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Comparison of Plasma Taurine Levels in Some of Breast-fed Infants and Formula-fed Infants (일부 모유 영양아와 인공 영양아의 혈중 타우린 함량 비교)

  • Cho Kum-Ho;Kim Eul-Sang
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.397-404
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    • 2005
  • The propose of this study was to investigate taurine intake in formula-fed and breast-fed infants and to estimate the level of taurine of blood and urine in order to determine the requirement of taurine intake in infants. These results will be useful to suggest the guideline of requirement of taurine intake and may contribute toward the proper use of breast milk substitutes. Experimental groups were breast-fed infants (n=10) and formula-fed infants (n=10) of 20 normal delivery infants in general hospital. This study was longitudinal study from birth up to 16weeks (0 week, 4 weeks, 8 weeks, 12 weeks, 16 weeks). The items of test were anthropometry(weight, height, head circumference, chest circumference), intake of taurine, taurine level of blood and urine in breast-fed and formula-fed infants. There were no significant differences between breast-fed and formula-fed infants in weight, height, head and chest circumference. There is a need for future studies of exclusive infants with larger samples to determine which growth pattern should be considered as the norm. Taurine concentration of plasma and urine did not differ between breast-fed and formula-fed infants. Taurine intake recommendations for infants is about 30mg/day from this study. This data will be useful for production of human-like formula milk and suggestion of an index of selection of a consumer in taurine.

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Breast-Feeding Protects Infantile Diarrhea Caused by Intestinal Protozoan Infections

  • Abdel-Hafeez, Ekhlas Hamed;Belal, Usama Salah;Abdellatif, Manal Zaki Mohamed;Naoi, Koji;Norose, Kazumi
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.51 no.5
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    • pp.519-524
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    • 2013
  • This study investigated the effect of breast-feeding in protection against protozoan infection in infants with persistent diarrhea. Infants were classified into 2 groups; 161 breast-fed infants and the same number of non-breast-fed infants. Microscopic examinations of stool were done for detection of parasites and measuring the intensity of infection. Moreover, serum levels of IgE and TNF-${\alpha}$ were measured by ELISA. Cryptosporidium spp., Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar, Giardia lamblia, and Blastocystis sp. were demonstrated in infants with persistent diarrhea. The percentage of protozoan infections was significantly lower in breast-fed infants than that in the non-breast-fed infants. The levels of IgE and TNF-${\alpha}$ were significantly lower in the breast-fed group than in the non-breast-fed group. There were significant positive associations between the serum levels of IgE and TNF-${\alpha}$ and the intensity of parasite infection in the breast-fed group. It is suggested that breast-feeding has an attenuating effect on the rate and intensity of parasite infection.

Longitudinal Study of Growth, Energy and Protein Metabolism of Korean Breast Fed and Formula Fed Infants from 1 to 3 Postpartum Months (모유영양아와 인공영양아의 성장과 에너지 및 단백질대사에 관한 종단적 연구)

  • 구재옥;최경숙;김원경
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.47-60
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    • 1996
  • This study was carried out to investigate growth performance, energy and protein metabolism of breast and formula fed infants from birth to 3 months postpartum. There were four groups : breast fed(BF) and three formula fed groups(FFM, FFN and FFP). There was no significant difference in the height of infants according to feeding method and formula brands. However, mean weight of FFM was significantly higher than that of FFP and BF at 1 and 3 months postpartum, respectively. Mean head circumference of FFN was lowest among groups. The average intake of breast milk was $781.4{\;}{pm}{\;}119.3m{\ell}/day$ and that of formula was $848.6{\;}{pm}{\;}118.5m{\ell}/day$. Mean apparent digestible energy intakes of formula-fed infants and breast-fed infants during 3months were 568.9 $\pm$146.9 kca1/day and 657.9$\pm$212.8 kca1/day, respectively. The average protein intake of brest-fed and formula-fed infants were 8.3$\pm$1.6g/day and 14.1$\pm$14.1 g/day, respectively. The protein intakes of formula-fed infants were significantly higher than those of breast-fed infants at 1, 2, 3 months. The apparent protein digestibility of breast-fed infants was singnificantly higher compared to formula fed infant. These data suggest that RDA for infants be established and breast feeding be encouraged.

