Guoqing;Shim, Tae-Bo;Kim, Young-Gyu
    • The Journal of the Acoustical Society of Korea
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    • v.27 no.3E
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    • pp.69-76
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    • 2008
  • Measurements of bubble size and distribution in the surface layer of the sea, wind speed, and variation of ocean environments were made continually over a four-day period in an experiment conducted in the South Sea of Korea during 17-20 September 2007. Theoretical background of bubble population model indicates that bubble population is a function of the depth, range and wind speed and bubble effects on sound speed shows that sound speed varies with frequency. Observational evidence exhibited that the middle size bubble population fit the model very well, however, smaller ones can not follow the model probably due to their short lifetime. Meanwhile, there is also a hysteresis effect of void fraction. Observational evidence also indicates that strong changes in sound speed are produced by the presence of swarms of micro bubbles especially from 7 kHz to 50 kHz, and calculation results are consistent with the measured data in the high frequency band, but inconsistent in the low frequency band. Based on the measurements of the sound speed and high frequency transmission configuration in the bubble layer, we present an estimation of underwater acoustic channel capacity in the bubble layer.

Inconsistency in the Average Hydraulic Models Used in Nuclear Reactor Design and Safety Analysis

  • Park, Jee-Won;Roh, Gyu-Hong;Park, Hangbok
    • Proceedings of the Korean Nuclear Society Conference
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    • pp.599-604
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    • 1997
  • One of important inconsistencies in the six-equation model predictions has been found to be the force experienced by a single bubble placed in a convergent stream of liquid. Various sets of governing equations yield different amount of forces to hold the bubble stationary in a convergent nozzle. By using the first order potential flow theory, it is found that the six-equation model can not be used to estimate the force experienced by a deformed bubble. The theoretical value of the particle stress of a bubble in a convergent nozzle flow has been found to be a function of the Weber number when bubble distortion is allowed. This force has been calculated by using different sets of governing equations and compared with the theoretical value. It is suggested in this study that the bubble size distribution function can be used to remove the presented inconsistency by relating the interfacial variables with different moments of the bubble size distribution function. This study also shows that the inconsistencies in the thermal-hydraulic governing equation can be removed by mechanistic modeling of the phasic interface.

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A Study on the Behavior of Bubbles in Fluidized Bed (유동층내의 기포거동에 대한 연구)

  • 김용섭
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Engineering
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    • v.18 no.5
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    • pp.24-28
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    • 1994
  • In the present paper, the behavior of bubbles in a fluidized bed has been investigated experimentally. The bubble size, distribution of bubble, bubble rising velocity and pressure fluctuation in the fluidized bed are obtained at different air velocity. The results are discussed and compared study the effect of air velocity on the behavior of a bubbles in fluidized bed.

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