• Title/Summary/Keyword: browning

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A Study on the Reaction Rates of Maillard Browning Reaction of Dipeptides with Xylose (Dipeptide류와 당에 의한 Maillard 갈색화반응의 반응속도에 관한 연구)

  • 김희주;안명수
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.108-114
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    • 1996
  • The study was carried out to compare the reaction rate of Maillard browning reaction of 2 dipeptides (Leucylglycine, Tryptophylglycine) and 4 amino acids (Lysine, Glycine, Leucine, Tryptophan) with xylose heated for 0∼24 hours at 60∼100$^{\circ}C$. 1. The color intensity of the browning mixture heated at 100$^{\circ}C$ for 24 hours was the highest in tryptophanxylose, and in order to tryptophylglycine-xylose > lysine-xylose > leucylglycine-ylose > leucine-xylose > glycine-xylose. 2. The reaction rate constants (k) determined from the browning pigment concentrate with time were similar to the result of the color intensity, that is, the k were the highest in the tryptophan-xylose. 3. The residual amounts of dipeptides, amino acids and xylose in the browning mixture diminished as the browning temperature increase. 4. The activation energies (Ea) calculated from k were the highest in leucine-xylose (143.72 J/mol) and the lowest in tryptophan-xylose (117.45 J/mol). The range of Q$\sub$10/ values were 2.84∼3.58.

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Water Soluble Browning Pigments of Korean Red Ginseng(Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer) (고려홍삼의 수용성 갈변물질)

  • 이성계;이종원
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.244-248
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    • 1995
  • Water-soluble browning pigments were artily purified from Korean red ginseng through the several procedures such as fractionation by n-butanol, precipitation by ethanol, dialysis and gel filtration. At least four kinds of water-soluble browning pigment were separated from each other, two kinds of low-molecular-weight and two kinds of high-molecular-weight pigments.

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A Study on the Characterization and Dyeability of Mushroom Colorant (I)- Extraction, storage and analysis of mushroom colorant- (양송이 색소의 특성과 염색성에 관한 연구(I) - 색소의 추출과 보관 및 성분 분석을 중심으로 -)

  • 서영숙;정지윤
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.228-236
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    • 1997
  • The browning characteristic and dyeability of the mushroom were examined to establish the optimum condition for browning and extraction in the process of obtaining the natural dye, brown colorant. The composition of browning extracts from mushroom was also analyzed and the dyeability were investigated. The results of this study are as follows, 1. The optimum condition for obtaining the browning colorant from mushroom was the crushed phase of sample. 2. The browning reaction by enzymes in mushroom was efficient at a temperature of 35$^{\circ}C$, a duratron period of 2 hr and pH of 8. 3. The optimum condition for extraction of browning extracts from browned mushroom was at 95$^{\circ}C$ and Ihr. 4. To analyze the content of browning extracts in the mushroom, three fractions were obtained from gel filtration using Sephadex G-25 and the fraction 1 was melanin and the fraction 3 was dihydroxyphenylanine (DOPA) and glutaminyldihydroxybenzene (GDHB) . 5. The turbidity in enzymatic browning extraction of mushroom increased depending on refrigeration storage (4$^{\circ}C$) and UV radiation. The filtration of the extracts resulted in a decrease of absorbance. 6. The dyeability of the fraction 1 was greater compared to that of the fraction 3 and that of wool greater compared to the other two fabric materiales.

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Studies on the browning reaction of potato cultivars harvested in Korea (한국산 감자의 품종에 따른 갈색화반응에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Young-Sun;Lee, Gui-Ju
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.241-246
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    • 1992
  • In this study. we measured the degree of browning of 3 potato culitivars harvested in Korea and compositions such as total phenols, tyrosine and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity. And we compared the extent of browning and composition factors to investigated which was related to the differences among 3 cultivars in browning. The results are as follows. 1. Among 3 culitivars, Sumi browned most after grinding and showed that browning in Sumi was preceded by significant1y shorter lag time. Namjak and Sumi were rapid to brown compared to Daejima. 2. Among 3 culitivars, Sumi contained significant1y more total phenols than did Namjak and Daejima. On the other hand, tyrosine contents by automatic analyzer of Sumi and Namjak were similar and mat of Daejima was the lowest. PPO activities were higher when catechol was used as substrate and Sumi contained more PPO than did the other culitivars. 3. When we compared me browning behavior and composition of 3 culitivars, significant correlation was obtained between browning extent and total phenols, tyrosine and PPO. For me individual cultivar, Sumi which browned much extensively showed higher correlation between browning and PPO. On the other hand, the other cultivars showed higher correlation with total phenols and tyrosine, respectively.