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A Longitudinal Study of Calcium and Phosphorus Intakes of Korean Infants from 1 to 3 Months in Breast-Fed vs Formula-Fed Infants (모유영양아와 인공영양아의 칼슘과 인의 섭취상태에 관한 종단적 연구)

  • 구재옥;최경숙
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.273-279
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    • 2000
  • This study was carried out to evaluate the calcium and phosphorus intakes and correlation with growth performance of 25male breast and formula-fed infants from 1 to 3 months postpartum. There were four groups breast-fed(BF) and three formula-fed groups(FFM, FFN and FFP). There was no significant difference in the height and weight of infants according to feeding methods and formula brands. Milk intake and the concentration of calcium and phosphorus from human milk and the formulas were measured. The average calcium content of human milk was 26.6$\pm$4.1mg/dl and 13.5$\pm$2.0mg/dl, respectively. The average calcium intakes of the brest-fed and formula-fed infants were 205.5$\pm$29.3mg/day and the 460.5$\pm$70.6mg/day, respectively the average calcium intake of breast-fed infants was significantly lower than that of formula fed infant. The percent of RDA(41%) of breast-fed infants was lower than that(75.4%) of formula fed infant. The average phosphorus intake of the brest-fed and formula-fed infants were 105.1$\pm$20.1mg/day and 288.3$\pm$37.3mg/day, respectively. The precent of RDA(27%) for brest fed was significantly lower than that(75.4%) of formula fed. The Ca/P ratios were 2.1 in brest fed and 1.6 in formula fed infant. The average calcium and phosphorus intakes of the formula fed infants was higher than that of the brest-fed infants. This data suggests the calcium and phosphorus intakes form human milk sufficiently support the growth of infants. Therefore, the level of calcium and phosphorus recommended dietary allowances for infants should be reduced.

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Study on Vitamin I Intake of Exclusively Breast-fed Infants (모유 영양아의 비타민 E 섭취에 관한 연구)

  • 이정실;김을상
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.31 no.9
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    • pp.1440-1445
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    • 1998
  • In order to investigate the vitamin I intake of exclusively breast-fed infants, we examined 33 lactating women and their infants at 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 months of lactation. Vitamin E contents of human milk were determined by HPLC analysis. Vitamin E contents of the milk showed 539, 520, 464, 422, 409 and 351$\mu\textrm{g}$/100m1 during the lactation respectively. Vitamin E contents of the human milk were not affected by energy, lipid and protein consumption of lactating women. Vitamin E intake of breast-fed infants averaged 3375 and 269$\mu\textrm{g}$/day in boys and girls during the first 5 months of lactation. Vitamin E intake per body weight of breast-fed infants appeared 725, 752, 600, 461, 420 and 334$\mu\textrm{g}$/kg/day respectively. We conclude that breast-fed infants most likely receives adequate vitamin E from the human milk compared with recommended dietary allowances for Korean infants. (Korean J Nutrition 31(9) : 1440-1445, 1998)

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Protein, Ca, Mg and P Intakes of Breast-fed Infants during Lactation (모유영양아의 수유기간별 단백질, 칼슘, 마그네슘과 인 섭취량)

  • 김을상;금혜경
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.36 no.9
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    • pp.942-949
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    • 2003
  • This study was longitudinally conducted to evaluate the intakes of protein, Ca, Mg and P of exclusively breast-fed infants compared with the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) for Korean infants. Twenty Korean lactating women and their infants during the first 3 months of lactation in Incheon area were participated. Protein, Ca and Mg, and P contents in the milk were determined using semimicro Kjeldahl (N ${\times}$ 6.38) , atomic absorption spectrophotometer and colorimeter, respectively, and also the milk consumption of the infants was measured by the test-weighing method. Protein contents of the milk were 1.96, 1.63, 1.51, 1.25 and 1.16 g/100 ml, and protein intakes of the breast-fed infants were 9.00, 9.85, 9.17, 8.97 and 7.76 g/day at 7, 15, 30, 60 and 90 days postpartum. The average protein intake per body weight of the breast-fed infants was 1.84 g/kg/day. The average intakes of Ca, Mg, P were 172.1 mg/day, 15.2 mg/day and 91.4 mg/day, respectively, and the average Ca/P ratio was 1.91. There was positive correlation between protein and Ca, protein and p, and Ca and P contents while negative correlation between Mg and P, The body weight of breast-fed infants increased normally from 3.6 $\pm$ 0.41 g at birth to three month during lactation. It is suggested that the breast-fed infants in Incheon area consume almost adequately protein, Ca and P from the milk compared with RDA for Korean infants.

