• Title, Summary, Keyword: browning

Search Result 923, Processing Time 0.054 seconds

The Browning Reaction and Inhibition of Apple Concentrated Juice (사과농축액의 갈변현상 및 그 억제)

  • 배수경;이영철;김현위
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
    • /
    • v.30 no.1
    • /
    • pp.6-13
    • /
    • 2001
  • The study was conducted to investigate the effect of the browning inhibitors such as PVPP(polyvinylpoly-pyrrolidone), A.A.(ascorbic acid) on nonezymatic browning factors [free sugar, total amino acid, organic acid, A.A., HMF (hydroxymethylfurfural)] and enzymatic browning factors [PRO (polyphenoloxidase) activity, polyphenol compounds] in concentrated apple juice during 90 days storage. Considering color value (L value, $\Delta$E), absorbance at 420 nm, concentrated apple juice during 90 days storage. Considering color the effect of browning inhibition. According to the storage period, the changes of nonenzymatic factors in concentrated apple juice added with browning inhibitors were similar to those in control (concentrated apple juice without browning inhibitors), which were the decreased of sucrose(0.24~0.35% at 90 days), the slight increase of glucose and fructose, the decrease of total amino acid (530.4~573.1 mg/10g at 90 days), same value of A.A. at 90 days (38.5~78.6 mg/100g), and the increase of HMF (27.8~30.6 mg/100g at 90 days). On the contrary, enzymatic browning factors were significantly inhibited in concentrated apple juice added with PVPP, judging from the slow increase of PRO activity and the significant decrease of initial value in polyphenol compounds (especially chlorogenic acid). These results suggest that PVPP plays an important role as enzymatic browning inhibitor, that is, a scavenger of polyphenol compounds by adsorption in concentrated apple juice.

  • PDF

Browning Reaction of Fresh Ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) as Affected by Heating Temperature (가열온도에 따른 수삼의 갈변반응 특성)

  • 이종원;이성계
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
    • /
    • v.19 no.3
    • /
    • pp.249-253
    • /
    • 1995
  • In the browning reaction of Korean ginseng, it appears that enzymatic and non-enzymatic browning reaction occurred in the initial stage of heating fresh ginseng at low temperature, and then non-enzymatic browning reaction followed in the drying period after heating. Activation energy of the browning reaction for red ginseng was about 9.0 kcal/mol. Browning reaction of red ginseng was accede- rated with an increase in steaming time, and a great extent of browning reaction occurred between 60-90 min of steaming at 10$0^{\circ}C$. Browning pigments of red ginseng were mostly water soluble subset.

  • PDF

Physiological Study on the Effect of Preventing the Browning Reaction by Corn Starch and Sucrose on Maillard Browning of Casein -Excretion phenomenon and contents of free amino acids and fructosyl-lysine of serum, liver and small intestinal diesta by rats- (옥수수 전분과 서탕에 의한 Casein갈변저지 효과에 관한 생리적 연구 -흰쥐에 의한 fructosyl-lysine 및 유리아미노산의 배설양상과 혈청, 간 및 소장내용물중의 함량-)

  • 우강융
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
    • /
    • v.21 no.4
    • /
    • pp.197-212
    • /
    • 1988
  • To study the effect of preventing the browning reaction between casein and glucose by protecting the reactants using corn starch with coating material, rats were fed for 30 days nonbrowning diet, nonprotected browning diet, browning diet protected only casein, browning diet protected both casein and glucose and browning diet supplement sucrose simultaneously with protecting both casein and glucose. The amounts of fructosyl-lysine excreted through urine were greater than those through feces regardless of diets and the both side of the excreted amounts of fructosly-lysine through urine or feces were greater for rats fed browning diets regardless protecting compared to rats fed the nonbrowning diet. Through urine, the excreted amounts of fructosyl-lysine were decreased for rats fed the browning diet supplemented sucrose simultaneously with protecting both casein and glucose than those for rats fed the nonprotected browning diet and through feces, were decreased for rats fed protected browning diets regardless of protecting method than the nonprotected browning diet. The excreted amounts of all individual essential free amino acids through feces were increased for rats fed browning diets irrespective of protecting compared to the nonbrowning diet, but through urine, were increased or similar level for rate fed the nonbrowning diet compared to browning diets except histidine. The excreted amount of free lysine through feces were decreased for rats fed protected browning diets than nonprotected browning diet. Fructosyl-lysine contents of serum, liver and small intestinal digesta were increased for rats fed browning diets regardless of protecting by starch compared to nonbrowning diet but, of serum and small intestinal digesta were decreased for rats fed protected browning diets than the nonprotected browning diet.

