• Title, Summary, Keyword: breast density

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Imperfect Correlation of Mammographic and Clinical Breast Tissue Density

  • Alipour, Sadaf;Bayani, Leila;Saberi, Azin;Alikhassi, Afsaneh;Hosseini, Ladan;Eslami, Bita
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.3685-3688
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    • 2013
  • Background: Clinicians determine degree of mammographic density based on tissue firmness on breast examination. The study aimed to compare breast density in mammography and clinical breast examination. Materials and Methods: Six-hundred sixty three women 40 years of age or older were studied. The breast exam density was graded from 1 to 4 by two expert surgeons and the mammographic parenchymal density by two expert radiologists. Then for practical reasons, grades 1 and 2 were considered as low-density and grades 3 and 4 as high-density. Results: High and low densities were detected in 84.5% and 15.5% of clinical breast examinations and 59.7% and 40.3% of mammographies, respectively. The statistical analysis showed a significant difference between the breast tissue densities in breast examination with those in mammography. Conclusions: A clinically dense breast does not necessarily imply a dense mammographic picture.

Correlation of Breast Tissue Density and Body Mass Index (유방조직의 밀도와 체질량지수와의 상관관계)

  • Yang, Jung-Hak;Lee, Taik-Jong
    • Archives of Plastic Surgery
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    • v.37 no.6
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    • pp.732-735
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    • 2010
  • Purpose: In performing breast reconstruction, making symmetrical breast is still a challenge. A precise estimate of the volume of the breast specimen is necessary to reconstruct a symmetrical and aesthetically pleasing breast. This study aims at finding out the relationship with breast tissue density and body mass index designed to apply for breast reconstruction. Methods: By using the Archimedes' principle, the authors calculated the volume of the breast specimen and drew a correlation between the density of breast specimen and BMI. From October 2002 to November 2004, this method was used on 197 patients to predict breast volume for TRAM flap reconstruction. Results: The mean density was 0.9954g/cc and had no correlation with BMI (p-value=0.069). There was no difference between denstiy of breast tissue after skin spared mastectomy and that of breast tissue after nipple spared mastectomy. Conclusion: These data will be helpful to predict the needed volume for breast reconstruction.

Analysis of Mammographic Breast Density in a Group of Screening Chinese Women and Breast Cancer Patients

  • Liu, Jing;Liu, Pei-Fang;Li, Jun-Nan;Qing, Chun;Ji, Yu;Hao, Xi-Shan;Zhang, Xue-Ning
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.15
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    • pp.6411-6414
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    • 2014
  • Background: A dense breast not only reduces the sensitivity of mammography but also is a moderate independent risk factor for breast cancer. The percentage of Western women with fat breast tissue is higher aged 40 years or older. To a certain extent, mammography as a first choice of screening imaging method for Western women of this group is reasonable. Hitherto, the frequency and age distribution of mammographic breast density patterns among Chinese women had not been characterized. The purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency and age distribution of mammographic breast density patterns among a group of Chinese screening women and breast cancer patients in order to provide useful information for age-specific guidelines for breast cancer screening in Chinese women. Methods: A retrospective review of a total of 3,394 screening women between August and December 2009 and 2,527 breast cancer patients between July 2011 and June 2012 was conducted. Descriptive analyses were used to examine the association between age and breast density. The significance of differences of breast density between the screening women and the breast cancer patients was examined using nonparametric tests. Results: There was a significant inverse relationship between age and breast density overall (r=-0.37, p< 0.01). Breast density of the breast cancer patients in the subgroups of 40-49 years old was greater compared with that of the screening women, the same in those aged 50-54 years and in those 55 years old or older, less than in the screening group. Conclusions: With regard to the Chinese women younger than 55 years old, the diagnostic efficiency of breast cancer screening imaging examinations may be potentially improved by combining screening mammography with ultrasound.

Development of a Sampling Strategy and Sample Size Calculation to Estimate the Distribution of Mammographic Breast Density in Korean Women

  • Jun, Jae Kwan;Kim, Mi Jin;Choi, Kui Son;Suh, Mina;Jung, Kyu-Won
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.9
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    • pp.4661-4664
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    • 2012
  • Mammographic breast density is a known risk factor for breast cancer. To conduct a survey to estimate the distribution of mammographic breast density in Korean women, appropriate sampling strategies for representative and efficient sampling design were evaluated through simulation. Using the target population from the National Cancer Screening Programme (NCSP) for breast cancer in 2009, we verified the distribution estimate by repeating the simulation 1,000 times using stratified random sampling to investigate the distribution of breast density of 1,340,362 women. According to the simulation results, using a sampling design stratifying the nation into three groups (metropolitan, urban, and rural), with a total sample size of 4,000, we estimated the distribution of breast density in Korean women at a level of 0.01% tolerance. Based on the results of our study, a nationwide survey for estimating the distribution of mammographic breast density among Korean women can be conducted efficiently.