Study on Vitamin h Intake of Breast-fed Infants during the First S Months of Lactation (수유 첫 5개월간 모유 영양아의 비타민 A 섭취량에 관한 연구)

  • 이정실;김을상
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.31 no.9
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    • pp.1433-1439
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    • 1998
  • This study was performed to investigate the vitamin A intake of exclusively breast-fed infants and to compare the value with the Recommended Dietary Allollwances(BDA) for Korean infants. We examined retinol and ${\beta}$-carotene contents of breast milk in 32 lactating women by HPLC analysis and also the consumed volume of the milk of their infants by the test-weighing method during the first 5 months of lactation. Total vitamin A contents of the milk shelved 67.3, 56.5, 51.2, 45.2, 39.0 and 34.lR.E./100m1 at 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 months of lactation respectively. Vitamin A intake of breast-fed infants were 320, 371, 368, 325, 292 and 251R.E/day during the five-month nursing period. Vitamin A intake per body weight of breast-fed infants was measured at 86.4, 79.8, 63.6, 49.1, 40.0 and 31.9R.E/kg/day. Body weight gain of infants was not affected by the vitamin A intake from the milk during the lactation. We conclude that breast-fed infants most likely receives vitamin A from the milk adequately compared with the RDA for Korean infants. (Korean J Nutrition 31(9) : 1433-1439, 1998)

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Growth Patterns of Breast Fed and Formula Fed Infants (모유수유아와 분유수유아의 성장 패턴)

  • Kwak, Ju Young;Park, Jun Young;Lee, He Jin;Jung, Hi Jin;Son, Sang Hi;Jung, Soo Jin
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.48 no.10
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    • pp.1055-1060
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    • 2005
  • Purpose : The purpose of this study is to compare the growth pattern of breast fed and formula fed infants in the first 1 year of life. Methods : Anthropometric data(weight, length, head circumference) of at birth, 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months were collected by chart review and characteristics of subjects were collected by questionnaires. Among 358 infants, breast fed infants were 161(84 males, 77 females) and formula fed infants were 90(42 males, 48 females). Neither group was given solid foods before 4 months. The weight for age, length for age and head circumference for age were calculated. Breast fed infants were separated into 2 groups(breast fed for 4-11 months and breast fed for more than 12 months). Results : Characteristics of infants and mothers were similar in both groups except for maternal age. Mean weight of breast fed group was lower than that of formula fed group at 12 months of age(male : P=0.004, female : P=0.004). However, mean weight of 12 months breast fed group was below formula fed groups weight at 9 and 12 months(P<0.05). Mean length and head circumference were similar between groups. Conclusion : The growth indices of breast fed and formula fed infants are similar at birth, but weight curves of two groups differ in the first 1 year.

Comparison of Morbidity between Breast-fed and Formula-fed Infants (모유영양아와 인공영양아의 이환율 비교)

  • Kim, Mi-Won;Shin, Hee-Sun;Kim, Jeong-Sun;Ahn, Chai-Soon;Oh, Sang-Eun;Yu, Kyoung-Won;Lee, Ae-Ran;Jang, Young-Sook
    • 모자간호학회지
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.166-171
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    • 1993
  • To compare the morbidity between the breast-fed and artificial formula-fed Infants, the frequency of diseases during infancy was studied. The subjects were 37 breast-fed infants and 41 formula-fed infants aged 12-15 months. The data were obtained while they visited the pediatric out-patient clinics. The results were as follows : 1. Most prevalent diseases in the infancy were respiratory and gastrointestinal illnesses. 2. During the first 6 months the morbidity was significantly lower in the breast-fed than in the formula-fed 3. The frequency of respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases was significantly higher in the formula-fed than in the breast-fed infant during the first 6 months.

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Concentrations of Major Minerals and Trace Elements in Sera of The Breast-fed and Formula-fed Infants (모유영양아와 인공영양아의 혈청무기질 및 미량원소 함량비교)

  • 안홍석;박성혜;박윤신
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.133-140
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    • 1997
  • The serum concentrations of the major minerals(calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium) and trace elements(iron, Zinc, copper manganese)were datermined in 23 breast fed infants living in Eumsung, Choong-buk region. The results obtained are summarized as follows: 1)The mean levels of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium and potassium of the serum of total subjects were 8.15$\pm$0.33mg/dI, 11.06$\pm$0.16mg/dI, 2.00$\pm$0.14mg/dI, 3.4476$\pm$17.99mg/dI and 9.06$\pm$2.04mg/dI respectively. 2)The serum concentrations of iron, zinc, copper and manganese in total subjects averaged 95.83$\pm$0.33mg/dI, 93.79$\pm$7.06$\mu$g/dI and 98.57$\pm$7.06 $\mu$g/dI and 4.93$\pm$0.62$\mu$g/dI respecitively. 3)Breast fed infants had significantly higher serum calcim, magnesium, sodium and iron concentrations than the formula fed groups. Otherwise, serum potassium, copper and manganese levels in breast milk fed infants were significantly lower than those in formula fed infants. 4) In formula fed infants, serum potassium and copper levels increased increased significantly with months after birth.

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