• Title, Summary, Keyword: breast cancer screening

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Predictors of Progress in the Stage of Adoption of Breast Cancer Screening for Korean Women

  • Choi, Sora;So, Heeyoung;Park, Myonghwa
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.7
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    • pp.2637-2643
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    • 2015
  • Background: It has been proven that an individuals health behavior is determined through a series of processes. This study aimed to assess the stages of adoption of breast cancer screening, and to identify the factors relating to progress through these stages. Materials and Methods: There were 202 female participants aged 20-59 years who were living in Chungbuk, South Korea. They were informed of the study purpose and agreed to participate. Data were collected from October 2010 to January 2011 by assessing the breast cancer screening stage, health beliefs, socio-demographic factors, and other facilitating factors. The participant current stage of adoption of breast cancer screening was classified using the Precaution Adoption Process Model (PAPM), and the various PAPM stages were compared with each other to identify factors likely to determine progress between stages. The data were analyzed using the ${\chi}^2$-test, ANOVA, Duncan test, and multiple logistic regression. Results: Approximately half of all participants were not on-schedule for breast self-examination and mammography (unaware, 9.4% and 11.4%, unengaged, 8.4% and 5.0%, undecided, 20.3% and 17.8%, decided not to act, 1.5% and 1.0%, decided to act, 13.4% and 15.3%, respectively). The factors likely to determine the progress from one stage to another were age, marital status, exposure to media information about breast cancer, self-efficacy, and perceived severity. Conclusions: These results suggest that it is necessary to develop a tailored message for breast cancer screening behavior.

Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening and Associated Factors among Older Adult Women in South Africa

  • Peltzer, Karl;Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.6
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    • pp.2473-2476
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    • 2014
  • Background: Little is known about the cancer screening prevalence and correlates in older adults from different racial backgrounds. In the context of heightened efforts for prevention and early diagnosis, we collected information on screening for two major types of cancers: cervical and breast cancer in order to establish their prevalence estimates and correlates among older South African women who participated in the Study of Global Ageing and Adults Health (SAGE) in 2008. Materials and Methods: We conducted a national population-based cross-sectional study with a multi-stage stratified cluster sample of 3,840 individuals aged 50 years or older in South Africa in 2008. In this analysis, we only considered the female subsample of (n=2202). The measures used included socio-demographic characteristics, health variables, anthropometric and blood pressure measurements. Multivariable regression analysis was performed to assess the association of socio-demographic factors, health variables and cancer screening. Results: Overall, regarding cervical cancer screening, 24.3% ever had a Papanicolaou (PAP) smear test, and regarding breast cancer screening, 15.5% ever had a mammography. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, younger age, higher education, being from the White or Coloured population group, urban residence, greater wealth, and suffering from two or more chronic conditions were associated with cervical cancer screening, and higher education, being from the White or Indian/Asian population group, greater wealth, having a health insurance, and suffering from two or more chronic condtions were associated with breast cancer screening. Conclusions: Cancer screening coverage remains low among elderly women in South Africa in spite of the national guideline recommendations for regular screening in order to reduce the risk of dying from these cancers if not detected early. There is a need to improve accessibility and affordability of early cervical and breast cancer screening for all women to ensure effective prevention and management of cervical and breast cancer.

Mammography Screening Uptake among Female Health Care Workers in Primary Health Care Centers in Palestine - Motivators and Barriers

  • Nazzal, Zaher;Sholi, Hisham;Sholi, Suha;Sholi, Mohammad;Lahaseh, Rawya
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.5
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    • pp.2549-2554
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    • 2016
  • Background: Early detection remains the cornerstone of breast cancer control in terms of outcome and survival. Thus far the only breast cancer screening method proven effective is mammography. The awareness of female health care workers (HCW) about breast cancer prevention is of vital importance, as their beliefs and behavior may have a major impact on other women. This study was designed to assess mammography screening uptake among female healthcare workers at primary healthcare centers, and to identify the primary motivators and barriers that affect uptake results. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study design was used to assess mammography screening by 299 female healthcare workers who completed a self-administered questionnaire that assessed demographics, screening uptake, motivators and barriers. Results: The mean age was 46 years (within age of risk). The majority (95.1%) demonstrated adequate knowledge about breast cancer and mammography screening and 50% of the participants reported having at least one mammogram; however only 21% of them had regularly scheduled mammograms. The most frequent reported motivator was the perceived benefit that early detection of breast cancer is important for its management (89.6%), followed by the belief that mammography can detect breast cancer before its symptoms appear (84.4%). On the other hand, the most frequent barrier reported was being busy (46.7%), followed by the lack of perceived susceptibility (41.5%). Conclusions: Mammography screening was found to be sub-optimal in a population of HCW's with 50 % stating that they received a mammogram at least once, and a minority reported regular screening. There is a pressing need for educational programs aimed at removing the barriers that limit compliance with recommendations for mammography screening, and to emphasize the importance of early detection in breast cancer treatment. Ensuring the availability and accessibility of screening services, particularly for healthcare workers within their work settings are other important factors that would improve the acceptance and compliance for mammography screening programs.

