• Title, Summary, Keyword: brine mineral water

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Effect of Brine Mineral Water on TMA-Induced Contact Hypersensitivity Reaction in the Mouse Model (TMA로 유도된 접촉성 과민 반응 마우스 질환모델에서 해양성 광천수 도포시의 치료효과)

  • Kim, Jae-Jin;Kim, Wan-Jae;Sim, Jae-Man;Choi, Seon-Kang;Kwon, Soon-Sung;Kim, Jung-Duk;Lee, Kwang-Ho
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.440-445
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    • 2010
  • Effect of brine mineral water(BMW) on contact hypersensitivity reaction(CHR) was estimated using trimellitic anhydride (TMA) induced CHR in the mouse. BMW exhibited potent inhibitory activity on TMA induced CHR. BMW treatment suppressed the ear swelling, and attenuated hyper-activated lymph nodes stimulated by TMA challenge, thereby reduced their weight. The immunological index was analyzed after BMW administration in CHR. The level of serum IgE was significantly down regulated after BMW treatment. Furthermore, BMW showed inhibitory property of cytokine production. BMW treatment suppressed not only Th2 type cytokine, IL-4 but also pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-${\alpha}$ and IL-6. From the histological analysis, the inflammatory context appeared by atopic dermatitis lesion after challenging with TMA are diminished by BMW treatment. Our results suggest that BMW may attenuate the development of CHR, and can be available for functional ingredient.

Applicability of Mineral-controled Water from Deep Ocean Water for Industrial Utilization (해양심층수 수질조정수의 산업소재 적용성 평가)

  • Kim H.J.;Moon D.S.;Cho S.Y.;Lee Y.S.
    • Proceedings of the Korea Committee for Ocean Resources and Engineering Conference
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    • pp.23-28
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    • 2004
  • Various merchandises have appeared in recent markets of mineral water, beverage, food and cosmetics etc. These are almost manufactured by adding raw seawater, desalinated water, brine or salt from Deep Ocean Water(DOW), and it intimated desalination and mineral extraction are key techniques for DOW business. This study aims to verify the functional performance of mineral-controlled water produced by the basic methods which were proposed by authors for industrial purposes. This water revealed the possibility of the radical scavenging effects and moisturizing capability.

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Inhibitory Activity of Brine Mineral Water on Cancer Cell Growth, Metastasis and Angiogenesis (해양성 광천수의 암세포 성장, 전이 및 신생 혈관 생성 억제 효과)

  • Kim, Wan-Jae;Li, Hua;Yoon, Taek-Joon;Sim, Jae-Man;Choi, Seon-Kang;Lee, Kwang-Ho
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.542-547
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    • 2009
  • Brine mineral water(BMW) has recently gained attention as a new water resource due to its biological activities. In this study, BMW from the Geumjin area(Gangneung-city, Korea) was evaluated for its growth inhibition, anti-metastasis and anti-angiogenesis activity against cancer cells. The in vitro cytotoxicity was measured by CCK assay, and the anti-metastasis activity was estimated by lung metastasis in vivo. The in vitro incubation of mouse splenic cells with BMW that had been diluted more than 4-fold showed no effect on the cell growth when compared to a control group. Additionally, BMW inhibited the growth of the EL-4, L5178Y-R and colon26-M3.1 cancer cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. In vivo evaluation of the anti-metastasis activity of BMW in BALB/c mice inoculated with the colon26-M3.1 cell line revealed dose-dependent inhibition in response to treatment with samples that were diluted by up to 9 times. Finally, treatment with BMW effectively suppressed the growth of vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) added human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Overall, these results suggest that BMW has anti-cancer activity.

Study for the Geochemical Reaction of Feldspar with Supercritical $CO_2$ in the Brine Aquifer for $CO_2$ Sequestration (이산화탄소의 지중저장 대염수층에서 과임계이산화탄소에 의한 장석의 지화학적 변화 규명)