  • PDF

The Characteristics and Antioxidant Activity of Non-enzymatic Browsing Products from Fresh Ginseng Bxtracts and Those with Arginine or Glucose (수삼추출물 및 Glucose 또는 Arginine첨가 추출물의 특성과 항산화작용에 대하여)

  • 최강주;김동훈
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
    • /
    • v.5 no.1
    • /
    • pp.8-23
    • /
    • 1981
  • Color is one of the most important quality factors of red ginseng (Hong-sam) which is processed from fresh ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer). Therefore, a study of characteristics of browning mixtures of aqueous fresh ginseng extracts, factors which accelerate the browning of the aqueous extracts, and the antioxidant activity of the browning mixtures may contribute to the improvement of the color and other quality of red ginseng and other ginseng products such as ginseng extracts. In the present study, factors which affect the Maillard-type browning reaction of aqueous extracts of fresh ginseng roots were investigated firstly by adding various concentrations (0.001-0.5M) of arginine or glucose solutions, by varying the browning reaction temperatures and durations. Secondly, some characteristics such as brown color intensity, amounts of water-soluble and ether-soluble extracts, amounts of non-dialyzable materials, pH, viscosity, and reactivity with 2,2'- diphenyl -1 - picrylhydrazyl and antioxidant activity of the browning mixtures of the aqueous fresh ginseng extracts with small amounts of 0.1 M arginine, 0.1 M glucose, and distilled water at various browning temperatures and reaction time were studied. The results of the present study are as follows. 1. Color intensity (absorbance at 470 nm) of the browning mixtures was increased by adding various concentrations of arginine solution to the fresh ginseng extract, but the addition of the same amount of glucose solution did not increase the color intensity. 2 The amounts of water- or ether-soluble extracts, amounts of non-dialyzable materials were slightly greater in case of the browning mixtures of the fresh ginseng extract with 0.1M arginine solution than in case of the browning mixtures of the fresh ginseng extract with the same amount of 0.1 M glucose solution. In the process of the browning reaction, the pH of the browning mixtures of the fresh ginseng extract with 0.1 M arginine solution decreased slightly, while that of the browning mixtures with 0. 1 M glucose solution was almost constant. 3. The color intensity (absorbance at 470 nm) of the browning mixtures of the fresh ginseng extract with 0.1 M arginine or 0.1 M glucose solutions did not correlate well with the reducing power or the antioxidant power of the browning mixtures. The antioxidant activity of 90% ethanol extracts from the earlier stages of the browning mixtures of the fresh ginseng extract with the arginine solution was almost comparable to that of the 90% ethanol extracts from the later stages of the corresponding browning mixtures. The browning mixtures of only the fresh ginseng extract or of the fresh ginseng extract with the glucose solution showed considerable antioxidant activity, although both showed less brown color intensity than the fresh ginseng extract with he arginine solution.

