• Title, Summary, Keyword: breast cancer screening

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Electrical Impedance Tomography as a Primary Screening Technique for Breast Cancer Detection

  • Akhtari-Zavare, Mehrnoosh;Latiff, Latiffah A
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.14
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    • pp.5595-5597
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    • 2015
  • Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a new non-invasive, mobile screening method which does not use ionizing radiation to the human breast. It is based on the theory that cancer cells display altered local dielectric properties, thus demonstrating measurably higher conductivity values. This article reviews the utilisation of EIT in breast cancer detection. It could be used as an adjunct to mammography and ultrasonography for breast cancer screening.

Compliance with Screening Recommendations According to Breast Cancer Risk Levels in Izmir, Turkey

  • Acikgoz, Ayla;Ergor, Gul
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.1737-1742
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    • 2013
  • Early diagnosis has a major role in improving prognosis of breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to assess the risk status of women 35-69 years of age using risk assessment models and the prevalence of mammography in a community setting. The sample of this cross sectional study consisted of 227 women, 35-69 years of age residing in Izmir, a city located in western region of Turkey. A questionnaire was used to collect data and the Gail and Cuzick-Tyrer models were applied to assess the risk of breast cancer. In this study, 52.7% of women had mammography at least once, and 41.3% of the women over the age of 40 had mammography screening in the last two years. The five years risk for breast cancer was high in 15.8% of women according to the Gail model and ten years risk was high in 21.7% with the Cuzick-Tyrer model. In the present study, the breast cancer risk levels were assessed in a population setting for the first time in Turkey using breast cancer risk level assessment models. Being in 60-69 age group, having low education and not being in menopause were significant risk factors for not having mammography according to logistic regression analysis. Mammography utilization rate was low. Women must be educated about breast cancer screening methods and early diagnosis. The women in the high risk group should be informed on their risk status which may increase their attendance at breast cancer screening.

Relationships of Fear of Breast Cancer and Fatalism with Screening Behavior in Women Referred to Health Centers of Tabriz in Iran

  • Ghahramanian, Akram;Rahmani, Azad;Aghazadeh, Ahmad Mirza;Mehr, Lida Emami
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.9
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    • pp.4427-4432
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    • 2016
  • Background: Fear and fatalism have been proposed as factors affecting breast cancer screening, but the evidence is not strong. This study aimed to determine relationships of fear and fatalism with breast cancer screening behavior among Tabriz women in Iran. Materials and Methods: In a cross- sectional study, 370 women referred to 12 health centers in Tabriz were selected with two-stage cluster sampling and data regarding breast cancer screening, fatalism and fear of breast cancer were collected respectively with a checklist for screening performance, Champions Fear and Pow Fatalism Questionnaires. Data were analyzed by logistic regression with SPSS software version 16. Results: Only 43% and 23% of participants had undergone breast self- examination and clinical breast examination. Among women older than 40 years, 38.2% had mammography history and only 2.7% of them had done it annually. Although fatalism and fear had a stimulating effects on breast cancer screening performance th relationships were not significant (P>0.05). There was a negative significant correlation between fear and fatalism (r= -0.24, p=0.000). On logistic regression analysis, age (OR=1.037, p<0.01) and income status (OR= 0.411, p<0.05) significantly explained BSE and age (OR=1.051, p<0.01) and body mass index (OR= 0.879, p<0.01) explained CBE. Also BMI (OR= 0.074, p<0.05) and income status (OR=0.155, p<0.01) was significantly effective for mammography following. Conclusions: Breast cancer screening behavior is inappropriate and affected by family livelihood status and lifestyle leads to weight gain, so that for promoting of screening behaviors, economic support to families, lifestyle modification and public education are suggested.

Satisfaction in the National Cancer Screening Program for Breast Cancer with and without Clinical Breast Examination

  • Han, Mi-Ah;Jun, Jae-Kwan;Choi, Kui-Son;Park, Eun-Cheol;Lee, Hoo-Yeon
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.63-67
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    • 2012
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether screening by clinical breast examination (CBE) in addition to mammography affected participant satisfaction in the National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP). Data were derived from the Quality Evaluation of National Cancer Screening satisfaction survey. This population-based nationwide telephone survey included participants who had been screened by the NCSP for breast cancer between June and August 2010 (n=2,370), and collected information on satisfaction with screening and screening service use. Five multiple regression models were used to determine satisfaction according to screening method, and according to each of five satisfaction measures (pre-screening information transfer, staff interpersonal skills, physical surroundings, reporting of results and general satisfaction). A total of 1,858 (78.4%) participants were screened by mammography alone and 512 (21.6%) by both mammography and CBE. Satisfaction was significantly higher in subjects screened by both mammography and CBE compared with those screened by mammography alone.