  • Choi, Won-Woo;Kang, Hyun-Min;Kim, Jae-Jung;Lee, Ji-Young;Lee, Min-Hee
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.42 no.5
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    • pp.403-412
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    • 2009
  • The objective of this study is to investigate the geochemical change of feldspar minerals by supercritical $CO_2$, which exists at $CO_2$ sequestration sites. High pressurized cell system (100 bar and $50^{\circ}C$) was designed to create supercritical $CO_2$ in the cell and the surface change and the dissolution of plagioclase and orthoclase were observed when the mineral surface reacted with supercritical $CO_2$ and water (or without water) for 30 days. The polished slab surface of feldspar was contacted with supercritical $CO_2$ and an artificial brine water (pH 8) in the experiments. The experiments for the reaction of feldspar with only supercritical $CO_2$ (without brine water) were also conducted. Results from the first experiment showed that the average roughness value of the plagioclase surface was 0.118 nm before the reaction, but it considerably increased to 2.493 nm after 30 days. For the orthoclase, the average roughness increased from 0.246 nm to 1.916 nm, suggesting that the dissolution of feldspar occurs in active when the feldspars contact with supercritical $CO_2$ and brine water at $CO_2$ sequestration site. The dissolution of $Ca^{2+}$ and $Na^+$ from the plagioclase occurred and a certain part of them precipitated inside of the high pressurized cell as the form of amorphous silicate mineral. For the orthoclase, $Al^{3+}$, $K^+$, and $Si^{+4}$ were dissolved in order and the kaolinite was precipitated. In the experiments without water, the change of the average roughness value and the dissolution of feldspar scarcely occurred, suggesting that the geochemical reaction of feldspars contacted with supercritical $CO_2$ at the environment without the brine water is not active.

Relative Permeability Characteristics for CO2 and Brine in In-situ Core Samples (현장 시료의 CO2/염수 상대유체투과도 거동 특성)

  • Jeong, Gusun;Huh, Dae-gee;Ki, Seil;Park, Yongchan
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Mineral and Energy Resources Engineers
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    • v.54 no.6
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    • pp.655-663
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    • 2017
  • Understanding of the relative permeability for $CO_2$/brine system is essential for the successful $CO_2$ storage in geological formation. This paper presents experimental measurements of $CO_2$/brine relative permeability in paaratte and Gorae 1-1 samples obtained from Australian Otway basin and Korea continental shelf, respectively. Both samples were fired to make flow efficient by reducing fine particle's migration, which cause flow inefficiency by 2-3 times. The results show typical features of $CO_2$/brine system with high irreducible brine saturation (over 40%) and low $CO{_2}^{\prime}s$ end-point relative permeability (below 0.2). Furthermore, irreducible brine saturation of Gorae 1-1 sample is higher than that of the paaratte sample, due to difference in water-wet tendencies. It expects a more conservative approach in estimating the $CO{_2}^{\prime}s$ injectable amount into the formation. And, by low absolute permeability and capillary dominant flow, injecting to the Gorae 1-1 formation with high flowrate is recommendable in actual operation.

Recent Water Treatment Technology for Unconventional Natural Resource Development (비전통자원개발에 따른 수처리 최신 기술)

  • Kim, Geug Tae;Chung, Kun Yong;Park, Jung Kyu
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
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    • v.52 no.2
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    • pp.154-165
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    • 2014
  • Development of unconventional natural resources such as shale gas, shale oil and coal bed methane, has been activated and improved the productivity due to the recent technology advance in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing. However, the flowback water mixed with chemical additives, and the brine water containing oil, gas, high levels of salts and radioactive metals is produced during the gas production. Potential negative environmental impact due to large volumes of the produced wastewater is increasingly seen as the major obstacles to the unconventional natural resource development. In this study an integrated framework for the flowback and brine water treatment is proposed, and we reviewed the upcoming state of the art technology in water treatment. Basic separation processes which include not only membrane, evaporation, crystallization and desalination processes, but the potential water reuse and recycling techniques can be applied for the unconventional natural resource industry.

Development and Application of Micromodel for Visualization of Supercritical CO2 Migration in Pore-scale (공극 규모에서의 초임계상 이산화탄소 거동 가시화를 위한 마이크로모델의 개발과 적용)

  • Park, Bogyeong;Lee, Minhee;Wang, Sookyun
    • Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.73-82
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    • 2015
  • Despite significant effects on macroscopic migration and distribution of CO2 injected during geological sequestration, only limited information is available on wettability in microscopic scCO2-brine-mineral systems due to difficulties in pore-scale observation. In this study, a micromodel had been developed to improve our understanding of how scCO2 flooding and residual characteristics of porewater are affected by the wettability in scCO2-water-glass bead systems. The micromodel (a transparent pore structure made of glass beads and glass plates) in a pressurized chamber provided the opportunity to visualize scCO2 spreading and porewater displacement. CO2 flooding followed by fingering migration and dewatering followed by formation of residual water were observed through an imaging system. Measurement of contact angles of residual porewater in micromodels were conducted to estimate wettability in a scCO2-water-glass bead system. The measurement revealed that the brine-3M NaCl solution-is a wetting fluid and the surface of glass beads is water-wet. It is also found that the contact angle at equilibrium decreases as the pressure decreases, whereas it increases as the salinity increases. Such changes in wettability may significantly affect the patterns of scCO2 migration and porewater residence during the process of CO2 injection into a saline aquifer at high pressures.