Bone Mineral Density and Breast Cancer Risk Factors among Premenopausal and Postmenopausal Women - A Systematic Review

  • Zain, Norhayati Mohd;Seriramulu, Vengkatha Priya;Chelliah, Kanaga Kumari
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.7
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    • pp.3229-3234
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    • 2016
  • Background: Bone mineral density (BMD) is a lifetime marker of estrogen in a woman's body and has been associated with increased breast cancer risk. Nonetheless the actual association is still debatable. Furthermore, estrogen is very crucial in maintaining human bone density and gradually decreases over age. A systematic search was conducted to assess any association of BMD with breast cancer risk factors among premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Materials and Methods: Review identification was performed through databases searching on MEDLINE, CINAHL and SCOPUS and 19 qualified studies were elected. The keywords used were "bone mineral density", "breast cancer", and "breast density". Results: A total of 19 articles showed variation with the majority of the studies focused on postmenopausal and a few focused on premenopausal women. Overall there was no concensus on effects. Conclusions: An enormous effort is being undertaken by researchers to prove that BMD might be one of the significant risk factors for breast cancer.

A Study on Comparative Analysis of Mammography and Tc-99m MIBI Scintimammography for Dense Breast (치밀형 유방에서 유방특이감마영상검사의 유용성 평가)

  • Jeong, Eun-Mi;Kim, Ho-Seong
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.76-79
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    • 2012
  • Purpose: This study was to evaluate usefulness of $^{99m}Tc$-MIBI scintimammography for dense breast by comparing concordance in test results between Tc-99m MIBI scintimammography and mammography whose effect was proved the most as an imaging tool depending on breast density and at the same time by examining limitation on evaluation depending on density of breast tissue. [Materials and Methods] In the period from December 2010 to July 2011, this study targeted 150 patients who took both of $^{99m}Tc$-MIBI scintimammography and mammography conducted by using breast gamma camera in this hospital. Breast density was classified to the four levels of pattern 1~4 based on the results of mammography. $^{99m}Tc$-MIBI scintimammography was conducted with the LCC, the RCC, the LMLO, and the RML one minute after intravenous injection of 99mTc-MIBI 7400 MBq (20 mCi) while analysis was made for concordance in test results of $^{99m}Tc$-MIBI scintimammography and mammography. [Results] Among the 150 patients, pattern 1 was found in 3 patients, pattern 2 in 44 patients, pattern 3 in 61 patients, and pattern 4 in 37 patients. There were 5 patients who showed the case where it was impossible to determine density of breast tissue due to foreign body inserted to breast. The concordance ratio of the results between $^{99m}Tc$-MIBI scintimammography and mammography was 95.5% for pattern 2, 95.1% for pattern 3 and 94.6% for pattern 4. This demonstrated that the concordance rate decreased according to the increase in breast density. [Conclusion] When there was limitation on evaluation of breast specific gamma imaging test results due to increased intake in breast tissue or surgical site, the concordance rate was 6.8% for pattern 2, 16.3% for pattern 3 and 18.9% for pattern 4. This demonstrated that the degree of limitation on evaluation of breast specific gamma imaging test results increased according to the increase in breast density.

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Breast Density and Risk of Breast Cancer in Asian Women: A Meta-analysis of Observational Studies

  • Bae, Jong-Myon;Kim, Eun Hee
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.49 no.6
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    • pp.367-375
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    • 2016
  • Objectives: The established theory that breast density is an independent predictor of breast cancer risk is based on studies targeting white women in the West. More Asian women than Western women have dense breasts, but the incidence of breast cancer is lower among Asian women. This meta-analysis investigated the association between breast density in mammography and breast cancer risk in Asian women. Methods: PubMed and Scopus were searched, and the final date of publication was set as December 31, 2015. The effect size in each article was calculated using the interval-collapse method. Summary effect sizes (sESs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by conducting a meta-analysis applying a random effect model. To investigate the dose-response relationship, random effect dose-response meta-regression (RE-DRMR) was conducted. Results: Six analytical epidemiology studies in total were selected, including one cohort study and five case-control studies. A total of 17 datasets were constructed by type of breast density index and menopausal status. In analyzing the subgroups of premenopausal vs. postmenopausal women, the percent density (PD) index was confirmed to be associated with a significantly elevated risk for breast cancer (sES, 2.21; 95% CI, 1.52 to 3.21; $I^2=50.0%$). The RE-DRMR results showed that the risk of breast cancer increased 1.73 times for each 25% increase in PD in postmenopausal women (95% CI, 1.20 to 2.47). Conclusions: In Asian women, breast cancer risk increased with breast density measured using the PD index, regardless of menopausal status. We propose the further development of a breast cancer risk prediction model based on the application of PD in Asian women.