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Studies in Browning Reaction in Dried Fish Lipid Oxidative Browning in Dried Conger eel and Properties of Browning Products (수산건제품의 갈변에 관한 연구 붕장어육 및 유의 산화, 갈변 물질의 성상)

  • SUH Jae-Soo;LEE Kang-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.27 no.5
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    • pp.454-461
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    • 1994
  • This studies was carried out in order to investigate the browning reaction of lipid originated compound with nitrogenous compound in dried conger eel. The major fatty acids were $C_{16:0},\;C_{16:1},\;C_{18:1},\;C_{20:5}\;and\;C_{22:6}$. The nonpolar lipid contained the highest percentage of $C_{16:0}$, while the polar lipid contained the highest percentage of $C_{22:6}$. The browning reaction there was a rapidly developed with the beginning of the decline in carbonyl value and remarkable decrease in polyunsaturated fatty acids such as $C_{20:5},\;C_{22:5},\;C_{22:6}$ compared with the other fatty acid, in the water soluble fraction of the browning product obtained from tile fish was detected some antioxidation activity but in the lipid soluble fraction which covers most of the browning reactions in the fish meat antioxidation activity was not detected. In the test of conger eel oil, the phosphatidylcholine was largest in quantity and browning products provided in this experiment showed very low reducing activity.

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A New Evaluation of Browning Reactions of Korean Traditional Soy Sauce Mash During Fermentation (대두발효식품의 새로운 갈변기작에 관한 연구)

  • Kyung, Kyu-Hang;Park, Seung-Kyu;Yoo, Yang-Ja
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.19 no.5
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    • pp.446-450
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    • 1987
  • To re-evaluate the browning reactions of fermented soybean products, soy sauce mash with added glucose and/or tyrosine was fermented for 152 days in the presence or absence of oxygen. Glucose negatively affected brown pigmentation either singly or with tyrosine. Tyrosine-added soy sauce mash initially browned at the same rate as the control mash until 127th day and then the former continued to brown at the same steady rate while the control mash stopped further browning. Aerobically incubated mash browned much more than anaerobically incubated one when the browning was compared on the 152nd day of fermentation. More than half of the mash browning was found to be due to the oxygen-related browning during the limited 152 days of fermentation time. Both oxygen-related and oxygen-unrelated browning reactions were found to contribute to the browning of soy sauce mash. Oxygen-related browning, however, was found to be more important than the Maillard browning reaction.

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Changes of Color in Doenjang by Different Browning Factors (갈변인자에 따른 된장 색깔의 변화)

  • Kwon, Dong-Jin;Kim, Yoo-Jin;Kim, Hyun-Jung;Hong, Seok-San;Kim, Hyun-Ku
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.30 no.5
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    • pp.1000-1005
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    • 1998
  • To establish the process control for inhibiting browning of Doenjang, the factors of browning were investigated. The browning of Doenjang was prompted by oxygen, temperature, light and Fe. Expecially temperature, oxygen and metal were main factors of browning in Doenjang. The Color Doenjang was determined by ratios of raw materials, process of manufacture and the channel of distribution. Among ascorbic acid and anti-browning agent, anti-browning agent was effective to inhibit the browning of Doenjang. The process control to inhibit the browning of Doenjang was as follows: temperature; $20^{\circ}C$ or less than, oxygen; elimination, Fe; inhibition of inflow.