Geomechanical properties of synthesised clayey rocks in process of high-pressure compression and consolidation

  • Liu, Taogen;Li, Ling;Liu, Zaobao;Xie, Shouyi;Shao, Jianfu
    • Geomechanics and Engineering
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    • v.20 no.6
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    • pp.537-546
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    • 2020
  • Oil and natural gas reserves have been recognised abundantly in clayey rich rock formations in deep costal reservoirs. It is necessary to understand the sedimentary history of those reservoir rocks to well explore these natural resources. This work designs a group of laboratory experiments to mimic the physical process of the sedimentary clay-rich rock formation. It presents characterisation results of the physical properties of the artificial clayey rocks synthesized from illite clay, quartz sand and brine water by high-pressure consolidation tests. Special focus is given on the effects of illite clay content and high-stress consolidation on the physical properties. Multi-step loaded consolidation experiments were carried out with stress up to 35 MPa on mixtures constituting of the illite clay, quartz sand and brine water with five initial illite clay contents (w=85%, 70%, 55%, 40% and 25%). Compressibility and void ratio were characterised throughout the physical compaction process of the mixtures constituting of five illite clay contents and their water permeability was measured as well. Results show that the applied stress induces a great reduction of clayey rock void ratio. Illite clay contents has a significant influence on the compressibility, void ratio and the permeability of the physically synthesized clayey rocks. There is a critical illite clay content w=70% that induces the minimum void ratio in the physically synthesised clayey rocks. The SEM study indicates, in the high-pressure synthesised clayey rocks with high illite clay contents, the illite clay minerals are located in layers and serve as the material matrix, and the quartz minerals fill in the inter-mineral pores or are embedded in the illite clay matrix. The arrangements of the minerals in microscale originate the structural anisotropy of the high-pressure synthesised clayey rock. The test findings can give an intuitive physical understanding of the deep-buried clayey rock basins in energy reservoirs.

The Physical and Chemical Properties of Salt Manufactured by New Process with Brine Produced in Korean Salt-farms (염전의 함수로 제조한 천일식제조소금의 물리화학적 특성)

  • Kim, Kyeong Mi;Kim, In Cheol
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.42 no.10
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    • pp.1664-1672
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    • 2013
  • Solar salt is manufactured naturally, and therefore, it contains insoluble substances such as sandy compounds. This study is performed in order to effectively produce clean sea salt by removing the impurities in sea salt through filtration and evaporation in a vacuum condition. Brine was concentrated and crystallized at $90^{\circ}C$ by a rotary vacuum evaporator, which was then recovered as salt crystals by filtration, and then the salt was dehydrated. Manufacturing yields were determined by the amount of water evaporation. Brine was concentrated to 40%, 50% and 60% of the initial volume of brine and manufactured salt were designated as 40S, 50S and 60S, respectively. The salt produced by this process is called ESBS (evaporated salt with brine from salt-farm). The yield of 40S, 50S and 60S were 7.22%, 10.79% and 15.06%, respectively. The NaCl concentration of 40S and 50S were 90.38% and 91.16%, respectively. From a sensory evaluation analysis, the most tasty salt was 40S and the bitter salt was 60S. The average contents of sand compound and insoluble substances in ESBS were 0.001~0.012% and 0.067~0.12%, respectively. The mineral compositions, such as Na, Mg, K, and Ca of 40S and 50S were similar with those of the natural solar salt. In solubility tests, the solubility (g of salt/100 mL $H_2O$/sec) of 40S, 50S, and 60S was 0.69, 0.70, and 0.69, respectively. On the other hand, the solubility of natural solar salt was 0.47. By comparing the water reabsorption rate analysis results, water reabsorption rate of 40S and 50S was about 3 to 5 times lower than that of the solar salt. In the aspects of physical and chemical properties, such as minerals, impurities, solubility and moisture re-absorption rate, salts developed in this study are judged to be better than that of the general solar salt.

A study on slim-hole neutron logging based on numerical simulation (소구경 시추공에서의 중성자검층 수치모델링 연구)

  • Ku, Bonjin;Nam, Myung Jin
    • Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.219-226
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    • 2012
  • This study provides an analysis on results of neutron logging for various borehole environments through numerical simulation based on a Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code developed and maintained by Los Alamos National Laboratory. MCNP is suitable for the simulation of neutron logging since the algorithm can simulate transport of nuclear particles in three-dimensional geometry. Rather than simulating a specific tool of a particular service company between many commercial neutron tools, we have constructed a generic thermal neutron tool characterizing commercial tools. This study makes calibration chart of the neutron logging tool for materials (e.g., limestone, sandstone and dolomite) with various porosities. Further, we provides correction charts for the generic neutron logging tool to analyze responses of the tool under various borehole conditions by considering brine-filled borehole fluid and void water, and presence of borehole fluid.