  • PDF

Changes in Polyphenol Oxidase Activity, Phenol Concentration and Browning Degree of Potato Slices with Different Cultivars during Cold Storage (품종별 한국산 감자 슬라이스의 냉장 중 Polyphenol oxidase, 페놀함량 및 갈변정도의 변화)

  • Chung, Hyoun-Mi;Lee, Gui-Ju
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
    • /
    • v.10 no.2
    • /
    • pp.89-95
    • /
    • 1995
  • Three potato cultivars, Sumi,Daejima and Namjak, were prepared as slices. They were dipped in distilled water for 20 seconds. The potato slices were packed in polyethylene bags and stored at $5^{\circ}C$. Browning degree, total phenol and chlorogenic acid contents and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity were measured. And the correlation analysis of browning parameters were conducted. The results were as follows. There were increase in browning degree, phenolic content and PPO activity during cold storage of potato slices with different cultivars. Among three cultivars, Sumi showed the highest browning degree, phenolic content and PPO activity and also showed the highest % increse of browning and PPO activity during cold storage. On the contrary, Daejima was the lowest. But Daejima showed the highest % increase in phenolic contents during cold storage. With Sumi, browning degree was significantly correlated with PPO activity and phenolic contents (p<0.05). With Daejima and Namjak, a significant correlation was found between browning degree and PPO activity (p<0.05). From the above results, enzymatic browning reactions of potato slices and factors affecting them were dependent on cultivar. Among the tested three cultivars, Daejima showed the lowest browning degree during cold storage and thus seems to be desirable for minimal processing.

  • PDF

Mutagenic and Clastogenic Activities of the Browning Reaction Model Systems

  • Ryu, Beung-Ho;Kim, Dong-Seuk;Kim, Dong-Su;Lee, Chong-Choil
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
    • /
    • v.1 no.1
    • /
    • pp.13-21
    • /
    • 1986
  • Two short-term bioassays were employed to asses the mutagenic and clastogenic activities in browning reaction of pentose-creatine, pentose-glycine and pentose-creatine-glycine browning reaction model system. Methylene chloride extract of rhamnose-creatine-glycine browning reaction exhibited the strongest mutagenicity toward Salmonella typhimurium TA98 with S-9. Methylene chloride extract of pentose-creatine and pentose-glycine browning reaction solutions was also tested for mutagenicity, with positive responses. Methylene chloride extract of pentose-creatine-glycine browning reaction solutions induced significant increase in chromosome aberrations in the treated Chinese hamster ovary(CHO) cells. Each of pentose-creatine and pentose-glycine browning reaction solutions induced a relatively low frequency of chromosome aberrations in the treated cells.

  • PDF

A study on the reaction rate of caramel type browning reaction (Caramel형 갈색화 반응속도에 관한 연구)

  • 신민자;안명수
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
    • /
    • v.15 no.4
    • /
    • pp.363-369
    • /
    • 1999
  • The study was carried out to compare the reaction rate of caramel type browning reaction of xylose(XY), glocose(GL), sucrose(SU), glucose+citric acid(GLCA), glucose+sodiumcitrats(GLSC), glucose+glycine(GLGC) heated at 60, 80, 100, 120 and 140$^{\circ}C$ for 24 hours, respectively. 1. The color intensity (absorbance at 490 nm) of the browning reaction mixtures tends to increase as the browning reaction time gets longer and the browning of reaction temperature gets higher. But the degree of the intensity of SU and GLCA changes very little. 2. The reaction rate constant (K) was increased rapidly above 120$^{\circ}C$ and appeared maximum at 140$^{\circ}C$, especially GLGC (140.25) was the highest. The activation energy (Ea) of sugars. XY had the highest value (124.36 J/mol), while SU the lowest(104.68 J/mol). Mixtures of GLGC was shown to have higher activation energy (144.94 J/mol) than the sugar alone and Q$\_$10/ values of GLGC were 1.68-2.85. 3. The residual amount of reactants such as xylose, glucose, sucrose, citric acid, sodium citrate and glycine in each browning mixture were decreased upon the browning reaction temperature increasing. In the GLCA, GLSC and GLGC browning mixtures, respectively, the residual amounts of glucose were less than those with amino acid, organic acid and their salt.