Risk Factors of Female Breast Cancer in Vietnam: A Case-Control Study

  • (Yun) Trieu, Phuong Dung;Mello-Thoms, Claudia;Peat, Jennifer K.;Do, Thuan Doan;Brennan, Patrick C.
    • Cancer Research and Treatment
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    • v.49 no.4
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    • pp.990-1000
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    • 2017
  • Purpose Rates of women with breast cancer have increased rapidly in recent years in Vietnam, with over 10,000 new patients contracting the disease every year. This study was conducted to identify demographic, reproductive and lifestyle risk factors for breast cancer in Vietnam. Materials and Methods Breast density, demographic, reproductive and lifestyle data of 269 women with breast cancer and 519 age-matched controls were collected in the two largest oncology hospitals in Vietnam (one in the north and one in the south). Baseline differences between cases and controls in all women, premenopausal and postmenopausal women were assessed using chi-squared tests and independent t tests. Conditional logistic regression was used to derive odds ratios (OR) for factors that had statistically significant associations with breast cancer. Results Vietnamese women with breast cancer were significantly more likely to have a breast density > 75% (OR, 1.7), be younger than 14 years at first menstrual period (OR, 2.2), be postmenopausal (OR, 2.0), have less than three pregnancies (OR, 2.1), and have less than two babies (OR, 1.7). High breast density (OR, 1.6), early age at first menstrual period (OR, 2.6), low number of pregnancies (OR, 2.3), hormone use (OR, 1.8), and no physical activities (OR, 2.2) were significantly associated with breast cancer among premenopausal women, while breast density (OR, 2.0), age at first menstrual period (OR, 1.8), number of pregnancies (OR, 2.3), and number of live births (OR, 2.4) were the risk factors for postmenopausal women. Conclusion Breast density, age at first menarche, menopause status, number of pregnancies, number of babies born, hormone use and physical activities were significantly associated with breast cancer in Vietnamese women.

Effects of Age, Breast Density and Volume on Breast Cancer Diagnosis: A Retrospective Comparison of Sensitivity of Mammography and Ultrasonography in China's Rural Areas

  • Wang, Feng-Liang;Chen, Fei;Yin, Hong;Xu, Nan;Wu, Xiao-Xiang;Ma, Jing-Jing;Gao, Shen;Tang, Jin-Hai;Lu, Cheng
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.2277-2282
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    • 2013
  • Purpose: Mammography has been confirmed as the only effective mode to improve the prognosis of patients with breast cancer in Western developed countries, but might not be a good choice in other areas of the world. One of the major challenges in China is to determine an optimal imaging modality for breast cancer screening. This study was designed to clarify the sensitivity of ultrasonography compared with that of mammography in rural China. Methods: We retrospectively studied the sensitivity of mammography and ultrasonography based on 306 breast cancer patients detected by the program of "screening for cervical cancer and breast cancer" performed in Chinese rural areas between January 2009 and December 2011, and analyzed the effects of age, breast density and volume on the sensitivity. Results: Stratified analysis showed that the sensitivity of breast ultrasonography was significantly higher than that of mammography in premenopausal patients (81.4% vs. 61.1%, p=0.02), in women ${\leq}$ 55 years of age (82.2% vs. 63.4%, p<0.01), in the high breast density group (American College of Radiology [ACR] levels 3-4) (85.9% vs. 60.6%, p<0.01) and in the small breast volume group (${\leq}$ 400 ml) (87.1% vs. 66.7%, p<0.01). Age had a significant effect on sensitivity of mammography (breast density and volume-adjusted odds ratio, 6.39; 95% confidence interval, 2.8-14.4 in age group > 55 compared to age group ${\leq}$ 45), but not that of ultrasonography. Neither breast density nor volume had significant effect on sensitivity of mammography or ultrasonography. Conclusions: Ultrasonography is more sensitive than mammography in detecting breast cancer in women under 55 year-old Chinese, especially in those with high-density and relatively small breasts.

Association Between Body Mass Index and Breast Density Using Digital Mammography (체질량지수와 디지털유방촬영술상의 유방밀도와의 연관성)

  • Kim, Mi-Young;Kim, Hwa-Sun
    • Journal of radiological science and technology
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.267-272
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    • 2014
  • It is well known that low body mass index and younger age are associated with high breast density. Mammographic dense breast has been reported both as a cause of false-negative findings on mammography and as an indicator of increased breast cancer risk. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between breast density and body mass index. Furthermore, we considered proper screening method of breast cancer in Korean women. The study was performed on 496 women who underwent health checkup in a university hospital. Age and body mass index were negatively associated with breast density respectively. In postmenopausal women, age and body mass index showed statistically significant association with breast density. Therefore, we should consider sensitive additional method for breast cancer screening especially in younger age and underweight women.