Cancer Screening Rate and Related Factors in Rural Area (농촌지역주민의 암 조기검진과 관련 요인에 관한 연구)

  • Chang, Soung-Hoon;Lee, Won-Jin;Lee, Kun-Sei
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.364-372
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    • 2000
  • Objectives : Cancer is the second most frequent cause of death in Korea. Cancer screening tests can save lives through early detection. Enhancing the cancer screening rate is an important strategy for reducing cancer mortality. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the screening rate and related factors in a rural area. The study investigated relationships between sociodemographic characteristics, several preventive behaviors, and the experience of several cancer screening behaviors. Materials and Methods : The study population was recruited voluntarily from the three rural areas(Myen) in Chungju city. The participants completed structured questionnaire from July 21, 1990 to July 26, 1998. Results : The proportions of the study population who had previously received stomach, liver, breast, or cervix cancer screening tests were 24.5%, 18.5%, 27.0%, 59.2% respectively. The 1-year screening rates of stomach, liver, breast, and cervix cancer were 7.4%, 6.8%, 8.6%, 15.6% respectively. In multivariate logistic analysis, some sociodemographic variables, preventive behaviors, or psychological variables were significantly associated with several cancer screening tests. Those who had previously received a stomach cancer screening test were significantly associated with the presence of chronic disease, physician's recommendation, use of alcohol family history of cancer, or previous liver cancer screening test. Those who had previously received a liver cancer screening test were associated with education level, physician's recommendation and previous stomach cancer screening test. Those who had received a cervix cancer screening test were significantly associated with education level, presence of a transportation vehicle, physician's recommendation use of alcohol and previous breast cancer screening test. And those who had received a previous breast cancer screening test were significantly associated with age, marital status, and earlier cervix cancer screening test. Conclusion : Based on the results of this study a strategy to promote cancer screening and health objectives at the district level can be made.

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Effect of a Training Programme on Knowledge of Nurses from a Missionary Hospital in India Regarding Breast Cancer and its Screening

  • Khokhar, Anita
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.12
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    • pp.5985-5987
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    • 2012
  • A cross-sectional study was conducted among nursing staff of a missionary hospital of Delhi in June 2009. All the nurses were invited to participate in the training programme on breast cancer and techniques of breast self examination (BSE). A questionnaire was administered to all 259 participants seeking information on their level of awareness regarding breast cancer and relevant screening guidelines. With the help of 5 training workshops all the nurses were imparted training regarding the most appropriate technique of doing breast self exams. The mean age of the participants was 35.8 years. Out of a total of 259 nursing staff members 77.2% correctly answered all the 10 questions regarding high risk factors for breast cancer and after the training programme this increased to 100% (p<0.05). Only 65.2% of the participants gave correct responses to all the 8 questions regarding correct technique of performing a BSE, which after the training programme increased to 99.3% (p<0.05). At the baseline only 56.8% knew all the three screening methods correctly and after the intervention 98.7% could correctly mark the responses regarding screening (p<0.05). The actual practice of following the screening guidelines amongst the nursing staff was poor. Only 26 (10.03%) had ever done a BSE, none performed it monthly, 58 (22.4%) had ever gone themselves for a CBE and 18 (6. 94%) had ever undergone mammography.

Association of Breast Cancer with Sleep Pattern - A Pilot Case Control Study in a Regional Cancer Centre in South Asia

  • Datta, Karabi;Roy, Asoke;Nanda, Durgaprasad;Das, Ila;Guha, Subhas;Ghosh, Dipanwita;Sikdar, Samar;Biswas, Jaydip
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.20
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    • pp.8641-8645
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    • 2014
  • The rising trend of breast cancer both in developed and developing countries is a real threat challenging all efforts to screening, prevention and treatment aspects to reduce its impact. In spite of modern preventive strategies, the upward trend of breast cancer has become a matter of great concern in both developed and developing countries. Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute is a premier regional cancer institute in eastern region of India catering to a large number of cancer patients every year. A pilot case control study of fifty breast cancer patients and 100 matched controls was conducted during 2013 to evaluate the effects of habitual factors like working in night shift, not having adequate sleep, and not sleeping in total darkness on breast cancer of women. The study revealed that not sleeping in total darkness was associated with higher odds of outcome of breast cancer of women. This positive correlation can play a vital role in formulation of preventive strategies through life style modification.