Combined Screening of Cervical Cancer, Breast Cancer and Reproductive Tract Infections in Rural China

  • Li, Zhi-Fang;Wang, Shao-Ming;Shi, Ju-Fang;Zhao, Fang-Hui;Ma, Jun-Fei;Qiao, You-Lin;Feng, Xiang-Xian
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.7
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    • pp.3529-3533
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    • 2012
  • Objectives: To investigate the current prevalence and knowledge of cervical cancer, breast cancer and reproductive tract infections (RTIs) in rural Chinese women, and to explore the acceptance and feasibility of implementing a combined screening program in rural China. Methods: A population-based, cross-sectional study was conducted among women aged 30 to 59 years old in Xiangyuan County, Shanxi Province from 2009 to 2010. Socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge of cervical cancer, breast cancer and RTIs, and the attitude toward single or combined screening were collected by an interview questionnaire. Each participant received a clinical examination of the cervix, breast and reproductive tract. Examinations included visual inspection, mammography, laboratory tests and pathological diagnosis. Results: A total of 1,530 women were enrolled in this study. The prevalence of cervical precancerous lesions, suspicious breast cancer, suspicious benign breast disease and RTIs was 1.4%, 0.2%, 14.0% and 54.3%, respectively. Cervicitis, trichomonas vaginitis, and bacterial vaginitis were the three most common RTIs among our participants. Television, radio broadcast, and public education during screening were the major source of healthcare knowledge in rural China. Moreover 99.7% of women expressed great interest in participating in a combined screening project. The affordable limit for combined screening project was only 50 RMB for more than half of the rural women. Conclusion: A combined screening program would be more effective and popular than single disease screening projects, while appropriate accompanied education and a co-pay model for its successful implementation need to be explored, especially in low-resource settings.

Breast Cancer Screening with MRI (유방암 스크리닝 자기공명영상)

  • Cho, Nariya;Moon, Woo-Kyung
    • Investigative Magnetic Resonance Imaging
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.1-5
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    • 2012
  • Breast MRI is the most accurate adjunctive to the mammography for the screening of breast cancer. Despite lack of randomized controlled trials on the effectiveness of MRI screening, it is now recommended for the women at high risk for breast cancer by the American Cancer Society and the National Comprehensive Cancer Network based on several prospective observational studies. In Korea, a retrospective study reported that preoperative MRI screening of the contralateral breast in women with unilateral breast cancer was associated with reduced metachronous cancer incidence. To introduce breast MRI as a supplemental modality to screening mammography in Korea, standardization and education of interpretation, establishment of MR-guided biopsy and adequate indication, and evaluation of cost-effectiveness and should be preceded.

Socioeconomic Disparities in Breast Cancer Screening among US Women: Trends from 2000 to 2005

  • Kim, Jae-Young;Jang, Soong-Nang
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.186-194
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    • 2008
  • Objectives : This study describes trends in the socioeconomic disparities in breast cancer screening among US women aged 40 or over, from 2000 to 2005. We assessed 1) the disparities in each socioeconomic dimension; 2) the changes in screening mammography rates over time according to income, education, and race; and 3) the sizes and trends of the disparities over time. Methods : Using data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) from 2000 to 2005, we calculated the age-adjusted screening rate according to relative household income, education level, health insurance, and race. Odds ratios and the relative inequality index (RII) were also calculated, controlling for age. Results : Women in their 40s and those with lower relative incomes were less likely to undergo screening mammography. The disparity based on relative income was greater than that based on education or race (the RII among low-income women across the survey years was 3.00 to 3.48). The overall participation rate and absolute differences among socioeconomic groups changed little or decreased slightly across the survey years. However, the degree of each socioeconomic disparity and the relative inequality among socioeconomic positions remained quite consistent. Conclusions : These findings suggest that the trend of the disparity in breast cancer screening varied by socioeconomic dimension. Continued differences in breast cancer screening rates related to income level should be considered in future efforts to decrease the disparities in breast cancer among socioeconomic groups. More focused interventions, as well as the monitoring of trends in cancer screening participation by income and education, are needed in different social settings.