  • PDF

The changes in intracellular enzyme during the mycelial browning of Lentinula edodes (Berkeley) Sing (표고균사 갈변시 세포내 효소의 변화)

  • Kim, Young-Ho;Jhune, Chang-Sung;Park, Soo-Chul;You, Chang-Hyun;Sung, Jae-Mo;Kong, Won-Sik
    • Journal of Mushroom
    • /
    • v.7 no.3
    • /
    • pp.110-114
    • /
    • 2009
  • Sawdust bag cultivation of Shiitake mushroom (Lentinula edodes) is getting increase. The mycelia browning on the substrate surface is important for the stable production. The development of methods for the rapid mycelia browning is quite required. In this study changes in intracellular enzyme during the mycelial browning were investigated to find the rapid mycelia browning. Mycelia of L. edodes was changed into brown color while it grew in agar and liquid media like sawdust substrates. Mycelia of L. edodes was started to change color at 25 days after inoculation and browning was occurred in whole mycelia colony at 30 days and browning was completed at 40 days. The activities of enzymes was evaluated in these periodically color changing mycelia. Laccase activity was highest at 15 days after inoculation on PDB, but it gradually decreased from 15 days. Tyrosinase activity drastically increased in period between 30 days and 40 days while mycelia browning was progressed. The kinds of phosphotase identified by electrophoresis were esterase, acid phosphotase, and alkaline phosphotase. Activities of phosphotase were increased before the initiation of mycelial browning but they were decreased after browning.

  • PDF

Effects of Amino Acids and SLlgars on the Maillard Brou'nine Reactions during Extraction and Concentration of Red Ginseng (홍삼추출물 및 농축물의 마이야르 갈색화반응 촉진에 미치는 아미노산 및 당의 영향)

  • 이광승;최강주
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
    • /
    • v.14 no.2
    • /
    • pp.117-121
    • /
    • 1990
  • Browning intensity is a major factor to estimate the quality of red ginseng or red ginseng products. The Maillard type of browning reaction proceeds nonenzymatically during extraction and concentration of red ginseng. The present studies were carried out to investigate the effects of amino acids and sugars on the browning reaction during extraction and concentration of red ginseng. Red ginseng was pulverized to 115 mesh and then tenfold (v/w) of water was added to the powder to make the substrate of red ginseng. Solution (0.1 M) of fourteen amino acids and of folly silgars were added to the substrates of red ginseng powder and these were then extracted and concentrated to examine their browning intensities. Amino acids were more effective than sligars in acrelerating the browning reaction. Acceleration of the browning reaction in the concentrate was in the order of arginine> histidine>glycine>alanine>lysine phenyl alanine>aspartic acid>lelicine>threonine>gllitamic acid>tyrosine>valine>istleucine>methionine for amino acids, and was glucose>frlictose >silcrose, maltose for sugars.

  • PDF

A Study on the Reaction Rates of Maillard Browning Reaction of Dipeptides with Xylose (Dipeptide류와 당에 의한 Maillard 갈색화반응의 반응속도에 관한 연구)

  • 김희주;안명수
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
    • /
    • v.12 no.1
    • /
    • pp.108-114
    • /
    • 1996
  • The study was carried out to compare the reaction rate of Maillard browning reaction of 2 dipeptides (Leucylglycine, Tryptophylglycine) and 4 amino acids (Lysine, Glycine, Leucine, Tryptophan) with xylose heated for 0∼24 hours at 60∼100$^{\circ}C$. 1. The color intensity of the browning mixture heated at 100$^{\circ}C$ for 24 hours was the highest in tryptophanxylose, and in order to tryptophylglycine-xylose > lysine-xylose > leucylglycine-ylose > leucine-xylose > glycine-xylose. 2. The reaction rate constants (k) determined from the browning pigment concentrate with time were similar to the result of the color intensity, that is, the k were the highest in the tryptophan-xylose. 3. The residual amounts of dipeptides, amino acids and xylose in the browning mixture diminished as the browning temperature increase. 4. The activation energies (Ea) calculated from k were the highest in leucine-xylose (143.72 J/mol) and the lowest in tryptophan-xylose (117.45 J/mol). The range of Q$\sub$10/ values were 2.84∼3.58.

  • PDF