Breast Cancer Detection Rate, Incidence, Prevalence and Interval Cancer-related Mammography Screening Times among Thai Women

  • Sripaiboonkij, Nintita;Thinkamrop, Bandit;Promthet, Supannee;Kannawat, Chalermdej;Tangcharoensathien, Voranuj;Ansusing, Tamnit;Rattanamongkolgul, Suthee
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.8
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    • pp.4137-4141
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    • 2016
  • Background: A recent guideline by the American Cancer Society recommended that mammography (MMG) should be done for women starting in their mid-40s. In Thailand, information on opportunistic mammography screening is limited and data on the total incidence of breast cancer are also lacking. The purpose of this study was to estimate the breast cancer detection, incident and prevalence rates among Thai women. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the opportunistic mammography screening of normal women between 30 and 80 years who underwent the procedure between 2001 and 2010. All cases were followed until 2012. The detection rate was calculated for the whole period of observation using 'number of women with positive findings' divided by 'total number of women screened'. The incidence rate was calculated only at the first MMG while the subsequence rate was calculated based on all new cases detected at each subsequent MMG. Results: Among the 47,430 women, there were 152,091 MMGs or approximately 3.2 occasions per person (range, 1-10). The average duration of the interval between each subsequence visit was 1.8 years. Overall, breast cancer was detected in 543 women, with a detection rate of 10.3 per 1,000 persons. The prevalence rate of breast cancer at the first visit was 5.78 per 1,000 persons. The incidence or new cases detected at any follow-up visit was 10.4 per 1,000 persons. The overall interval cancer was 0.91 per 1,000 women, mainly detected before their second and third MMG, with a rate of 0.0.47 and 0.76 per 1,000 women. Conclusions: Opportunistic mammography screening in Thailand detected 10 case of breast cancer from each 1,000 women. This paper indicated a high rate of cancer detection during a two year interval, hence, a screening mammogram should be performed more often.

Barriers to Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening in Singapore: a Mixed Methods Analysis

  • Malhotra, Chetna;Bilger, Marcel;Liu, Joy;Finkelstein, Eric
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.8
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    • pp.3887-3895
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    • 2016
  • Background: In order to increase breast and cervical cancer screening uptake in Singapore, women's perceived barriers to screening need to be identified and overcome. Using data from both focus groups and surveys, we aimed to assess perceived barriers and motivations for breast and cervical cancer screening. Materials and Methods: We conducted 8 focus groups with 64 women, using thematic analysis to identify overarching themes related to women's attitudes towards screening. Based on recurring themes from focus groups, several hypotheses regarding potential barriers and motivations to screen were generated and tested through a national survey of 801 women aged 25-64. Results: Focus group participants had misconceptions related to screening, believing that the procedures were painful. Cost was an issue, as well as efficacy and fatalism. Conclusions: By identifying barriers to and motivators for screening through a mixed-method design that has both nuance and external validity, this study offers valuable suggestions to policymakers to improve breast and cervical cancer screening uptake in Singapore.

Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Breast Cancer Screening in Rural Iran

  • Zehtab, Nooshin;Jafari, Mohammad;Barooni, Mohsen;Nakhaee, Nouzar;Goudarzi, Reza;Zadeh, Mohammad Hassan Larry
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.609-614
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    • 2016
  • Background: Although breast cancer is the most common cancer in women, economic evaluation of breast cancer screening is not fully addressed in developing countries. The main objective of the present study was to analyze the cost-effectiveness of breast cancer screening using mammography in 35-69 year old women in an Iranian setting. Materials and Methods: This was an economic evaluation study assessing the cost-effectiveness of a population-based screening program in 35-69 year old women residing in rural areas of South east Iran. The study was conducted from the perspective of policy-makers of insurance. The study population consisted of 35- to 69-year old women in rural areas of Kerman with a population of about 19,651 in 2013. The decision tree modeling and economic evaluation software were used for cost-effectiveness and sensitivity analyses of the interventions. Results: The total cost of the screening program was 7,067.69 US$ and the total effectiveness for screening and no-screening interventions was 0.06171 and 0.00864 disability adjusted life years averted, respectively. The average cost-effectiveness ratio DALY averted US$ for screening intervention was 7,7082.5 US$ per DALY averted and 589,027 US $ for no-screening intervention. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio DALY averted was 6,264 US$ per DALY averted for screening intervention compared with no-screening intervention. Conclusions: Although the screening intervention is more cost-effective than the alternative (noscreening) strategy, it seems that including breast cancer screening program in health insurance package may not be recommended as long as the target group has a low participation rate.

Breast Cancer Diagnosis by Mammography in Kazakhstan - Staging Results of Breast Cancer with Double Reading

  • Beysebayev, Eldar;Tulebayev, Kazbek;Meymanalyev, Tylek
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.31-34
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    • 2015
  • While mammography has been used for diagnosis of breast cancer in Kazakhstan for a long period, published data are very limited. Recently stress has been placed on increasing the accuracy by double reading of mammograms. Here we provide an overview of breast cancer screening in the different regions of Kazakhstan with data on the stages of cancers detected. A total 459,816 women aged 50, 52, 54, 56, 58 and 60 years were screened in 2012 and 379,903 in the first 9 months of 2013. Clear differences in levels of detection were noted between urban and rural residents, the latter demonstrating lower rates for both screening and cancer detection. Women aged 50 were more likely to undergo screening than their counterparts aged 60. While there were no clear relationships evident between screening rates and stage or numbers of breast cancers observed, this might be due to a number of complicating factors like geographical variation in risk factors as well as ethnicity. Future analyses should focus on the efficacy of mammography in Kazakhstan to reduce mortality.