Risk of Breast Cancer among Young Women and Importance of Early Screening

  • Memon, Zahid Ali;Kanwal, Noureen;Sami, Munam;Larik, Parsa Azam;Farooq, Mohammad Zain
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.17
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    • pp.7485-7489
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    • 2015
  • Background: Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women throughout the world. However, in comparison with Western women, it presents relatively early in women of Asian ethnicity. Early menarche, late menopause, use of OCP's, family history of benign or malignant breast disease, exposure to radiation and BMI in the under-weight range are well known risk factors for the development of breast cancer in premenopausal women. Early detection with the use of breast self-examination (BSE) and breast cancer screening programs can lead to a reduction in the mortality rates due to breast cancer. The aim of our study was to assess the risk factors for breast cancer among young women and to emphasize the importance of early screening among them. Materials and Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study among women aged 18 to 25 using a self-administered questionnaire. Data was collected over a period of 6 months from June to December, 2014. A total of 300 young women selected randomly from Dow Medical College and various departments of Karachi University successfully completed the survey. Results: Respondents were 18-25 years of age (mean age=21.5). Out of the 300 young females, 90 (30%) had at least one risk factor, 90 (30%) had two, 40 (13%) had three, 8 (2.7%) had four, 2 (0.7%) had five while one female was found to have six positive risk factors for breast cancer. Some 66 women (22%) experienced symptoms of breast cancer such as non-cyclical pain and lumps. While 222 women (74%) had never performed breast self-examination, 22 (7.3%) had had a breast examination done by a health professional while 32 (10.7%) had participated in breast screening programs. A total of 223 (74.3%) women considered breast cancer screening important for young women. Conclusions: The percentage of young women with risk factors for breast cancer was found to be alarmingly high. Therefore, screening for breast cancer should start at an early age especially in high risk groups. Awareness about breast self-examination should be emphasized. Moreover, screening programs should be started to ensure early detection and reduction of mortality rates caused by breast cancer also in young Pakistani females.

Relationship between Cancer Worries and Breast Cancer Screening with and without Family History among Korean Women (암가족력 유무에 따른 부정적 심리요인과 유방암 검진과의 관련성: 우리나라 여성을 중심으로)

  • Kim, Bokmi;Choi, Kui Son;Lee, Yoon Noh;Min, In Soon;Hahm, Myung-Il
    • Health Policy and Management
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.157-166
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    • 2017
  • Background: Women with family history of breast cancer are more likely to be worried about having cancer and participate in breast cancer screening. However, few studies have examined relationship between family history, cancer worries, and participating in breast cancer screening in Korea. This study is to identify relationship between family history, cancer worries, and participating in breast cancer screening among women with and without family history of cancer. Methods: Respondents were 2,364 women who based on the 2013 Korean National Cancer Screening Survey which is done by National Cancer Center in Korea. Chi-square tests were performed to determine differences of cancer worries, undergoing of breast cancer screening and methods such as mammogram and ultrasonogram with and without cancer family history. Univariate and multiple logistic regression were performed to identify if family history and cancer worries are related factors on participating in breast cancer screening and methods. Stratified analysis was performed to confirm the effect of ultrasonogram on the dense breast by age. Results: Women with cancer family history frequently checked condition for conscious of having cancer (p=0.0299) and had highly perception of risk about having cancer in the future ($p{\leq}0.0001$). Women aged 30-49 did not perform significantly more ultrasonogram than women aged over 50 years old. Checking condition (moderate odds ratio [OR], 1.38; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-2.08; frequently OR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.08-1.76) and perception of risk (moderate OR, 3.12; 95% CI, 1.06-7.06; high OR, 2.74; 95% CI, 1.20-8.08) were related to participate in mammogram and ultrasonogram. A positive family history was related to 1.35 higher odds of performing only breast ultrasonogram (95% CI, 1.04-1.75). Conclusion: This study requires national education and publicity to reduce the unnecessary cost of screening, to be possible cost effective screening and to encourage women to receive more mammogram, especially women aged over 50 years old and with socioeconomic factors related to opportunistic screening.

Understanding Breast Cancer Screening Practices in Taiwan: a Country with Universal Health Care

  • Wu, Tsu-Yin;Chung, Scott;Yeh, Ming-Chen;Chang, Shu-Chen;Hsieh, Hsing-Fang;Ha, Soo Ji
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.9
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    • pp.4289-4294
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    • 2012
  • While the incidence of breast cancer (BC) has been relatively low in Asian countries, it has been rising rapidly in Taiwan. Within the last decade, it has replaced cervical cancer as the most diagnosed cancer site for women. Nevertheless, there is a paucity of studies reporting the attitudes and practices of breast cancer screening among Chinese women. The aim of this study is to assess Taiwanese women's knowledge of and attitudes toward BC screening and to identify potential factors that may influence screening behavior. The study population consisted of a sample of 434 Taiwanese women aged 40 and older. Despite access to universal health care for Taiwanese women and the fact that a majority of the women had heard of the breast cancer screening (mammogram, clinical breast exams, etc.), the actual utilization of these screening modalities was relatively low. In the current study, the majority of women had never had mammograms or ultrasound in the past 5 years. The number one most reported barriers were "no time," "forgetfulness," "too cumbersome," and "laziness," followed by the perception of no need to get screened. In addition, the results revealed several areas of misconceptions or incorrect information perceived by study participants. Based on the results from the regression analysis, significant predictors of obtaining repeated screening modalities included age, coverage for screening, barriers, self-efficacy, intention, family/friends diagnosed with breast cancer. The findings from the current study provide the potential to build evidence-based programs to effectively plan and implement policies in order to raise awareness in breast cancer and promote BC screening in order to optimize health outcomes for women affected by this disease.