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Current Studies on Browning Reaction Products and Acidic Polysaccharide in Korean Red Ginseng (홍삼에 함유된 갈변물질 및 산성다당체에 대한 연구현황)

  • Lee, Jong-Won;Do, Jae-Ho
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.41-48
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    • 2006
  • In the browning reaction of Korean ginseng, it appears that enzymatic and non-enzymatic browning reaction occurred In initial stage of steaming fresh ginseng at low temperature, and then non-enzymatic browning reaction followed in the drying period after steaming. Browning reaction of red ginseng occurred between $60{\sim}90$ min of steaming at $100^{\circ}C$, and browning pigments of red ginseng were mostly water soluble substances. The structural characteristics of water soluble browning reaction products(WS-BRPs) isolated from Korean red ginseng were showed the presence of hydroxyl, amide carbonyl and aliphatic methane groups. From sugar analysis it was identified that L and S-1, melanoidins isolated from red ginseng, contained two kinds of sugars, glucose and xylose, and the other melanoidin S-2 contained the previous and fructose. In order to find out pertinent methods for the acceleration of browning during ginseng processing, various treatment were made on fresh ginseng with sugars, amino acids and inorganic nitrogenous compounds and the extent of browning was measured. Among sugar tested, maltose resulted in the greatest acceleration of browning followed in decreasing order by glucose and lactose, whereas pentoses, fructose, sucrose and raffinose had negligible effect. A marked browning occurred in ginseng treated with basic amino acids, while the extent of browning was not greatly increased when ginseng was treated with aliphatic amino acids, hydroxyl amino acids, or acidic amino acids. The brown color intensity gradually increased with an increase of glucose concentration far up to 0.5M. L, S-1, and S-2 were found to have an ability to donate hydrogen to DPPH, and also they had anti-oxidative activity in the experiments of hydrogen peroxide scavenging, inhibitory activity in the formation of MDA from linoleic acid, auto oxidation of ok-brain homogenates, lipid peroxidation by the enzymatic and non-enzymatic system in liver microsome fraction, and mitochondrial fraction etc. The amounts of acidic polysaccharide(AP) in red ginseng were higher than those of wild and cultured Panax quinquefolius, Panax notoginseng as well as white ginseng (Panax ginseng). In white ginseng, the AP amount is no difference in root ages or sizes, also, the AP amount of ginseng body was similar to that of rhizome, but was higher than that of leaf and epidermis. Addition of red ginseng acidic polysaccharide(RGAP) increased production of nitric oxide(NO) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-$\alpha$ in the rodent macrophage cultures, and treatment of RGAP in vivo stimulated tumoricidal activities of natural killer (NK) cells.

Effects of a Combined Treatment of Hot Water with Green Tea Extract and NaCl on the Postharvest Quality of Fresh-cut Burdocks

  • Chang, Min-Sun;Kim, Gun-Hee
    • Horticultural Science & Technology
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.364-374
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    • 2015
  • This study investigated quality changes in fresh-cut burdocks treated with hot water and anti-browning agents. The combined treatment using both heat treatment and anti-browning agents delayed the browning of burdocks, especially for those dipped in hot water and a solution of green tea extract plus NaCl. This treatment reduced the respiration rate and inhibited the growth of microorganisms more than heat treatment alone. The organoleptic quality of burdocks treated with the combined method proved to be the best according to sensory evaluation. Hence, this combined treatment using heat and anti-browning agents can enhance overall quality of processed fresh-cut root vegetables by browning inhibition and shelf-life extension.

Major Components Affecting Nonenzymatic Browning in Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) Paste during Storage (생강 페이스트의 저장중 비효소적 갈색화에 영향을 주는 주요성분)

  • Jo, Kil-Suk;Kim, Jun-Hwan;Shin, Hyo-Sun
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.433-439
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    • 1996
  • Major components affecting nonenzymatic browning in stored ginger paste were investigated using five synthetic model solutions. The model systems were stored at $40^{\circ}C$ for 30 days and analyzed for browning, in addition the contents of sugars, organic acids, ascorbic acids, amino acids and gingerols were determined. Among the chemical components, fructose, asparagine and ascorbic acid were the main contributors to the browning development of ginger paste, while gingerol compounds were browning inhibitors.

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